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• a?trt>. -^. ^V. 




CURIOSITIES OF BIOGRAPHY ; or, Memoirs of Remarkable and 
Ea^entric (.Characters. By Robert Malcolm. With numerous 
characteristic Portraits, foolscap 8vo, 2s. Gd. cloth. 


of Emin<.'nt Religious Characters. By the Rev. Dr. Jamifjson. 
Third Edition. Crown 8vo, 38. Cd. cloth. 


Memoirs. By Alison, Bkewster, Creasy, Eapie, Nichol, Wor- 
NUM, Spaldinc, and <>ther ContrilmUirs. With numerous Illustra- 
tions. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6(L cloth. 


plete series of Orit^ntal Memoirs of the most Remarkivhle Indi^^duals 
of all Times and Nations. By Alison, Brewster, Burton, Creasy, 
Eadie,, Nichol, i^PALDiMJ, Wornum, and other Con- 
tribut<.>r8. Thinl Edition, revised and enlarged. With Portraits 
and Illustrations. Post 8vo, 10s. Cd. cloth. 


Haudbo<ik of the Peerage of Rank, Worth, and InteUeet, con- 
taining nearly One Thousand Memoirs of Eminent Living Individuals. 
Post 8vo, 88. Cd. cloth. 


a Series of Memoirs of Eminent Individuals, Living and Dead, with 
a Systematic and (.ylassiiie<l Index of Names, Illustrated by Steel 
Portraits and Wood Engravings. Royal 8vo, £1 Is. half-morocco. 








110. n. ^•/5. 


The utility of a Handbook of Contemporary Biography, if reliable, 
is 80 apparent, that the only use of a preface to this work ia to give 
information as to the manner in which it has been prepared. 

In the first place, the memoirs were compiled from erery available 
general and special source, — and here we may express our obligations to 
Hachette*s raluable French work — the "Dictionnaire Universel des Con- 
tcmporains." It was found, however, that great discrepancies existed 
among statements derived from many authorities, and that, unless means 
were taken to verify the facts by communicating with the parties them- 
selves, the hope of producing a reliable book must be abandoned. 
Accordingly, we took the liberty of addressing a conmiunication to 
every individual whose name is introduced in the volume, with the 
exception of a few royal personages, whose actions and fortunes are 
matters of history. We stated that we wished to produce a trust- 
worthy work, endeavouring to avoid, as far as possible, matters of 
opinion, seeing that until the whole career of a man is finished it is 
impossible fairly to estimate his character, and that we therefore 
respectfully requested replies regarding points of fact. Our commu- 
nications have been generally responded to ; and whatever may be the 
literary shortcomings of this work, we believe that it may be pro- 
nounced to be the most trustworthy Manual of Contemporary 
Biography yet published. Yet, as the volume contains nearly one 
thousand memoirs, it is impossible but that there are many errors 
both of omission and commission, and these we shall only be too 
happy to correct in future editions, if our readers will have the kindness 
to point them out, and to supply the information. 

10, Stationers' Hall Court, 
November, 1860. 


AsliPaaliA .... 

Abbott, Rev. Jacob 

Abbott, Rev. Juha 

Abd-el-Kader .... 

AbdulMudjid, Kbftn . 

Aberdeen, Earl of , 

Abuut, Eilmond 

Adam, Jean Vic'tor 

Adanu, John Couch 

Atjaiariz, Louis Jetui 

AiDdworth, William F. . 

AinHWurth, WUIiam H. . 

Ainl, Thomas 

Airy, GeorRfl Biddell, M.A. . 

Albert, Prince 

Alliert Edirard, Prince oF Wale* 

AlWrt, Martin 

Alboni, ilarietta . 

Alexander U., Emperor of Runia 

Alford, The Very Rev. Hunry, D. D, 1 

AIi*m, Sir Archibald, Bart . 

Allen, William, D.D. . 

Almodovar, Cuunt of 

Alvaret, Juan 

Ami>tre, Jean Jacques . 

Andenm, Hani Chiiatian 

AnderaoD, William, LL.D. 

Andral, Gabriel . 

AoRter, John, D.C.L. . 

Anitey, Thomu Chisholm 

AnChoD, Charles, LL.D. 

Aabunelli, CanUnal 

Ango, Etienne 

ArgeUoder, Frieitricb . 

Argyll, Duke of . 

Argyropoulo, Pericles . 

AriKtBrclii, Nicolas 

Annttron^ Sir William 

Arnold, Matthew . 

Anwtt, Neil, M.D. 

Arthur, T. a . . 

AahburtoD, Lord 

Ashl^, lATd. (See l^hafteabury) 

ARtronoiner Bay*l. ISa Airy) 

Anber, Daniel F. E. . 

AnerbMh, BeTtboId , 

Angier. Guillaume Victor 
Austria, Eni{icrur of 
Auzoux, Th. Liiuia 
Aytuun, William Eduioodstuiue 

Aze^lii), Marquis d' 


BabUigo, Charles .... 

Back, Sir fit-or^ D.C.L. 

Bochr, John Christian . 

Bailey, Philip James 

Baity, Edward Hud;^ R. A. 

Baines, Edwanl, M.P. . 

BaUe. Michael William . 

Baucruft, (ieorge .... 

Baroguey, Mamhal 

Borante, Baron de ... 

Barbfet, Armand .... 

Baring, Sir Francis, Bart. 

Barinj^ Thonias .... 

Baring, William. (.?« Aabburton) 

Barlow, Peter .... 

Barnes, Albert .... 

Bamum, Phineoa Taylor 

Barocbe, Pierre Jules 

Barrett, Miss. (>Sc< Browning, Mn.) 

Bamt, Odilon .... 

Barry Cornwall. {Sre Proctor) 

B;irth, Sir Henry .... 

BarthClfmy, Auguste-Manieille 

Bortlett, John Russell 

Bajitide, Jules 

Bauer, Bruno 

Bavaria, King of. {'^reMoKimilisn II.) 

Baxter, William Edwanl, M.P. . 

Bccquerel, Antoine Cesar 

Bodeau, Marie Alpbonse 

Boecher, Miss Catherine 

Beecher, Rev. Cbarles . 

Beucbcr, Kev. Edward, D.D. 

Beecher, Henry Ward . 

Bvecher, Lyman, D.D. . 

Bckker, Emmanuel 

Belcher, Sir Edward 

Bel^ans, Kingofthe. {SrtLtopold 

George (.liHstian Frederick) 
Bell, Henry Glanfonl . 


. 32 

. :is 



. 24-! 


Bell, Ji>bn 
Bell, U<>)>crt . 
Boll, ThumnH 
Bewlomuio, EJwfl 
Bonislict, .liiliiu ■ 
Bennott. Willinm Stoniilalc . 
Bergliaiui, lli:iir)- . 
Berki'k-y, Hon. I^nci», M.P. 

Jleniiuil, lluuilc 
Uurryi^r, I'iurre Aiitrjinu 
Ihitlii-ll, Mir lUiJinrl 
ltil■MlH^ (•■■<irK<: Uvmetriiu 
lUllmilt, AiigiiHtt; . 
Jlliiiiiy, ([fv. ITiomw . 
Iliiit, Juan Uai>tLsUi 
HUki] Mwlwufi Anna . 
MmJi, Adtm, M.I'. 
Hl»^wi-U, Bliubc'tli, M.D. 
IIUii'-, l^iiiiH 
illftii'ini, I-iiiiiH An(,iiatt; 
lliHH'kli, AiitpintiiB 
lliitiii, llMiry I). . 
ll)tuii|Mirti>, ili'mnic 
ItiHiuiuu-bs lAmia Luuicn 
IkHUiiKirt'', Nnixili-on 
ll<>iiti«iir, MiuluiiioUeUc Itima 

Harileaiix, Ihic <lc . 

lh«i|ii<'t. IVrro Fmni'oia.T.w 
l(.MW.rUi. .I<>wi>h, D.D., LL.b 
Idtttii'lil, llrriu}! . 
IliitU, Vital Kmilie 
lliMmiiii-iH'y, Comtc <Ie 
lliniiMiiiKMilt, Ji'Mi BaiitUtv , 
lhiwriii)j, -Sir John 
Itiix. (.V<v DiukuuH) 
Itraiiili-, Williiun ThomM 
Jtravu-Murillii, Juan 
liny. Mm. Aunft Eliza . 
Hreiu(!r, Miw Prulrika . 
BrewMtur, Sir David 
Blight, John, &1.P. 
Brodie, Sir Bunjauiiii, Bart . 
Bro|{lie, Due <1c 
BrookG, Sir Jamra 
Brooki, ClurlM Shirley 
Broiigluuii, Lord . 
■^-xi^itoo de GiSord, Lotd . 

Brown, Mia FranccB . 

Br..wn, WUlinln .... 

Bnm-uinf^ Mra. EliziilK.-th Barrett 

Brnwmng, Rol«rt 

Bnmul, iMuatiard. 

Brunniiw, Banm vnn . 

Bo'uiit, Wiiliftm C'uUeu 

Buccli'tu'h & QuLviulK'ny, Duke of 

Bucluinan, James 

luitklv, Ktiiry ThuniM 

Bn«k»t..:i.', John Biitawln . 

Bulw.T,UtHim..sirHen[y Lyttou 

Bulwi-r, fJir EdwanL <^>L}-tfajn) 2 

Buiisi'D, CbevaJibr von 

Bunsvn, Ri>l>ert WilUwn 

Buol, Count 

Buren, Van, Martin 

', Sir John Fi>x 


L-'t-'r, Her 

Burtict, Jiihn 

Burritt, FJihti 

Burton, John Hill 

Tiii-laifK'iiW,;itl.B MariAde 

Butt, (ieorgu Medd 

('■baUt-rti, Finniu Ago«tii , 
':.ihi-t, EtieuiK' 

■al,^,.l■l^ Dm, Rain.ii . 
CailH.iiid. rr&ifrii' 
Cairil, James, M.P. 
Cainl, Rbv. John, D.D. 
Cainia, Sir Hiigh M I'ldmnut 
fWnbrii^ge, H.R.H. Uuko i>f 
(^ami'tK-ll, Lold . 

.'iuii]i)>ult, Kev. John, D.II. . 
Ciuni.l«ll,SirCi.Iin. 1.sV'r(.Tiy,KLor.l} II 
CnncUiith. llcT. Kiibcrt, D.D. . ( 
Cauuing, dartes John, Viscount I 
CoDTLliert, Frsufuin Certain. 
(!ant«rbiiiy, Arehhuhop ut . 
C.'aulerlnuy, Dean of. (.SVeAlfard) 

Caiwlif^ie, Jean Baiitixtu 

Cardigan, Earl >>! 

Uardwrll, Ki)^t Hon. Edwiird 

a^y H=tiryC. . 

(Jarlco, MaiUnie Kmilie 

CiU-lctoD, 'William 

exhale, Eari of . . . 

Culule, De«LU oL (5ee CIok) 



Carlyle, Thomas .... 86 

Camot, Lazare Hippolite . . 87 

Caipenter, Wm. Benjamin, M.D. . 87 

Gary, Miss Alice ... 88 
Casabianca, Count of . . .89 

Cass, General Lewis, LL.D. • 89 

Cattermole, George ... 89 

Cansaidi^re, Marc ... 90 

Cavoiir, Count .... 90 

Cayley, Arthur .... 91 

Celeste, Madame .... 91 
Chad^-ick, Etlwin, C.R . .92 

Chambers, Montagu ... 93 

Chambers, William and Robert . 93 
Chaml)ord, Count de . . .93 

Chancellor, LonL {See Campbell) 79 

Chan^amier, General ... 94 

Charles XV., Louis Eugene . . 94 

Cheever, George Burritt, D.D. . 94 

Chelmsford, Lord .... 95 

Chesuey, Major-General . . 95 

Chevalier, Michel ... 96 

Clievalier, PauL {See Gavami) . 171 

Chevreul, Michel Eugene . . 97 

Child, Mrs. Lydia Maria . . 97 

China, Emp. ot {See Hien Fung) 208 

Chishohn, Mrs. Caroline . . 97 

C*hristi!K)n, Robert ... 98 

Clare, John 98 

Clarendon, Earl of . . .99 

Chu-k, Sir James, Bart . . 99 

Clarke, Mrs. Mary Cowden . 100 

Clausen, Henri Nicolas . . 100 

Ooee, The Very Rev. Dean . 101 

Clyde, Lord .... 101 

Colnlen, Richard . . . .102 

Cochrane, Lord. {See Dundonald) 140 

Cockerell,Clia8. Rob.,R.A.,D.C.L. 102 

Codrington. 8ir William, K.C.B. . 103 

Cole, Henry, C.R . . .103 

Coleridge, The Rev. Derwcnt . 104 

Collier, John Payne . . . 104 

Collin de Plancy, Jacques . . 105 

Collins, Wilkie .... 105 

Combermere, Viscount, G.C.B. . 106 

Couingham, William, M.P. . . 106 

Conacienoe^ Henri . . . 106 

Constantine, NicholsBwitch . . 107 

Cook, Miss Eliza .... 107 

Gooke, Edward William, A.R. A. . 108 


Cooper, Thomas Sidney, A.R.A. . 108 

Cope, Charles West, R.A. . . 108 
Copley, John S. {See Lyndhuist) . 253 

Corbaux, Miss Fanny . . . 109 

Corbould, Edward Heniy . . 109 

Connenin, Vicomte de . . .110 

Cornelius, Peter Von . . .111 

Costello, Miss Louisa Stuart . . Ill 

Cousin, Victor . . . .111 

Coutts, Miss Burdett . . .112 

Cowley, Lord . . . .112 

CYaik, George Lillie, LL.D. . .113 

Cranworth, Baron . . .113 

Creasy, Sir Edward S., MA. . 113 

Cremieux, Isaac Adolphe . . 1 14 

Creswick, Thomas, R.A. . .114 

CVoatia, Ban of. {See Jellachich) . 220 

Croly, Rev. (reorge, LL.D. . .114 

Croslaud, Mrs. Camilla . . .115 

Crowe, Mrs. Catherine Stevens . 115 

Cruikahank, Greorge . . .115 

Cullen, Paul, D.D. . . .116 

Gumming, Rev. John, D.D. . .116 

Cunningham, Peter . . .117 

Cunningham, William, D.D. . .117 

Curtis, Benjamin R. . . .117 

Curtis, George William . . . 118 

Cushman, ^liss Charlotte . .118 

Dahlmann, Frederick Christopher . 118 
Dale, Rev. Thomas, M.A. . .119 
Dalhousie, Marquis of . . . 1 19 
Dallas, George Mifflin . . . 120 
Dana, James Dwight, LL.D. . 120 

Dana, Richard Henry . . . 121 
Danby, Francis, A.R.A. . . 121 
Danilo, Prince . . . .121 
Dargan, William .... 122 
Dcor^nn, Charles, M.A. . . .122 
D'Aubigu6, J. H. Merle, D.D. . 123 
David, Felicien .... 123 
Davis, Sir John, Bart., K.C.B. . 123 
Dawson, George, MA. . . . 124 
Decazes, Elie Due .... 124 
De Grey, EarL {See Ripon, Earl of) 331 
Delacroix, Eugbne .... 124 
Deknc, John T. . . . .125 
Delaroche, Paul .... 125 
Demidov, or Demidofl^ Anatol . 125 
De Morgan, Augustus . . .126 



Denmark, King of . . . . 165 
Derby, Earl of . . . .126 
Deschenes, Admiral Ferceral . 127 
Deville, Henry. {See Sainte-Claire) 345 
Dewey, Onrille, D.D. . . .127 
Dickens, Charles . . . .127 
Dickson, Samuel Henry, M.D. . 128 
Dake, Charles Wentworth . . 129 
Dilke, Charles Wentworth, junior . 129 
Dindorf, Wilhelm . . .129 

Disraeli, Right Hon. Benjamin . 129 
Dixon, William Hepworth , .131 
Dobell, Sydney . . . .132 
Doo, George Thomas, R.A. . . 132 
Doran, John, Ph.D. . . . 133 
Douglas, General Sir Howard, Bart 133 
Doyle, Richard . . . .133 
Drouyn De Lhuys, Edouard . .134 
Duchatel, Charles M. T., Count . 134 
Dudevant, Madame . . .135 
Dufaurc, Jules Armand Stanislas . 136 
Duff, Alexander, D.D., LL.D. . 136 
Dufferin and Clandeboye, Lord . 137 
Dufly, Charles Gavin . . .138 
Dunuts, Alexandre . . . 138 

Dumas, Alexandre, junior . .139 
Dumas, Jean Baiitiste . . . 139 
Duncombc, Thomas Slingsby, M.P. 139 
Dundas, Vice- Admiral . . .139 
Dundonald, Earl of . . .140 
Dunghson, Robley, M.D., LL.D. . 141 
Du Petit Thouars, Admiral . . 142 
Dupin, Andr6 Marie Jean Jacques . 142 
Dupin, Baron .... 142 
Dupont de L'Eure, Jacques Charles 143 
Dupont, Pierre .... 143 
Dyce, Rev. Alexander . . . 144 
Dyce, William, R.A. . . . 144 

Eadie, John, D.D., LL.D. . 

Eastlake, Sir Charles Lock . 

Edwardes, Sir Herbert B., K.C.R 

Egg, Augustus, R.A. 

£|glinton and Winton, Earl of 

Ehrenberg, Christian Gottfreid 

Eichwald, Edward 

Elgin and Kincardine, Earl of 

EUenborough, Earl of . . 

Elliotaon, John, MD. . 

Ellifl, Mn. Sarah .... 



Ellis, Rev. William . . .151 
Ellifl, SirHeniy, K.H. . . . 152 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo . . . 152 

Encke, Johann F 152 

Enfantin, Barth6l6my Pro8|)er . 153 
Eotvos, Josef .... 153 

EsjMirtcro, Don Baldomero . .154 
Espinasse, Esprit Charles Marie . 154 
Eugenic, Empress of the French . 155 
Evans, Lieut. -Gen. Sir De Lacy . 155 
Everett, Edward, D.C.L. . .155 
Exeter, Bishop of . . . . 156 

Faed, Thomas . . . .156 
Fairbaim, William . . .156 
Fanny Fern. (<S'<'e Parton, Mrs. ) . 307 
Faraday, Michael, D.C.L. . . 157 

Fazy, Jean 157 

FenlinandIV 158 

Fergusaon, James .... 158 

Fields, James T 158 

FiUmore, Millard . . . .150 
Foley, John Henry, R.A. . .159 
Fonblanque, Albany . . .159 
Forbes, Sir John, M.D. . .160 

Forrest, Edwin . . . .160 
Forster, John .... 160 
Fortune, Robert . . . .161 
Fould, Achille .... 102 

Fox, W. J., M.P 163 

Francis Joseph I., Emp. of Austria 163 
Francis XL, King of Naples . .164 

Francis V 164 

Franklin, Lady Jane . . . 164 
Eraser, Alexander . . . .165 
Frederick VIII., King of Denmark 165 
Frederick William IV., K. of Prussia 165 
Freiligrath, Ferdinand . . .167 
Fremont, Colonel .... 167 
French, Emperor of. (*9e<' Napoleon) 285 
French, Empress of. (See EugCnie) 155 
Frerichs, Frederic Theodore . .168 
Frith, William Powell, R.A. . 169 

Frost, William Edward, R.A. . 169 

Garibaldi, Joseph . 
Gamier Pag^, Louis Antoine 
Gaskell, Mrs. L. E. 
Gavami, or Paul Chevalier . 
Gavazzi, Padre Alessandro 




Geefa, GuDlaume .... 172 
Geefs, Joseph .... 172 
G«orge v.. King of Hanover . 172 

Georges Sand. (See Dudevant) . 135 
Gerhard, Edward . , , .173 
Gerstaeckcr, Freileric . . . 173 
Gervinua, Georges Godefroid . . 174 
Ghika, Alexander .... 174 
Gibson, John .... 175 

Gibson, Right Hon. Thomas Milncr 176 
Gigiiucci, Countess. (See Novello) 295 

Gilbert, John Graham . 

Giltillan, Rev. George . 

Girardin, Emile de 

Gladstone, lUght Hon. Wm. 

Gleig, Rev. George Robert 

Glencorse, Lord •. 

Gtwlerieh, Lord. (See Ripon 

Godwin, George 

Goldjschmidt, Madame . 

Gomm, General Sir William, i 

Goodall, E<lward, R.A. . 

Goodail, Fre<lerick, R,A. 

Gordon, Lady Lucy Duff 

Gordon, Sir John W., P. R. S. A. 

Gore, Mrs. Catherine Francos 

Gorgei, Arthur 

Gortchakoff, Prince Alexander 

Gortchakoff, Prince Michael 

Gosse, Philip Henry 

Gough, Lord . 

Gough, John B. 

Gould, Augustus Addison 
Gould, Benjamin Apthorp 
Gould, John, F.R,S. 
Graham, Rt Hon. Sir James 
Graham, Thomas, F.R.S. 
Grant, Francis, R.A. 
Grant, James 
Granville, Earl 
Grattan, Thomas Colley . 
Gray, Asa, M.D. . 
Greece, King of. (See Otho) 
Greeley, Horace 
Grey, Earl 

Grey, Right Hon. Sir Geoi^ 
Grey, Sir George, K.C.R 
Griffin, John Joseph 
Grimm, Jacob Ludwig . 
Grisi, Giolia • • • 






Grote, George, M.P. . . . 193 
Gudin, Theodore .... 193 
Guizot, Francois .... 193 
Guthrie, Thomas, D.D. . . .196 

Hagenbach, Charles Rodolphe . 196 

Haghe, Louis 196 

Hahn-Hahn, Countess von • .196 
Halevy, Jacques-Elie Fromental . 196 
Haliburton, Hon. Mr. Justice, M.P. 197 
Hall, Mrs. Anna Maria . . . 197 
Hall, Samuel Carter . . .198 
HaU, Sir Benjamin. (See Uanover) 250 
Halleck, Fitz-Groene . . .198 
Halliwell, James Orchard . . 199 
Hamilton, Rev. James, D.D. . . 199 
Hampden, Renn Dickson, D.D. . 199 
Hannay, James .... 200 
Hanover, King of. (.9ce George V.) 172 
Hardwicke, Earl of . . . 200 
Harris, James. (See Malmcsbury). 264 

. 186 
. 186 
. 187 
. 188 
. 188 
. 188 
. 189 
. 189 
. 190 
. 300 
. 190 
. 190 
Bart. 191 
. 191 
. 192 
. 192 
• 192 

Harris, Sir William Snow . . 200 

Hart, Solomon Alexander, R.A. . 201 

Harvey, George, R.S.A. . . 202 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel . . . 202 

Hayes, Mrs. Catherine . . . 202 

Ha3rter, Sir George . . . 203 

Head, Sir Francis, Bart., K.C.H. . 203 

Headley, Joel Tyler . . .204 
Helps, Arthur .... 204 

Hengsteuberg, Ernest William . 204 

186 j Henley, Right Hon. Joseph W. . 206 

186 j Herapath, WUliam, F.C.S. . . 205 

Herbert, John Rogers, R.A. . . 205 

Herl)ert, Rt Hon. Sidney, M.P. . 205 

Hereford, Bishop ol (See Hamxxlen) 199 
Herring, John Frederick . . 206 
Herschel, Sir John F. W., Bart . 206 
Herzen, or Hertzen, Alexander . 208 
Hien Fung, Emperor of China . 208 
Hikbeth, Richard .... 209 
Hill, Sir Rowland, K.C.B. . . 209 
Hind, John Russell . . . 210 
Hinds, Right Rev. Samuel . . 210 
Hobhouse,Jno.Cam. (iS'eeBroughton) 67 
HoUand, Sir Henry, Bart, M.D. . 210 
Holmes, OHver Wendell, M.D. . 210 
Hook, The Very Rev. Dean . . 211 
Hooker, Sir William Jackson, K.H. 211 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, M.D. . 212 


nn)Ex OF NAMEa 


Hope, George William, M.P. . . 212 

Home, Richard Henry . . .212 

Horsley, John Callcott, R.A. .213 

Houdin, Robert Jean-Eugbne . .213 

Houssaye, Ars^ne . . . .214 
Houston, General .... 214 

Howick, I^rd. {See Grey) . . 190 

Howitt, Mary . . . .214 

Howitt, William . . . .215 

Hugo, Victor Marie, Vicomte . 215 

Hiillah, John . . . . 21G 

Hunt, Robert, F.R,a . . .216 

Hunt, Thornton . . . .217 

Hunt, William Holman . . .217 

Ingemann, Bernard Severin . . 217 

Ingersoll, Charles Jared . . .218 

Inglis, John. {See Glencorse) . 180 

Ingres, Jean Dominique Aiiguste . 218 

Ireland, Lord Lieutenant of . 85 

Isabel XL, Maria Isabel Luisa . 218 

Isabey, Eugene Louis Gabriel . 219 

Ismail Pasha. {See Kmety) . . 228 

Isturitz, Don Xavier de . . .219 

Janin, Jules Gabriel . . .219 
Jasmin, Jacques .... 220 
Jellachich, Baron von . . . 220 
Jenlan, William .... 220 
JerroLl, William Blanchard . . 221 
Jewsbury, Miss Geraldine . .221 
Johnston, Alexander Keith . . 221 
Jomini, Henri, Baron . . . 222 
Jordan, Sylvester .... 222 
Josika, Nicolas, Baron . . . 222 
Junghuhn, Frank Wilhebn . . 222 

Kane, Sir Rol>ert. M.D. . . 223 
Karr, Jean Baptiste Alphonse . 223 
Kaulbach, William . . .223 
Kavanagh, Miss Julia . . . 224 
Kean, C^harles ... .224 
Kean, Mrs. Charles . . .224 
Keble, The Rev. John, M.A. .224 

KeUy, Sir Fitzroy . . . .224 
Kemble, Mrs. Fanny . . .225 
Kern, J. Conrad . . . ^ . 225 
Kinglake, Alexander William, M. P. 226 
Kingsley, The Bev. Charles, M.A. 226 
^inkal, Gottfried .... 226 

Kinnaird, Lord 

Kiss, Augustus 

Kisselcff, Paul Dmitrevitch . 

Klapka, General George 

Kmety, General George . 

Knight, Charles 

Knowles, James Sheridan 

Kobell, Franz von 

Kock, Charles Henri Emmanuel 

Kock, Charles Paul de . 

K(»8suth, Lajos de Kossuth Falva 

Kiigler, Franz Theodore 

Laborde, L6on, Count de 

Lacordairc, Abb^ . 

La Marmora, Marquis de 

Lamartine, Alphonse de 

Lamoricierc, General 

Lance, George, RA. 

Landor, Walter Savage . 

Landseer, Sir Edwin, R.A. . 

Langenbeck, Maximilian 

Lankester, Edw-in, M.D. 

Lansdowne, Marquis of . 

Latham, Robert Crordon, M.D. 

Lauder, Rolnjrt Scott, R.S.A. 

Lawrence, Sir John 

Jjayard, Austen Henry . 

Jjedru Rollin .... 

Lee, Frederick Richard, R,A. 

Lee, Rev. Robert, D.D. 

Lee, Mrs. A. Bowdich . 

Leech, John .... 

Lemon, Mark 

Lennep, Jacob Van 

I/eoiK)ld, King of the Belgians 

Lepsius. Carl Richard . 

I^ssepa, Ferdinand de . 

Lever, Charles 

Leverrier, Urban Jean Josei)h 

Lewes, CJeorge 

Lewis, John Frederick . 

Lewis, Sir GreorgeComewall . 

Liddell, Very Rev. Henry G., D.D 

Liel)er, Francis, LL.D. . 

Liebig, Justus, Baron . 

Lind, Jenny. {See Goldschmidt) 

Lincoln, Lord. {See N*castle,Dukc of) 

Lindley, John, M.D. 

landaay, Lord 







Liiidsay, William Schaw, HP. .248 
Linnell, John .... 248 

liflzt, Franz 249 

Livingston, The Rev. David, LL.D. 249 
Llanovcr, Lord .... 250 
London, Bishop of ... 250 

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworfch . 251 
Lough, John Graham . . . 251 
Lover, Samuel .... 251 
Lowell, James Russell . . • 252 
Lucas, Uipi>olyte Julien Joseph . 252 
Lttdera, General .... 252 
Lyell, Sir Cliarles, F.R.S. . .253 
Lyndhurst, Lord .... 253 
Lytton, Sir Edward Lytton Bulwer. 254 

M*Culloch, Horatio, R.S. A. . .256 
M*Culloch, J. R. . . . .256 
Macdowell, Patrick, R.A. . .256 
M'Hale, Right Rev. John, D.D. . 266 
Mackay, Charles, LL.D. . . 257 
Maclarun, Charles .... 258 
Macleod, Rev. Norman, D.D. . 258 
M*Cliutock, Sir Francis. . .258 
MacUse, Daniel, R.A. . . . 259 
Maclurc, Sir Rol)ert Lc Mesurier . 260 
^lacmahon. Marshal . . 261 

M^Neile, The Rev. Hugh, D.D. . 261 
McNeill, Sir John, G.C.B. . . 261 
M*Neill, Sir John, C.E. . .262 

Macreaily, William Charles . . 262 
Madden, Sir Frederick, K.H. .262 
Madoz, Pascal . . . . 263 
Magnan, Marshal .... 263 
I^Iahon, L(»rd. (^See Stanhope) . 359 
Malakof, Duke of. {Set PeUssier) . 310 
Mahnesbury, Earl of . . .264 
Manteufel, Baron .... 264 
Manzoni, Coimt .... 264 
Mario, Joeicph .... 265 
Marochetti, Baron .... 265 
Marsh, Mrs. Anne. . . . 265 
Manihall, William Calder, R.A. .266 
Marston, John Westland . . 266 
Martineau, Miss Harriet . . 266 
Martinez de la Rosa, Francisco . 267 
Martius, Carl F. P. von . . . 267 
Maney, Gerald . . . . 268 
Maason, David .... 268 
3lMle» Foz. {See Panmure, Loid) 306 


Maurice, Rev. Frederick D., M.A. . 268 
Maury, Matthew F. . . . 270 
Maximilian EL, Eang of Bavaria . 270 
Mayhew, Heniy .... 270 
Mazzini, Joseph .... 271 
Mehemet Emin. (^e^ Aali Pasha) . 1 
Meissouier, Jean Louis Ernest . 271 
Melvill, The Rev. Henry, B.D. .272 
Melville, Herman .... 272 
Menchikoff, Prince . . . 272 
Menzel, Wolfgang .... 272 
M^rim^, Prosper .... 273 
M^ry, Joseph .... 273 
Metz, Frederick Auguste de . . 274 
Meyerbeer, Giacomo . . . 274 
Miall, Edward . . . .275 
Michaud, Louis Gabriel . . . 275 
Michclet, Jules .... 275 
Mignet, Francois Auguste • . 275 
Mill, John Stuart . . . .275 
MiUais, John i;verett, A.RA. . 276 
Miller, Thomas .... 276 
Milman, The Very Rev. Dean . 276 
Milnes, Richard Monckton, M.P. . 277 
Mini6, Claude .... 277 
Mitscherlich, Eilhard . . . 277 
Mocquard, Constant . . . 278 
MoflFat, Robert . . . .278 
^lontalembert, Comte de . . 279 
Monteaglc, Lord .... 280 
Monti, Raffaelle . . . . 280 
Morclla, Count ot {See Cabrera) . 78 
Momy, Comte de . . . . 280 
Morse, Samuel Finley Breese. . 280 
Mulgrave, LonL {See Ni^rmauby) . 295 
Miiller, Johannes .... 281 
Muloch, Miss Dinah M. . . 282 

Mulreatly, William, R.A. . . 282 
Muuch, Peter Andreas . . . 282 

Murchison, Sir Roderick, D.C.L. . 283 
Mushaver Pacha. (*S^ee Slade) . 355 
MuBset, Paul £dm6 de . . .284 

Napier, Robert .... 284 
Napier, Admiral Sir Charles . . 284 
Naples, King of. {See Francis II.) 164 
Na])olcou III., £mp. of the French 285 
Narvaez, Don Ramon . . . 290 
Nash, Joseph .... *2^ 
Naunyth, Jamea . « • . ^V 


New Von Esenbeck, Chrirtum O. ■ S 

Neuelrode, Comte de . . . i 

Newcastie, Duke of . . S 
Newnun, Bev. John Hcmy.D.D. . ! 

NewDlftn. FrwiciaWiUiiuui . . S 

Nidiols, John V-tniih. F S.A. . i 

Niepoe, Ue Saint Victor . . S 

Nightingale. Miss Florence . .i 
Noel, Hon. au.lRev. Ba.ptiat, M.A. S 

Nnnnnnbj, Maniiu* of . . . S 

Nifrt.111, Tin! Hon, Mrs. . . S 
Som-iuh, STt-BUImv-jt [See Hinila) 2 

Novello, MmLune Clara . . . i 

O'Brien, William Smith. . . 5 

O'Donni-il M^irahnl . • . S 

Oliiilumt. Lawrence . . . S 

Olmxteil, DcniaoD ... ■ i 

Omer PocJia • • • ■ ^ 

Orbigny, Cliailes tl' ■ ■ ■ - 

Orloff, AleiM. Prince . . . ! 

O'Shftiighnessy, Sir William R . £ 

Othn I., King ot Greece . f 

Ouilinot, Marslial . > . ■ i 

Oiitrani, Guneral Sir James . . .' 

Ovcrlwek, FrieiWch . . . ' 

Ovcnttone. Ijonl . ■ • - ! 

Owen, Richard, F.E.a . . . f 

OxL'iifiinl, J'lhn . . . . J 

Oxfiinl, Binkup of . ■ ■ • • 

Pakingbtn, Sir John, G.C.B. . . J 
Palgr»ve.SirFninf;8.K.H.,F.R.S. ; 

Pahnuratou, Viscount . . . i 

Panizzi, Antonio . . • -J 

Fanmure, ImiJl . • • ■ ■ 

Pardoe, Mirt Julia • ■ ■■ 

PftriH, Count of . - . • i 

Part»n. Mm. Sara P. . -J 

Patnion:, Coventrj" . . . i 

Pat-m. Jowl* Noel, I1.8.A. . . ; 

Faxton, Sir Joseiih, MP. . . < 

Payen, Auselmo , . . . < 

Pedro v., Kingof Poriiagal . . I 

Peel, Frederick, M.P, . . . 1 

Peel, The Right Hon. Jonathan . i 

Peel. Sir Robert, BarL . . . : 
PeiiMier, Marahal, Due de Malakof : 

Pdouze, Thfophile Julea . i 

Pumefklher, IdontenuitXileiMnl . S 

I Pennethoroe, James . . .3 
i Pepe, General . ■ ■ .3 

Pepe, Gabriel . . . .3 
• Pepoli, Charles . . . 3 

! Pepoli, Marchesa di. (S" Alboni) . 
■ ■■ - "Vrt Vict.irFialin 3 

I Petenu.inn, Aupist Hi'inrich. . .1 
( Peto,Sir,SainuelMurton.Bivrt.,M.P. 3 
1 Petty, IjordHenrj-. (Srr Lansdowne) 2 
i Pheljis, Samael . . . .3 
i PbilliiB, -lolin, M.A., LUD. . . 3 
I Piueokmini, Mnria . . ,3 
i Piekers^ll, Fwd, Richard, R.A. . 3 

Pins IX. 3 

I PlanchG, James Robinson . . 3 

H.iyfair, Lyon. C.a . . .3 

I PoggKiiilcirf .loin (.liristian . . 3 

" "r«I[.RightHoa. Sir Frederick. 3 

.1,-, PaalFai«.B..r A.R.A. . 3 

"■of Rome. (y«PiusL\.) . 3 

■tiii;nl. King of. {Ste PbIto V.) 3 

I*r, Ciiiriaiii . 

LB JoBCph 

t Pduillet, iHmile S. M. . 
' Puffers, Hiram 

. (Sf^Albert, Prince) 

; PrcKtor, iir> 


iiiiUiiin, Kt-rrf Joflejih 
■ IVuKsia. Kiugof (.SVoFrwlk.ll 

Pulszky, Ferencz . 
1 Pulazky, Madame Ferciicz 

■■ ify, EtlwardB-juveric. D.D. 
i Pyat. Felu . 
i Pyne, James B. 

' Quinet, Edgar 

ll;iiikiiie, W J, Macquom 
Rnsjiail, Francois Vincent 
Rftuth. ChriBtinn . 

Beddinf^ Cyras 
Bedgnve, Richard, B.A. 



Heed, Rev. Andrew, D.D. . . 328 
Reggio, Duke of. (Sfe Oudinot) . 301 
Begnaolt, Henri Victor . . . 329 
Reichenbach, Baron de . . . 329 
Reid, Captain Mayne . . . 330 
RSmiUy, Ovide . . . ,330 
Renchid, Pasha .... 330 
Ril»era, Count of. (aSW* Almodovar) 13 
Riclianlson, Cliarles, LL.D. . .331 
Richarilson, Sir John, K.C.B. . 331 
Ripen and De Grey, Earl of . .331 
Ripon, Bisho]) of . . . . 332 
Ristori, Adelaide .... 332 
Ritchie, Leitch .... 332 
Roberts, Da^-id, RA. . . . 3.^3 
Robfion, Fretlerick . . . 333 

R«iebnck, Ji>hn, M.P. . . . .^^3 
Roger, Ciustave H. ... 3.34 

R«>gers, Henry .... 3.34 
Rogers, Henry Darwin, LL. D. . .3.34 
Roget, Peter Mark, M.D. . . 33o 
Rokitansky, Charles . . . 33o 
Riilfe, Barnn. (.S'f ^ Cran worth) . 113 
Rollin, Le<lru. {Sf^ Lwlru) . . 240 
Rouge, Johannes .... 3.3G 
Rosas, Don Juan Manuel de . . 3.30 
Rose, (iustave .... 3.36 
Rotfte, H<,'iurich .... 337 
Rosetti, <?onrttantine . . . 3.37 
Rosis Rear- Admiral Sir James Clark .338 
Rosse, Earl of ... . .^38 
Rossini, J«>aechino. . . . 339 
P*othHchil«l, Baron Lionel de, M.P. 3:iQ 
Rudersdorff, Mailame . . . 3.39 

Rnhmkorff, N 340 

Ruskin, John .... .340 
Russel, Alexander . . .341 

Russell, John Scott, F.R.S. . . 341 
Russell, Right Hon. Lord John, 

^m&H X^» • • • » • • OTz 1 

Russell, William Howard, LT^D. . 343 
Russia, Emp. of. (iS'^ Alexander IL ) 11 

Sabine, Major-Creneral Edward . 344 
Sainte-Claire De\ille . .344 

Saint Leonaitls, Baron . . 345 

St PMi1*8, Dean of. (iS'ee Milman) 276 
Sala, George Augustus . . 345 

fiddinha, Duke of ... 346 
8ftlomon% David, M.P. . 346 


Sam Slick. {See Haliburton) . 197 
Santa Anna, Don Antonio Lopez de 347 
Santini, Giovanni . . . 347 

Sardinia, K. of. (.%^ Victor Emanuel) .383 
Sartorius, Ernest William Christian 347 
Saulcy, Louis Caignart de . . .348 
Say, Horace Emile . . . 348 
Scarlett, The Hon. Sir James Yorke 349 

.Schamyl 349 

Schnorr, Jules .... .349 
Sfha?lcher, Victor .... 349 
Schomburgk, Sir Rol)ert Hermann 350 
Schonlein, Johann Luk . . . 350 
Sa)tt, George Gilbert, A.R.A. . 350 
Scribe, Eugfene . . . . ft-)! 
Sedgwick, Amy . . . ,351 
Sedgwick, Miss Catherine Maria . 352 
Setlgwick, Rev. Adam, M.A. . 3.')2 
Senior, Nassau William . . 352 

Seymour, Right H<m. Sir George . 352 
Shaftesbury, Earl of . . . 353 
Shuttleworth, Sir James Kay . 3.53 
Simpson, General Sir James, G.C.B. 3.53 
SimjMjon, James Young, M. D. , .354 
Sinclair, Miss Catherine . . .354 

Skmla, Joseph .... 354 
SIa<le, Sir Adolphus . . . ,3,>5 
Smirke, Sir Rolxirt . . . 355 
Smith, Alexan<ler .... 356 
Smith, Sir Henr}-, Bart . . .^^ 
Smith, Thomas South wootl, M.D. . 3.56 
Smith, William, LI^D. . . .357 

Somerx-ille, Mrs. Mary . . . ,357 
S<julouque, Faustin. . . . 357 
South, Sir James, F.R.S. . . .^•>8 
Spain, Queen of. {See Isabella II.) 218 
SjKirks, Jarod .... .3.58 
Spring Rice. {See Monteaglo, Lord) 280 
Sjmrgeon, Rev. (!*liarles Haddon . .358 
Stantield, tOarkson, R.A. . . 358 
Stanhoi>e, Earl of . . . . 359 
Stanley, Rev. Arthur . . . 359 
Stanley, Right Hon. Dml, MP. . .%59 
Steell, John, R.S.A. . . . 360 
StirUng, William, M.P. . . 360 

Stowe, Harriet Beccher . .361 

Stratford de Redcliffe, Viscount . 361 
Strauss, David Friedrich . . 362 
Strickland, Miss Agnes • . 362 

Swain, Charlet . ; . . 363 


Sweden, King oL (&« Ch«rlw XV.) 94 
Syme, Jamea, M.D. . . .363 

Tkg^ni, Huie . . 363 

Tftit, llight Rev. Aichilwld 
Tauntou, Right Hon. Lord 
Taylor, Alfred Swains, M.D. 
Taylor, Bayard 
Taylor, liaac 
Taylor, Ludore, Baron 
Taylor, Tom 
Tenerani, Pietro . 
Tennent, Sir Jamea E., M.P. 
TennyaoD, Alfred, D.O.L. 
Thackervy, William Makepeace 
Tholberg, Sigismund 
Theaigcr, Sir Fred. (Sire Chelmiford) 95 
Thieny, Alexandre 
Thierry, AmCd£e . 
Tbiem, Lonia Adolphi 
ThirlwaU, Rt Bev. ConDop, D.D. 371 
Tholiick, Friodrich Gottreu . . 371 
ThomiAon, Rev, R. Anchor. M.A. 371 
ThoupiOD, Major-General Perronet 372 
Thorns, William . . - 373 

Thorni-ycrott, Mrs, Mary . . 373 
Ticknor George .... 373 
Tiinl*., F.a.A. . . .373 
Tite, Williaiii, M.P..F.R.S. . . 374 
Titiena, Tereaa . . .374 

Titmarsh. M. A ngelo. («« Thacke™y)368 
Todleben, FnincU Blward . . 375 
Troiicli, Vtrt Uvv. llicli. Ohenei-ii 376 
Trollopc, MiB. France* . . 37G 

Trouhridge, CoL Sir t., Bart, C.B. 376 
Tuam, ArcbblBhop «f . (S« M-Hale)256 
Talloch, Uev. .Tobn, IXD. . . 377 
Tupjwr, MarUn Farquhar, D.C.L 377 
Turkoy.SuItoLfS^nAbdul-Medjid) 3 

UhUnd, Johaon Ludwig . 377 

Ullman, Karl . . .378 

Unjiihart, David .... 378 
Valencia, Duke of. (Sw Nnrvaez) 290 
Vi.nd,;iiii^ll-, .Lihn . . .378 

Vau^sbao, Rev KoljLTt. D.D. . 370 
V«l|>eau, Alfred Marie . .381) 

V«rdi, Giuoeppe . . . .380 
Veraet, Soraoe .... 380 
T£roin,LviiiaD£dc6 . . .381 

Vcnillot, Iiouii .... 342 
Viardot, Pauline Garcia . . 382 

Victor Emmannel IL, K. of Sardinia 383 
Victorio, Her Majeety tUe Queen . 383 
Vittoria, Duke ot. (A'« Espartero) . 154 
Vigny, Alfred, Count de . . 384 
Villemain, Abel .... 385 

Waagen, Gurtave Friedrich . . 385 
Wagner, Eiehard .... 386 
Wagner, Rudoli>b .... 386 

Wal«.,Pnnoeof. 1A'« Albert Ed wd.) 10 
Walewaki, Fiorina Aleiuuiire . 386 
WnljHjle. KightHon. Sl>eucer,M.P, 387 
Walter, John, M.P. . . .387 
Ward, Edward Matthew, R.A. . 387 
Wam'ii, Samuel . .388 

Watt, James Henry . . .389 
■ Watta, Akrio Alexander . . 389 
j Webster, Thonioa, Il.A. . . .389 
IWeusIeydale, Baron . . .390 
Wwitmaoott, Richard, E.A- . . 300 
Whately ArchbUlioii . . . .190 
Wbeutstime, <;harlea, F.R.S. . . 301 
Whewell,Kev.WUliain, D.D. . 392 
Whiteaide, Right Hon. Jomea, M. P. .102 
Whitty, Edwani Michael . . .393 
Whitworth, J(w.'ph . . .393 
Wilbcrfurce. Right Rev. Samoel . 304 
Wilkes, Charlea . . .303 

WilkinHOD, Sir Juhn Gardner, KL . .tUS 
WiUiani IIL King of Hollaud . 394 
Williama, Major-General Sir W. F. 395 
Willis, Nathaniel Parker . . 395 
Willis. Kev Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 396 
WilU, William Henry . .306 

Wilmore, Jamea l"ilibits . . 397 
Wimlham, Major-General C, C.B. 397 
Wiodischgriiti, Alfreil, Prince de . 307 
Winalow, Forbes, M.D. . . 308 

Wiiitcrhnlter Frani Xnvier . . :f98 
Wisi-mnn, Nicliolas, CWdinal . 399 
Woehler, Fre-lerick . . .399 
\V.„h1. iii^, SirC, M.P. . 399 

Wisnj;,), hYTdiiuiud . . .400 
"WrigW, Thoiii.-is . . .400 

Wurtemburg, Kini- of, William I. . 401 
Wyatt. Matthew Digby . . 401 

Yendya, Sydney. [Ste DobcU) . 132 
Youni^ Brigham . . . ■ 402 



AALI PA8HA, Mehebut Ebcin, a 
Turkish statesman and legislative re- 
former, was born at Constantinojile 
in 1815. At the age of fifteen he was 
Aflmitted to the Translation Office of 
the Porte, on the recommendation of 
Reschld Pasha, the enlightened Turkish 
Reformer, who had the year before acted 
as Secretary to the Turkish Plenipoten- 
tiaries at Adrianople. In 1834 Aali Pasha 
was a])pointed Second-class Secretary to 
the £lml)assy of Ahmed Fethi Pasha to 
Vienna, where he spent two years. He 
visited Russia before returning to Con- 
stantinople, making no stay, however, 
in the empire of the Czar. In November 
1837, he became Chief Interpreter to the 
Divan, and in 1838 Chargi (TAffairea 
to London, in which post he remained 
till the following year. In 1841 he was 
a])pointed Ambaseador to England, re- 
taining that office until 1844. With the 
elevation of lleschid Pasha to be Grand 
Vizier, Aali rose to lie Foreign Minister, 
and participated in all the political for- 
tunes, good and bad, of his patron from 
1846 to 1852. In 1852 he became Grand 
Vizier, and held the office for a few 
months, when he retired for some time 
from public life. In 1854, however, he 
obtained the post of Governor-General 
of Broussa, and in October of the same 
year was recalled to Constantinople, 
where he again became Minister of Fo- 
Tagn Affairs, and filled various other 
offices. After representing the Porte at 


the Conferences of Vienna, he returned 
to Turkey to become Grand Vizier : an 
office which he held when a conmussion 
was appointed, over which he presided, 
to draw:up, in concert with the represen- 
tatives of the Western Powers, those 
measures favourable to the Christian 
po]mIation of the Turkish Empire which 
were confirmed in 1856. As Plenipoten- 
tiary of the Porte to the Paris Confer- 
ences, he took an active part in the 
deliberations, and signed the treaty of 
peace of 1856. In November, 1856, he 
resigned the office of Grand Vizier, and 
was succeeded by his old patron Reschid 
Pasha. Three weeks after, he entered 
the council as Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
which i)08t, however, he resigned im- 
mediately on the death of R^chid in 
January, 1858. He was then re-invested 
with the functions of Grand Vizier, in 
which he has manifested a sincere desire 
to reform Turkish abuses. From **A 
Biography of Aali Pasha," published in 
Turkish by Fatin Effendi, it appears 
that the former enjoys a high reputa- 
tion among his countrymen for poetical 
ability. A small, modest-looking man, 
no one would conclude from his appear- 
ance that he possessed such energy and 
firmness of purpose as he has manifested 
in diplomatic negociations. 

ABBOTT, Rev. Jacob, an American 
author, and Congregational minister, was 
bom at Hallowell, in the State of Maine, 
in 180a He graduated at Bowdoin 



College in 1820, and became a Congrega- 
tional minister. In 1825 he commenced 
the publication of a series of moral and 
religious works, with which lus name 
has now become identified, of which 
** The Young Christian," " The Comer 
Stone," '^The Way to do Good," and 
his illustrated ** Histories," are the best 
known. He has written besides a great 
number of juvenile works, which have 
had a wide circulation, especially in 
America. Among these are the *' Rollo 
Books," the **Lucy Books," and the 
•* Jonas Books ;" the ** Franconian Sto- 
ries," "Marco Polo^sAdventures," "Sto- 
ries of the Rainbow," "The Florence 
Series," and "Harper's Story Books," 
each of these forming a series in an incre- 
dible number of volumes. These works 
are all intended for the use of the young, 
an<l have attained to great popularity, 
owing to the clearness and simplicity 
of the author's style, and the talent he 
possesses of infusing interest into his 
narratives ; many of his works have 
been reprinted in this country and 
translated into various languages. 

ABBOTT, Rev. John, S.C., an Ame- 
rican author. Congregational minister, 
and brother of the Rev. Jacob Abbott, 
was bom in 1805 at Brunswick, in the 
State of Maine. He graduated at Bow- 
doin College in 1825, and at the Theolo- 
gical Seminary in Andover, Massachu- 
setts, in 1829, where he was trained as 
a Congregational minister. His princii)al 
works are "Kings and Queens; or, Life 
in a Palace," "The Mother at Home," 
"TheCTiild at Home," "The History 
of Napoleon Bonaparte," "The History 
of the French Revolution, as viewed in 
the light of Re})ubhcan Institutions," and 
Memoirs of " Marie Antoinette," " Jos6- 
" Cortes," " Hind Philip, Chief of Nar- 
ragansett Indians." He is at inresent 
writing the Histories of the Monarchies 
of Continental Europe, those relating to 
" The Empires of Austria and Russia '' 

having already appeared, and "The 
Hi8t<>ry of Italy " being on the eve of 

ABD-EL-KADER was Iwm in the 
neighbourhood of Mascara, in 1807. He 
was educated with his three brothers in 
the Guetna, a sort of seminary kept in 
the house of his father ; the latter being 
a Saint, who claimed descent from the 
Prophet He early distinguished him- 
self by his learning and eloquence. An 
attempt of the Dey of Algiers to assassi- 
nate him induced him to seek an asylum 
in Egypt, whence he did not return till 
after the French conquest. His father, 
who had taken the lead in an insuirec- 
tion of the Arab tribes near Oran, 
handed over his ^x^wer to his son, who 
in 1832 attacked the city at the head of 
10,000 mounted Arabs. They thought 
that the Turkish power being overthrown 
by the French at Algiers, they might 
achieve their in<lex)endeuce. He was 
opposed, however, by General Boyer, 
who defended Gran with French troops, 
repulsing the Arab leader after a terrible 
engagement. Nevertheless lus influence 
continued to increase with the wild 
; tribes of Barbary. In 1834 General Des 
Michels entered into a treaty with him, 
whereby the Chelif became the boun- 
dary between the Fi'ench and native 
possessions. The result of this arrange- 
, ment was, that a sort of small monarchy 
was formed for him with Mascara for 
his capital, where he had ample leisure 
to prepare for a wido-s}^>read resistance. 
The time came when he thought he 
might venture on a new attack. He 
crossed the Chelif, took possession of 
Medeah, and at the head of 20,000 
mounted Arabs drove back the French 
from the course of the Macta. General 
Bugeaud was the first French commander 
who was successful in checking the re- 
sistance of the native population, and 
in breaking the prestige of Abd-el-Kader, 
who was of course looked upon by his 
|COuntiymen as a prophet as well as a 


soldier. The French comDunder offered 
tvmu of peace to bit vanqniahed enemy, 
and entered into the bvaty of Tafna 
with hiiD on May 3rd, 1837. Two yeara 
after Abd-el-Kader foand a pretext in 
ill-detined clauses of the tica^ for a 
freah war. The campaign of 1S40 fol- 
lowed. General Bugeaod WM then ftp- 
pointed GoTernor of Algeiis, and intro- 
duced a new system of attack. He 
o^anized rasdas whereby French mili- 
tary operations being carried ftcroM the 
whole width of Barbftr; to the ahoni 
of the desert, he endeavoured to starve 
the Arabs into mbmiiadoii. The cap- 
ture of Snulft in Febniaiy, 1S42, forced 
Abd-el-Kader to rebeat into Morocco ; 
the emperor of that state having, it is 
aUeged. subsidized him. In 1644 the 
combined troops of Abd-el-Kader and 
the Emperor of Morocco attacked Gene- 
ra] Bugeaad, who at Isly, on the I4th 
August, 1644, gained a deciaive victory. 
The bombardment of the Moorish sea- 
jmrtB by the French pat an end to all 
overt interference on the part of the 
*' Marocains," bat it did not prevent the 
Arabs to the west of the Algerian fron- 
tier from joining the standard of insur- 
rection, tio late as 1S46, he again 
menaced the great plain of the Metidja, 
the head-qnarters of French colonization, 
which lies immediately behind Algiers. 
It was two year* before tke French 
troopa. now acting with such part of 
the Emperor of Morocco's anny m could 
be induced to fi^t against their conn- 
trymeo, sncceeded in cnuhiag the Arab 
leado'. Abd-el-Kader at last gave in 
his nibtmasion to Qaneral lAmoridere, 
on condition of being taken to Alexan- 
dria or SI Jean d'Acrc He was re- 
moved to Prance with his family, and 
afterward* conllned at Toulon, the castle 
of Pan, and the castle of Amboiae, with 
qaeatiODable respect to the pledge made 
him in AfiicK. The priannt £!mperor 
iet him at liberty in 18fi2, on the occa- 
mooot the pDolamatioa of tiwBoi^re. 


He afterwards settled at Bruia, where 
he lived in retirement until the town was 
desfroyed by an earthquake. In 18S3 
and again in 1854 he viaited Pari*, and 
was quite a Uon among the Parisian*. 
He was anxiou* to take part in the 

can war, but the state of hi* health 
forced him to remain at Constantinople ; 
when laat heaid of he was iii Damascus. 
He has lately (1S60) taken the i>art of 
the ChristianB doling the niaaiacre per- 
petrated by the Drnsea, and his condnct 
in this req>ect would have done ctcdit 

ne profeving a higher degi'«e of 
dviliiation. He protected to the ubnost 
of hi* ability all the fugitivea who ar- 
rived in Damascus, and he has received 
a decoration from the French Emperor 
in acknowledgment of hi* noble inter- 

ABDUL-MEDJID, Khan, Sultan of 
Turkey, wa* born April 23rd, 1823, and 
is the eldest son of Mahmoud II., whom 
he sncceeded on the iBt Joly, 1839. 
His early education was conducted by 
moUab* and aatzvlogers, and he has thus 
not had the advantage of a pcreonal 
acquaintance with the cuBtoms and 
social life of Western nationa Abdid- 
Medjid asoeaded the throne of his an- 
cestors at a moat critical epoch in the 
history of Turkey. The batUe of Nezib 
had ju«t been gained by Ibrahim Paeha, 
who seemed to have beaten down the 
might of the Ottoman empire, and thus 
the Sultan ccoumenoed his reign in an 
unfortunate state of aOiure in every 
respect, and at a very early age. In 
this critical juncture tlie leading Euro- 
pean power* interfered, to prevent the 
diamembermcnt of the domiaioas of the 
Sultan. The Pasha of Egypt refusing 
to accede to the term* of the treaty of 
London, his obatinacy was ullanuttely 
brought to reason by British caiwon. It 
had been anticipated that the reform* 
initiated ncder the stem rule of Mah- 
moud would be prevented under his 

ABD ^ 

l^ovember of the year following his ac- 
oession, the famous statute of Gulhani, 
or tlie Tanzimat or reforming ordinance, 
was proclaimed, which was to serve as 
the new basis of Turkish legislation. It 
had for its object the complete reforma- 
tion of all the abuses which had converted 
Turkish rule into a pcq)etual state of 
anarchy. The Sultan thus vigorously 
prepared to follow out the dying requests 
of his parent. A conspiracy ensued, 
which was, however, speedily quelled. 
It is unfortunate that the reforms which 
the statute sought to introduce into 
Turkey have, practically speaking, been 
carried out nowhere, except in Constan- 
tinople and its immediate vicinity. As 
connecting itself intimately with late 
important events in the career of the 
Sultan, it is worthy of note that religious 
liberty has been very fully enjoyed 
under his sway ; indeed neither of the 
powers that quarrelled over the guar- 
dianship of the holy places exhibits any- 
thing approximating to the same tolera- 
tion of o]>inion. And his protection of 
the Polish and Hungarian refugees of 
1848, even in presence of the menaces of 
Russia and Austria, evinced a resolution 
which ultimately America and Elngland 
became emulous of seconding. The 
Sultan has been for some time past en- 
deavouring, by reforming the executive, 
to introduce an economy to which the 
Turkish government has long been a 
stranger. He is, however, surrounded 
by ministers who have only their own 
ends in view. His personal expenditure 
is also of the most lavish kind, and un- 
fortunately he lacks the energy required 
to give his reforms effect. The expenses 
of the Russian war have also tended to 
impoverish the nation. He has obtained 
loans through the guarantee of England 
and France, which, however, have only 
served to meet extraordinary expendi- 
ture, and which still leave him in an 
embarrassed state. Educated in the 
manner above referred to, the good in- 


tentions of the Sultan are to a great ex- 
tent neutralized by the pemiciooa influ- 
ence of early associations. 

ABERDEEN, Gsorob HaiAlton 
Gordon, Earl of, was bom in Edin- 
burgh on 28th January, 1784. He re- 
ceived his early education at Harrow 
School, and afterwards entered the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, becoming M.A. in 
1804. After returning from a lengthened 
tour in Europe, he published the results 
of some of his observations in a work 
entitled **An Inquiry into the Princi- 
ples of Beauty in Grecian Architecture," 
which indicated the possession of an ac- 
curate and discriminating taste on the 
part of its author. Turning his attention 
to politics. Lord Aberdeen became Spe- 
cial Envoy to Vienna. This occurred at a 
time of great importance, and his mission 
was attended with success. Having en- 
tered the House of Lords, he was with- 
out office for many years, until he be- 
came Foreign Secretary under the Duke 
of Wellington in 1828, a post which he 
resigned towards the end of 1890. On 
Sir Robert Peel becoming Premier in 
1834, Lord Aberdeen was chosen as 
Colonial Secretary. On the dissolution 
of this ministry, he remained without 
office for some years, and resumed the 
Foreign Department on Sir Robert Peel 
again becoming Premier. During his re- 
peated official employments. Lord Aber- 
deen has been distinguished by an earn- 
est attention to the duties of his position, 
and in ]>olitical matters was generally 
opposed to liberal principles, until within 
the last few years, when Sir Robert 
Peel's conversion to Free-trade opinions 
made a breach in the ranks of the old 
Tory party. On Lord Derby resigning 
in 1852, Lord Aberdeen had assigned to 
him the difficult task of forming a new 
ministry, and his materials were of a 
most heterogeneous kind, inasmuch as 
he had to make his appointments from 
three different partie& Under such cir- 
cumstances, it is a matter of Buzprise 

ABO i 

that the government thus formed lasted 
so long as nearly three years. This 
country, however, having declared war 
against Russia on account of the en- 
croachments of that power on Turkey, 
in reference to the protectorate of the 
Greek Church, Lord Aberdeen was com- 
pelled to resign, owing to an adverse 
vote in the House of Commons, in 1855. 
This was occasioned by a general im- 
pression that he and his colleagues did 
not pursue hostile matters with the 
vigour and energy which were required 
in so serious a matter. It was alleged 
that both the army and navy were in a 
condition totaUy unfit to cope with the 
emergency. With respect to home mat- 
ters. Lord Aberdeen was more successful, 
and during his tenure of office he intro- 
duced several bills which developed the 
resources of the country, and freed our 
pubhc educational establishments from 
those trammels to which they had been 
tied for many centuries ^last. As a re- 
cognition of his great talent and acquire- 
ments. Lord Aberdeen has been elected 
Chancellor of King's College, Aberdeen, 
and also fills similar offices in other edu- 
cational institutions. He has been twice 
married, and has one son living. Lord 
Haddo, who succeeds to the title on his 
father's decease. For the last few years 
Lord Aberdeen has taken no prominent 
part in public matters, and, comparatively 
speaking, has retired into private life. 

ABOUT, Edmond FRAN901S Valen- 
tin, a French writer and publicist, wa8 
bom at Dreuze, in the department of 
Meurthe, in 1828. He entered the Col- 
lege of Charlemagne, at Pans, where he 
gained, in 1848, the highest honours 
in the class of philosophy. From the 
Normal School of Paris, he went as a 
teacher or professor to Athens. While 
in Greece he collected materials for a 
work of erudition, entitled ** L'Isle 
d'Egine," published at Paris in 1854. 
He retmmed to France in 1853, and two 
yean •fterwarda he published in the 


** Biblioth^ue des Chemins de Fer,'* the 
book by which he was till recently best 
known, *' La Gr^e Contemporaine," 
which met with a brilliant success. The 
result was that the author found admis* 
sion as a contributor to the ** Revue des 
Deux Mondes," and published in that 
excellent periodical a romance entitled 
* * ToUa. '' In 1856 he maile his d^but as 
a dramatic writer, but was unsuccessfuL 
He has since written *'A Journey 
through the Paris Exhibition of 1856," 
in which he criticises the works of French 
artists then exhibited ; a nimiber of 
fruilleUma contributed to the *'Moni- 
teur," under the titles of '*Les Manages 
de Paris,*' and three novels entitled 
"Le Roi des Montagues," "Gennaine," 
and *^Le8 Bchasses de Mattre Pierre.** 
In 1857 he published his *' Artistes an 
Salon," another criticism of the paintings 
of the yearly exhibition of Paris. His 
*' Question Romaine** is the author's 
last imiK>rtant production. 

ADAM, Jean Victor, a French 
paint«r, was 1)om in Paris on the 29th 
day of February, 1801. He was the son 
of Jean Adam, an eminent engraver. 
From 1814 to 1818 he was engaged in 
going through a course of professional 
study at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. His 
first picture, sent in 1819 to the exhibi- 
tion, was "Herminie secourant Tan- 
crMe.** He continued to exhibit rega- 
larly as a painter till 1838, when he 
undertook a series of paintings for the 
Gallery of VersaiUes, among which may 
be enumerated **The Entrance of the 
French into Mayence," "The Battle of 
Montebello," and ** The Capitulation, of 
Meiningen. " Since 1846 he has confined 
his attention to the hthographic depart- 
ment of art, in which he has attained to 
great success, and shown great fertility 
as an artist. Between 1821 and 1829 he 
gained several medals at Lille and Douay, 
and in 1826 and 1836 he obtained gold 
medals at Paris. 

ADAMS, John Couch, an English 



astronomer, was bom in Cornwall, in 
1817. Like Ferguson, he sprang from 
agricultural connexions, to attain a 
high position in the scientific world by 
the exercise of innate talent. He ex- 
hibited a decided taste for mathematics 
when very young, and fortunately was 
fostered in his choice, by being sent to 
Cambridge to complete his education. 
In this university he was enabled to 
pursue his favourite study, in its appli- 
cation to physical science, and paying 
great attention to astronomy, he soon dis- 
tinguished himself by the profundity of 
his researches. He is chiefly known by 
his remarkable discovery, d priori, of 
the existence of a planet at the extremity 
of the solar systenL For macny years, 
astronomers were at a loss to account 
for certain irregularities in the passage 
of Uranus round its oibit. Various 
theories had been proposed to explain 
these, but Mr. Adams, having suggested 
the idea of another and undiscovered 
planet existing, put his opinions to the 
test of mathematical investigation, and 
was thus enabled to assign a possible 
position for the supposed planet *s place ; 
which eventually, on its actual discovery, 
was found to be nearly true. This re- 
sult is, perhaps, one of the most noble 
triumphs of modem science. By one of 
those inexplicable occurrences, in which 
two minds at a distance from each other 
are simultaneously engaged on the same 
subject, M. Leverrier, of Paris, had ar- 
rived about the same time at the same 
conclusion. A dispute of priority of 
discovery arose, similar to that wliich 
occurred between Leibnitz and Newton, 
but without any decisive result. The 
Royal Astronomical Society regarded 
each of these gentlemen as equally enti- 
tled to honourable distinction, and Mr. 
Adams has since become the President of 
that distinguished Society, and of which 
he forms a brilliant ornament. He also 
holds the Loundean Professorship of As- 
tronomy in the University of Cambridge. 

AGASSIZ, Louis Jean Rodolfhs, 
a distinguished Swiss nataraUst, now 
settled in America, vras bom in 1807, at 
Moitiers, Canton of Freyburg, in Switz- 
erland. His ancestors were of French 
origin, and were among the number of 
those Protestants who, on the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes, were forced to 
fly from France. His father was a Pto- 
testant minister, and intended him for 
the church ; but from an intuitive love 
for natural history, he preferred the 
study of medicine as afifording a fuller 
sco|)e for the bent of his genius. To 
carry out this design he entered the 
Medical School at Zurich, and subse- 
quently the University of Heidelberg, 
where he devoted special attention to 
the study of comparative anatomy, gain- 
ing a high reputation among his com- 
peers. From Heidelberg he went to 
Munich, where he remained four years. 
His great attainments brought him into 
connexion with the ichthyological de- 
[mrtment of the Natural History of 
Brazil, which made him known as a man 
of science. His parents remonstrated 
against this devotion to scientific study, 
and endeavoured by various means to 
cool his ardour. Fortunately, however, 
his indomitable |)er8everance and assi- 
duity attracted the notice of the great 
German publisher, Cotta, who advanced 
him such money as he required for the 
successful prosecution of his researches. 
Having taken the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine and Philosophy, he repaired 
to Vienna, where he entered upon the 
study of fossil fishes. Visiting Paris in 
the prosecution of his studies, he gained 
the frieudshi]) of Cuvier and Hiunboldt 
On returning to Switzerland he was ap- 
jwinted Professor of Natural History in 
the University of Neufch&tel, where he 
remained until 1846, when he embarked 
for America. Soon after his arrival in 
the United States he was appointed 
Professor of Zoology in the Lawi*ence 
Scientific School, and since then Pro- 



fesBor of Comparative Aiuit<nny in the 
University of Charleston. At the early 
age of thirty Agassiz was a member of 
nearly every scientific society in Europe. 
The Glacial theory, with which his name 
is now so honourably identified, was first 
published by him in 1837. To collect 
the facts relating to the subject, he 
spent eight summers upon the glaciers of 
the Aar, 8,000 feet above the level of 
the sea. The published contributions of 
Agassiz to the various departments of 
science are numerous and valuable. The 
best known of those are his researches 
on Fossil Fishes, his Natural History of 
the Fresh-water Fishes of Europe, and 
the ** Principles of Zoology," by himself 
and Dr. A. A. Gould, and an "Essay 
on Classification," republished last year 
in this country. He is now engaged 
upon what promises to be his great 
work — "The Natural History of the 
United States." Two volumes of this 
work, which is to extend to ten, have 
been already published. The book is 
executed upon a grand and comprehen- 
sive scale, and when completed will fonn 
one of the noblest tributes to science of 
any age or nation. 

AINSWORTH, William Francis, 
an English phjrsician and traveUer, was 
bom at Exeter, in November, 1807. He 
studied the natural sciences and medi- 
cine, in the usual course, with the view 
of becoming a Doctor of Medicine, and 
obtained his diploma in 1827; starting 
in the same year on a geological ex- 
conion to Auvergne and the Pyrenees. 
On his return in 1828, he accepted the 
editorship of the ''Journal of Natural 
and Geographical Science," published in 
Edinburgh, delivering at intervals a 
popular course of lectures on geology. 
The outbreak of the cholera in 1832 
called him to London, where his skill in 
treating the hospital cases attracted so 
much notice, that on the abatement of 
tbe epidemic in the capital, he was sent 
to Ireland to parsae his system there. 

In Dublin and Limerick he was equally 
successful In 1835 he was appointed 
physician to Captain Chesney's Expedi- 
tion to the Euphrates. After remaining 
for some time at Bombay, he went alone, 
in 1837, to Kurdistan and Asia Minor, 
these countries forming afterwards the 
chief object of a second expedition, 
which continued from 1838 tiU 1841. 
His investigations were not, however, 
limited to exploration from mere love of 
travel and adventure; he was charged 
with missions by the Royal Greographical 
Society to explore the course of the 
Halys ; and by the Society for the Pro- 
pagation of the Gospel to open up nego- 
ciations with the Nestorian Christians. 
In the spring of 1840, he visited the 
countiy of the Nestorians^ and returned 
to En j^and the following year. Among 
the principal works Dr. Ainsworth has 
published are " Researches in Assyria," 
" Travels and Researches in Asia Minor,'' 
' ' The Claims of the Christian Aborigines 
in the East," and " Travels in the Track 
of the 10,000 Greeks," besides numerous 
papers contributed to scientific societies. 
In 1854 he became one of the Editors of 
"Bohn's Classical Library," to which he 
has rendered valuable service by his 
edition of Xenophon. Dr. Ainsworth is 
a cousin of William Harrison Ainsworth, 
the celebrated novelist and magazine 

AINSWORTH, William Harrison, 
an Kngliwh novelist, was born at Man- 
chester, in 1805. He was destined for 
the legal profession, but Mr. Ainsworth 
preferred to devote himself almost ex- 
clusively to literary pursuits. His first 
attempt was a volume of poems, and 
after that Mr. Ainsworth published a 
ronuuice called *' Rookwood," which at 
once obtained great popularity. ' ' Crioh- 
ton" foUowed. In "Jack Sheppard.*' 
which next appeared, Mr. Ainsworth 
strove to exalt the virtues of a class of 
heroes who had till his time figured in 
the halter rather than in the pages of 

AIR 8 

ntinancr— tho English highwaymen, 
whiwr Adventurous lives and miserable 
fat«* had always invested them with a 
cartain amount of po]mlar sympathy. 
This work, which fiwtood a sentiment- 
ality by no means calculated to benefit 
|wblic morals, had an immense success ; 
the author, at the time of writing it, in 
all probability never s|)eculated on its 
tendencies He has not since written 
any work of the same kind. Mr. Ains- 
wurth*s numerous historical romances 
possess, in a high degree, all the best 
qualities of tietitiuus narratives; the 
plots are well constructed, the charac- 
ters well drawn, great care being be- 
stowed on the historical accuracy of the 
facts, and, what is also of great im])or- 
tanco, th<> intoivst of the reader is sus- 
taine«l fnnii lieginning to end. The 
OKwt rnuarkablo of his romances are 
" Kk^'ik^xH^l " ''The Tower of liondon," 
•'W^wA** tVistle," "The Admirable 
CV^-^lw-w^"^ -Old St Paul's," **Tbe 
MwN^ V lHM^ht«r,** and ''The Flitch of 
JkhN^M.''' His latest tale is *'Ovingdean 
CJnitt|j\* Those works have been fre- 
quoutl^' rt»priutcd in America, and 
traiu]At««tl into most of the continental 
laiigiM^w, having met with a remark- 
altlo HuiHHVH abroad, more especially in 

AIKD, TiioMAA, a Scottish i)oet, was 
bi>rn at liow<len, lloxburghshire, on the 
SHtli c»r AuguHt, 1802. After l>eing edu- 
oatiMl in hiH native ])lace, and the Uni- 
vomity of ^>linburgh, in 1835 he was 
apiNiinUwl Alitor of the ** Dumfries 
]i««rald,*' which he has since continued 
to miiiduct with much ability, taste, and 
■U(HM*tui. In addition to his ]>oetry Mr. 
Ainl has published several ])ro8e works 
of ini|N!ri(ir merit The chief of these 
Is his " ]t<*ligious Characteristics," and 
•«Thi> Old Bachelor in the Old Scottish 
Village." Though not attaining the 
|H>pularity that might have been anti- 
oi|>atiMl, they lioth alwund in passages of 
gruat jNiwer and beauty. The delicate 


discrimination with which he editc<l 
Moires poems, and the admirable Life of 
the author prefixed to the poems, were 
the theme of general praise. Mr. Aird*s 
poems have passeil through two editions. 
With no trace of the s}»asmodic, and 
: owing nothing to ailventitious circum- 
I stances for ])opu]arit>', they have won 
their way to a high place among the 
masteqneces of song. 

AIRY, Geoki^e Biddell, M.A. 
(Cambridge), D.C.L. (Oxford), LL.D. 
(Edinburgh), the English Astronomer 
Royal, was lx>m at Alni^nck, in North- 
umberland, on July 27th, 1801, and 
educated at the Grammar School of 
Colchester, in Essex. He entered Tri- 
nity College, Cambridge, in 1819, gra- 
duated, and was Senior Wrangler in 
1823; was elected Fellow of Trinity 
C'ollege in 1824; and in 1826 obtaineil 
the Lucasian I'rofessorship of Mathema- 
tics (formerly held by Newton and by 
Barrow), which he exchanged in 1828 
for the Plumian Professorship of Astro- 
nomy and £xiH.>rimental Philosophy, 
which included the charge of the Cam- 
bridge Obserx-atory. Bedsides giving 
great attention to the selection and 
accuracy of his observations, he has 
published their results in such a form as 
to render them immediately useful to 
science, a ])ractice which by degrees has 
l>een followed in every imi>ortant obser- 
vatory. In discharge of the other duties 
of the chair, he instituted a course of 
experimental lectures on several subjects 
ci»nnected with applied mathematics, 
which (especially those on optics) at- 
tracted much attention. In October 
1835 he was ap]K)inted Astronomer 
Royal, and took charge of the Royal 
Observatory of Greenwich. Since that 
time, the Greenwich Observatory has 
been maintained in a state of great effi- 
ciency, and has been completely remo- 
delled. Every new discovery has been 
at once adopted which was calculated 
to facilitate observation. One of Mr. 


Ally's most laborious works was ''An 
Abridgment of the Planetary and Lunar 
Observations from 1750 to 1830," pub- 
Jiahed in 1846, and perhaps the most 
extensiye individual work ever under- 
ttiken in astronomy. Among his scien- 
tilic labours, we may mention his exa- 
mination of the cause of the disturbance 
of the compass in iron ships, as the 
result of which he has given rules which 
are now universally followed for its 
correction. He has published treatises 
<»n the ** Undulatory Theory of Light ;" 
**The Tides on the CJoast of Ireland, 
and in other places ;'* ** Observations to 
establish the Longitude of Valentia ;" 
and '* £xi)eriments to ascertain the 
Force of Gravity in the Colliery of 
Harton, near South Shields ;*' which, by 
the acciu^u^y and care taken in the 
experiments, have been exceedingly 
valuable in the study of physical as- 
tronomy. Mr. Airy has been called on 
to assist the Government in the commis- 
sion on the railway gauge ; in the 
restoration of standards of length and 
weight (destroyed at the fire of the 
Houses of Parliament) ; and in the 
astronomical operations for defining the 
boundaries of our North American 
provinces. His principal treatises on 
scientific subjects are the article in the 
Penny Oycloijcedia, on "Gravitation," 
his "Mathematical Tracts," and "Ips- 
f^ich Lectures," with the articles ** Tri- 
gonometry," ** Figure of the Earth," 
and "Tides and Waves," in the "En- 
cyclo|)a)dia Metropolitana." He is also 
the author of numerous papers (fre- 
quently under the signature A. B. G.) 
in the "Athenaeum," and the "Philo- 
sophical Magazine.'* Mr. Airy is a 
Fellow of the Royal Society, member of 
the Pnisaian Order of Merit, and a 
Correspondent of the French Academy, 
of those of St. Petersburg and Berlin, and 
is well known throughout Europe and 
America as one of the most eminent 
ciihivmton ol physical science. 

9 ALB 

ALBERT, Franz AnonsT Karl 
Emamuel, Duke of Saxe Coburg Gotha, 
heir presumptive to the Ihike of Saxe 
Coburg, and consort of Queen Victoria, 
was bom August 26tli, 1819. He is 
descended from a long line of eminent 
ancestry in Germany. Prince Albert 
was educated with his elder brother, the 
present Duke regnant of Saxe Coburg 
Gotha, imder the Consistorial Councillor, 
Florchutz, and at the Univeraity of 
Bonn. His studies there included an- 
cient and modem languages, history, 
the physical and natural sciences, music, 
and painting. In 1838 he visited Eng- 
land with his father, and in two years 
afterwards was married to Queen Vic- 
toria at St. James's Palace. Prince 
Albert has ever taken a warm interest 
in all social questions, and has devoted 
himself to various pursuits which have 
given him a high character amougst all 
parties. He has paid great attention to 
agriculture, and has often carried off 
the highest prize offered for live stock. 
He has a model farm near Windsor, in. 
the management of which he avails him- 
self of every scientific appliance and 
improvement. As head of the Fine 
Arts Commission, and as chairman of 
the Council of the Great Exhibition of 
1851, his services were invaluable, and 
to his exertions the nation is indebted 
for the promised exhibition of 1862, 
Prince Albert having offered to guaran- 
tee its success to a large pecuniary 
extent The Prince holds a large num- 
ber of official positions. But of all his 
titles the one which he seems most to 
value is that of President of the British 
Association for the Advancement of 
Science, to which he was elected in 
18o9. He oi>ened the proceedings of 
the Association, at Aberdeen, with an 
address which was applauded by all 
parties in the empire for its earnest and 
graceful eloquence, as well as for its tact 
and knowledge. The public appear- 
ances of his Royal Highness are always 




judicious, and he has played with rare 
discretion the difficult and elevated part 
assigned to him in this country. He 
has avoided all connexion with politics, 
without any sacrifice of his dignity, or 
any concealment of his opinions on the 
social duties of life ; and of such great 
questions as the education and advance- 
ment of the people, and the encourage- 
ment of art, science, and literature, he 
is an eminent patron. The peculiar 
perils that beset him, as the Consort of 
the Queen, were to attempt either too 
much or too little in public life. Any 
error in this respect might have sub- 
jected him to the charge of ambition or 
meddlesomeness on the one hand, or of 
insensibility or indifference on the other ; 
but from these and other dangers, his 
heart and his intellect have aided in 
preserving him, and he has gained the 
respect of all parties in the state, and 
the general approbation of the people. 
Scandal has never once breathed upon his 
name, and he has fulfilled all the duties 
of a gentleman and a citizen, in such a 
manner as to set an example to all 
around and beneath him, and to make 
the most illustrious home in the country 
among the most exemplary and the most 
happy in every relation of life. 

Wales, heir apparent to the British 
throne, was bom November 9, 1841. 
After receiving his preliminary education 
from tutors, his Royal Highness studied 
at Edinburgh and Oxford, and pursued 
the usual course of study at those univer- 
sities. His progress and excellent quali- 
ties were thus spoken of by Lord 
Brougham on a late occasion at a public 
meeting in Glasgow : — "Of the Prince 
of Wales I have only to say that — as my 
learned friend Sir David Brewster, the 
principal of that university, can attest — 
he gained universal respect and esteem 
among all his teachers and all his fellow- 
pupils. I will only add that, soon after 
leaving Edinburgh, upon a late occasion 

in last May, I found that at Oxford he 
held precisely the same place in the 
esteem of his teachers and in the esteem 
of his fellow-pupils.*' The Prince left 
England in the summer of 1860, accom- 
panied by the Duke of Newcastle, for 
the piupose of visiting Canada and the 
United States. In both countries his 
reception has been most enthusiastic. 
Carrying with him the prestige of his 
august mother, her Majesty Queen 
Victoria, the loyalty of the Canadians 
and the generosity of the Americans 
have at once been evidenced in every 
stage of his progress. On his return it 
is intended that he should enter the 
University of Cambridge. 

ALBERT, properly called Alexandre 
Martin, a French mechanic. Member 
of the Provisional Government of 1848, 
was bom at Bury (Oise) in 1815. The 
son of a small farmer, he served an 
apprenticeship as a mechanical modeller 
at the house of one of his uncles; he 
went to Paris, and was present, when 
fifteen years old, at the revolutionary 
outbreak of July, 1830. He founded in 
Lyons the republican journal, '* La 
Glaneuse," which indulged in severe 
attacks on the Government. He took 
an active part in the insurrection of 
Lyons, and was one of the chie& of the 
** Society of the Rights of Man,'' in that 
city. In 1840 he founded a popular 
journal, **L' Atelier." When the revo- 
lution of February, 1848, broke out, 
Albert, who was working as a button- 
maker, took an active i^art in the con- 
test. In his double capacity of revolu- 
tionary writer and mechanic, he formed 
a friendship with Louis Blanc, second- 
ing the propositions of the latter by his 
speeches, writings, and influence. By 
Louis Blanc's means he was placed on 
the Provisional Grovemment, and all the 
proclamations which bore his name had 
attached to it " Onvrier," to identify 
him with the class whom he was sup- 
posed to represent. Albert was named 

RpreMDtative for the depaibnent of the 
Seine tu the Cotuiitueiit AMembly. 
Amated aa so accomplioe or initigatoi 
of the attempt of the ISth May, he wai 
arraigned for the crime, but deolaied 
the taibunal incompetent, and lefnaed 
plead; condemned in CraiMqnence, 
wu aentenced to baoiahment, hut haa, 
instead, been seat to tbe Penitentiaiy 
of Toara. 

ALBONI, MiJtiwrTJL, a well-known 
vooaliat, waa bom at Forii, in the Ro- 
""g"» She received a auperior moaical 
education, and made very conaiderable 
fTogreoB in miuic in her natire town ; 
aftenrarda itndTing onder Bertollotti 
and Ruaaini, at Bologna. S~ 
dSbiU at the Communal Theatre of 
Bcdogna, whence ahe went to the La 
Mnla of Milan ; ahe af terwarda viatted 
Gennanj', RuMla, and Hnngarj. 
made her Sitt appearance before an 
Engliiih audience in the Bpring of 1S47, 
and aatoniahed those who had scarcely 
heai'd of her powers, by her supei' 
p<Hce. her careful training, and her a, 
compliahmenta. Since then ahe haa pro- 
f eaaionally visited Paria, and Deariy all the 
coutinenbd cities of note, gaining lite- 
rally "golden" opinions.' Her appear- 
ances in this counby have been frequent 
The succeu of Alboni is of course chiefly 
to be attributed to the character of her 
Toice and her talent ■« a singer. Her 
voice it a contralto of the greatest possi- 
ble extent, flexibility, and purity, and 
the rjchnen aud facility of her vocaliza- 
tion are wonderful There is no trace 
in her performaiioea of labour or study ; 
she seems to sing by inspiration ; but as 
an actress she is not so remarkable. By 
marri^e, Mdlle. Alboni, althongh she 
retains her maideo name, has become 
Harchesa di Pepoli. 

ALEXANVEB IL Albxavdeb Ni- 
OOLaswiTCH, Emperor of all the Rnssias, 
WM bom on the 29th of April, ISIS, 
ud sDcceeded Ua father Nicholas Pav- 
lowiteh on the 2nd of Uaroh, ISSfi. 



Uaving received the military education 
always given to the heir* ^ipaient of 

crats of the Continent ; and havin)^ 
moreover, been adequately instructed in 
all the branches of polite learning, form- 
ing the usual education of European 
gentlemen, he visited all the praviucM 
of his future empire. He alao made 
several tours in Italy. As hereditary 
prince, he enjoyed the entire confidence 
of his ambitious father, the late Em- 
peror Nicholas L, and was familiarized 
by that monarch with all the detalla of 
his policy and system of government. 
At one period this hereditary prince was 
upon unfriendly terms with his next 
brother, tbe Gmnd Duke Constantiiie. 
Nicholas had not failed to perceive the 
difference of disposition in his two sons, 
and so fnrriUy did the poasible results 
impress themselves on his mind, that he 
took every means to effect reconciliation 
between them. On the sudden death 
of the Emperor Nicholas — a death has- 
tened by the vexation and grief conse- 
quent upon his foiled ambition in the 
ittempt to seize npon the Ottoman 
empire — Alexander was peacefully pro- 
clainte<l in his stead. One of his first 
to end the hopeless war in the 
Crimea, before it assumed still more 
formidable dimensions, and to ratify the 
peace of Paris. His next act of doinestic 
policy proved him to be a homane and 
d man, as weU aa a prudent 
sovereign, who could see and tueasure 
the dangers of the future — an act do less 
beneficent than the emaacipatioD of the 
s empire. In this he has had 
to contend with the prejudioe* of the 
higher classes ; bis firm but conciliatoiy 
■ haa, however, effected the 
change gradually, and it is hoped that 
the opposition hitherto shown will lie 
eventually overcome, and that his kind 
intentiont may be shared by their pre- 
sent opponents. Alexander haa taken 
no active part in the teoent struggle of 




Wefltem Europe, consequent upon the 
policy and pretension of the Emperr^r 
Napr)]eon, bat has contented himself 
with watching the current <if events. 
He married, in 1841, the P*rincesa Marie 
Alexanrlrowna, daughter of Louis IV., 
(rrand Duke of Hesse, by whom he has 
had five 8r>ns and one daughter. Nicho- 

of the Tories to power he was appomted 
Sheriff of Lanarkshire, an office oorres- 
poinding as nearly as may be to that of 
County Judge in England, if the juris- 
diction of the latter had extended to all 
classes of judicial proceedings without 
regard to the amount in dispute, or to 
the distinction of law and equity, and 

las Alexandrowit^rh was liom on Se{H | to criminal as well as civil busineaib It 
temlier 8th, 184.3. The other sons are was originally intended, doubtless, 
Alexander Alexanrlrowitch, Wla<limir : that the judicial businesB of Scotland 
AIexandrowit<rh, AlexisAlexandrowitch, | should be divided fairly among the local 
an<l Sergius Alexan<ln>witch. The only i judges, but Scotch institutions, particu- 
daughter is Marie Alexandrowna, Grand i larly those connected with the law, 
I>uchefis of Russia, >K>m in 1853. j rejoice in an immunity from legislative 

ALFOKD, The Very Rev. Henry, interference, which perpetuates many 
D. D., Dean of Canterbury, a poet and 'abuses. Thus the jurisdiction of some 
Biblical critic, was l>om in London in , Scotch sheriffs is confined to a population 
1810, and educated at Ilminster (iram- ! of little more than 20,000, while that of 
mar School, and Trinity College, Cam- j the Sheriff of Lanarkshire includes a 
bridge. He has published several poetic | city of nearly 400,000 inhabitants. He 
])roductions, which have l)een well re- 1 has, however, the assistance of Deputy 
ceived, has held several University ap- Sheriffs ; his court being often one of 
poiutments, and various preferments in i appeal from their decisions. The con- 

the Church. His (ireek Old and New 
Testaments have lH»en carefully pre- 
pared. He is also the author of several 
]xai)ers contributed to serials and other 
jierifKlical publications, and his work 

sec{uence of this is that Sir Archibald 
Alison, since the date of his appoint- 
ment as sheriff, has gone through an 
immense amount of work in his capacity 
of judge. Sir Archibald is popularly 

entitled *' The Poets of Greece" exhibits i kno^-n as an historian, and his work on 
ail intimate and correct knowledge of the "History of Europe" has been 
th^' JangTiag(i. He has published many , extensively read, and has brought its 
v'fltiffwn of n<;rmr>ns, and critical me- 1 author into a world-wide reputation. 
rrioirA on matters (>ertaining to ancient \ It has been reprinted in America, and 
hist/»ry. Owing to hiH eminent talents as I translated into many foreign languages. 
n, itTfwhfr, he. was apjHiintcd by Lonl ' Sir Archibald Alison has published 
Vn\riwTnfAmf f>eari oi (Canterbury in [ other historical and ^lolitical works, and 
I Kny. \ is the author of numerous contributions 

AfJSON, Hin AHfurnAU>, Bart.,! to "Blackwood's Magazine," collected 
ftfi hii^^Krian, of S<rot<;h parentage and ! and republished under the general title 
f'ltwntum, WHM UfTii at the I'anw>nage ' of "Essays." He is firmly attached to 
llnum* of K^nlf«y, in Shrofmhire, and the principles of the Conservative party, 
highly diift.irigiiished bimwlf diirinjf his Sir Archibald belongs to the most 
f'fittit.tiffji /IK n i«tiidf'nt with the Min- ' vigorous and masculine type of Scottish 
tfiftO* 'nivrTwify. In 1 814 he was ! int<*llect Groing through an amount of 
/»IM »/» f.h/« H<-4fUh bar, and in 1 8'i.'r lnwincss far beyond the powers of an ordi- 
Hifjttnnf4>4\ ntt a*lv<K'at*» d^jnit*', an oflice nary man, his literary works are thrown 
whith h/. h<.|/| iiritj} \Hi¥K when the,,,ff^ rurrenie calarno, without revision, 
yOnii/t IM1H* inU/ pffw^r. On the retuni i without condensation, and without a due 




amount of attention to consistency, Bym- 
metiy, and elegance of diction. Before 
recent changes in the civil procedure of. 
the Scotch courts. Sheriff Alison^s merits 
as a lawyer were not known, from the 
circumstance that errors in his decisions 
regarding matters of fact, arising from 
haste in disposing of the inordinate 
amount of business thrown upon him, 
were at that time attributed to defective 
knowledge of legal principles. His 
powers as a writer have been under- 
estimated from the same cause. He 
must not be judged of by the slipshod 
pages of the '* History of Europe," but 
by some of his minor productions, which 
entitle him to a place among the best 
and purest ootemporary writers of 
English prose. Sir A. Alison has re- 
ceived many public recognitions of his 
eminent literary services. He was 
created a Ban>net in 1852, is a D. C. L. of 
Oxford, and he has held the office of 
Rector in the Glasgow and Aberdeen 
Universities. Amongst his miscellaneous 
works not mentioned above are his 
"Principles of the Criminal Law" 
(1832), "The Practice of the Criminal 
Law" (1833), "Free Trade and Fet- 
tered Currency" (1847), "The Life of 
the Duke of Marlborough" (1847), and 
subsequent editions in 1852 and 1855. 
In 1852 he published a continuation of 
his " History," being the " History of 
Europe from the Fall of Napoleon to the 
Accesrion of Louis Napoleon in 1852," 
and in the early part of this year (1860) 
Sir Archibald published another edition 
of the entire work. 

ALLEN, William, D.D., an Ameri- 
can author, was bom at Pittsfield, Mas- 
sachusetts, January 2, 1784. He en- 
tered Harvard College, and graduated 
there in 1802. He was President of 
Bowdoin College in 1820, but resigned 
in 1839. He succeeded the celebrated 
Dr. Ghanning as Begent in Harvard 
Oolite. Whilst filling that office he pre- 
pared his " American Biographical and 

Historical Dictionary," which contained 
notices of about seven hundred Ameri- 
cans, and was published in 1809, being 
the first book of general biography 
issued in the United States. It passed 
through a third edition in 1857, and was 
enlarged so as to include no less than 
seven thousand names. He prepared 
the lives of American ministers for the 
Rev. David Bogue's "History of Dis- 
senters." He also made a collection of 
many thousand words not found in the 
English Dictionaries, most of them being 
added to the edition of Webster, pub- 
lished in 1854. He is the author of 
various other works of a miscellaneous 
character, but his reputation in America 
rests chiefly on his biographical and 
philological researches and labours. 

ALMODOVAR, Don Ildkfonso 
DiAS DE RiBERA, CouNT OF, a Spanish 
general and politician, was bom at Va- 
lence about the end of the last century. 
He entered as a pupil of the School of 
Artillery, at Segova, but had scarcely 
joined the army when he was thrown 
into the dungeons of the Inquisition by 
the retrograde party. For his deliver- 
ance he was indebted to the revolution 
of 1820, the cause of which he embraced 
with ardour. In 1823, when absolutism 
was again rampant, he sought safety in 
exile, and did not return to Spain until 
after the death of Ferdinand VII. When 
he did return he rapidly rose to the first 
ranks of the liberal party, and was 
elected President of the Cortes, at the 
same time he re-entered the army (1834) 
with the rank of Field Marshal In 
1836 he became Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, under his friend Espartero, the 
Regent, and lost this office on the fall 
of that statesman in 1843. Since then 
he has remained faithful to the liberal 
cause, but has taken no active part in 
public affairs. 

ALVAREZ, Juan, a Mexican general, 
was bom in 1780, in the state of Guer- 
rero, of an Indian family, and educated 


^ ®«fiF ao^ t ^® ®ye 0/ h-f^^t ff play 

AND 15 

I Iftid the foundation of Iub future fame 
, and Bucceaa. After many stnigglee he 
. turned bia attention to literature, and 
having been luccesbful in hia first pro- 
duction, he obtained a siun from the 
Danish Oovemmeat, which enabled him 
to take an eictended tour through Cen- 
tral Europe. The publication of his 
' ' Improvisatore " at once gained him 
great reputation, and big poaitiDn aa a 
literary man was made. The limita of 
this sketch preclude the poaaibilitf of 
naming aU his works, but amongst the 
most popular, beside the "Improvisa- 
tore, " ore the foUowing, moat of which 
have been translated into the Qennaii, 
Dutch, English, French, Swedish, and 
Russian loDguagee, namely, his "0. T.," 
"Only a Fiddler," "The Two Baron- 
esses," and "To Be, or Notto Be," "The 
Glory of my Life," " Fairy Tales," "A 
Picture Book without Pictures," "New 
Stories and Fairy Tales," "A Poet's 
Bazaar," " Rambles in the Hartz Moun- 
tains," and "la Sweden." A com- 
[ilete edition of his works was published 
in Ca]>enhageu in 1854-55; and in Leip- 
zic a translation of his collected works 
has ap|ieared in thirty-six volumes. He 
has lately published a work antatled 
" The Sand Hills of Jutland." 

ANDERSON, Wiluam, LL.D., a 
Scottish divine, was bom in 1799, at 
Kilsyth, and studied at the Glasgow 
University. When about twenty-two 
yean of age he became psstur of John- 
street Church, Ghtsgow, and in this 
position has obtained great populonty 
as a preacher. The church .>ias lately 
been pulled down, and a remarkably 
fine edifice erected in its jilace, in which 
Dr. Anderson now officiates, attracting 
the Btteatioa of his hearers as much by 
the vigour of his discourses as by the 
cloqueuce of his ap|ieala. As » platform 
B]ieaker he greatly excels, and in that 
position is oftea the advocate of justice 
and freedom for the oppressed. He has 
publiohed several theological works, 


which have been well received by the 
reading public 

ANDRAL, Gabbiel, a French phy- 
sician, was bom at Paris on the 6th of 
November, 1797, and was the sou of a 
Doctor of Medicine, who destined liim 
for his own profeasioD. After p.'uaing 
through the usual course of study, he 
took his degree in 1S21. In 1828 he 
was called to the choir of Hygiene, and 
in 1830 elected Professor of Medical 
Pathology. In 1S39 he was unanimously 
selected by his coUeaguee to succeed M. 
Broussois in the chair of General Patho- 
logy and Therapeutics. As a professor 
M. Androl is highly auccesshiL The 
style of his lectures is peculiarly precise 
and ctedu*. Notwithstouduig the time 
devoted to the duties of his choir, and 
tho practioe of his professioii, he bos 
written a number of papers and works 
on special and general subjects connected 
with his favourite science. Among his 
publications are the "CliniqueM6dicaIe," 
"Cours de Pathologic Interne," "Traitf 
de I'AuBcultation Mediate et du Oxur," 
and a treatise on the treatment of typhus 
fever by purgatives. M. Andral's works 
have been extensively translated, and 
frequently republished. 

ANSTER, John, D-C-L., a distin- 
guished poet, was bom at Charleville, in 
the county of Cork, in 1793. He stuilied 
and took his degrees in Trinity College, 
Dublin, was afterwards called to the 
Irish bar, and for several years went the 
Munster circuit. In 1814 he was elected 
a scholar of Trinity College, and iu the 
some year closed a session of the Histo- 
rical Society with a speech from the 
chair, which was honoured with their 
gold medal for oratory. He has [lub- 
lished some poems, which were well re- 
ceived, and gained the praise of accu- 
rate critics. In an early number of 
"Blackwood's Magazine," Dr. Anster 
published on occountof Goethe's "Faust," 
with translated extracts. This was, we 

ANS 16 

any part of Goethe's great poem. The 
ctkuiplete tranfllation was pablished in 
ia*l&. His ** Faust" has also been highly 
admired. A small volume of poems by 
Dr. Anster appeared at Dublin in 1837, 
entitled * ' Xeniola. *' Latterly he is imder- 
stood to be exclusively occupied with 
professional studies and duties, and he 
is in receipt of a pension from Govern- 
ment. He holds an important office in 
one of the Irish law courts, and is 
Begins Professor of Civil Law in the 
University of Dublin. In 1851 he pub- 
lished "Letters Introductory to the 
Study of the Roman Civil Law.** 

ANSTEY, TeoMAS Chisholm, a law- 
yer and politician, was bom in London 
in 1816. He was admitted to the bar of 
the Middle Temple in 1839. He was 
tolerably well known by his political 
writings when he contested the re])re- 
sentation of Youghal in 1847, and was 
returned to Parliament for that burgh, 
holding the seat until 1852. He was 
afterwanls ai»pointed Attorney -General 
at Hong Kong, from which post he has 
been lately recalled. Ho has published 
works entitled ** British Catholics and 
the Now ParUament" (1841), *»A Guide 
to the Laws affecting Roman Catholics," 
••A Guide to the History of the Laws and 
Constitution of England," and has con- 
tributed political pai»er8 to various pe- 
riiHlioals. He has recently been admit- 
tiHl to the liomlMiy l»ar. 

ANTHON, Charles LL.D., an 
Anieri<'«n classical scholar, was bom in 
thn city of New York in 1797. In 1811, 
afi4«r n'wiving an excellent jireliminary 
training, )i" pnnMHxled to Columbia Col- 
]i«ttii, whure ho l>ecame l*rofessor of Lan- 
giiftg<« in 18:15. Pn)fessor Anthon has 
iwlittMl a iM!riefl of the classics, and also 
An iMliti<»n of Ixjmpribre's Classical Dic- 
iloiinry. Ho is now l^rofessor of Greek 
in (l<ilumbia ('oUrgo, and Rector of the 
Grammar H<^h(M)l attached to that insti- 
tution. Ill this country ho is best 
known by hi« edition of Horace, but he 


has not confined his attention to editorial 
labours. He has published a number of 
original works, chiefly on clasaieal geo- 
graphy, Roman and Greek antiquities 
and mythology, which enjoy a great and 
well -merited reputation in America. 

ANTONELLI, Giacomo, Cardinal, 
an Italian statesman. Secretary of State 
to his Holiness Pope Pius IX., was bom 
near Terracina, on the 2nd of April, 
1806. His father was a woodcutter. 
Antonelli was educated at the Seminario 
Romano. He was named suooesmvely 
Prelate, Assessor to the Superior Crimi- 
nal Tribunal, and Delegate to Viterlio 
and Macerata. In 1841 he was ap- 
][K>inted Under Secretary to the Minister 
of the Interior ; in 1845 Grand Treasurer 
of the two Apostolic Chambers — that is 
to say. Minister of Finance. As a 
liberal politician he at this time found 
favour with the Pope. In the Consistory 
of June, 1847, he received the Cardinal's 
hat from Pius IX. As Minister of 
Finance he was member of the councils 
established by the Pope, and was bendes 
named President of the extraordinary 
commission appointed to inquire into 
necessary reforms. Alarmed at the 
serious nature of the revolution, and 
the consequences of the liberal policy 
he had hitherto followed, he resigned 
his office, and was succeeded by Mami- 
ani, who in turn gave way to RossL 
When Pius IX. fled to Gaeta, Cardinal 
Antonelli was appointed Pro-Secretary 
of State, and after the arrival of the 
French at Civit^ Vecchia, was placed at 
the head of a special commission charged 
with the reform of the administration of 
the States of the Church. Pius IX. 
having returned to Rome, April, 1850, 
the faithful caniinal was appointed 
Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, 
an office which he still continues to hold. 
He is also President of the Council of 
Ministers. An active and energetic 
man, he exercises complete control over 
the Pope, the real character of his in- 




fluence being (liflgiuBed under a careless |eader- writer for the "Rlsforme," a revo- 
and alfable manner, which seems incom- lutionary newspaper. M. Arago joined 

patible with fimmess and enei^ of pur- 

ARAGO, Etienns, a French jour- 
nalist, and brother of the late eminent 
astronomer, was bom at Estagol, on the 
7th February, 1803. He studied at the 
colleges of Perpignan and Sor^ze, and 
afterwards proceeded to Paris, where, 
through the celebrity of his brother, he 
became a teacher of chemistry in the 

the revolutionary movements of his 
times, and more particularly those of 
1830 and 1848. After the revolution of 
1848 he was electe<l to the Constituent 
Assembly, and took his seat on the left. 
He vehemently op^tosed the interference 
of France with Rome, and having stood 
out against the acts of the President, 
now the £m])eror Napoleon, he was con- 
demned for contumacy, and sought refuge 

Polytechnic SchooL His tastes, how- in Belgium. He has since travelled 
ever, pointed more to literature than to ! much, and written several poems, among 
science. In his first undertakings he | which may be mentioned his "Eaux 

was associated with Balzac, and pub- 
lished conjointly with him **The Heiress 
of Birague," a history extracted from 
the papers of Dom Rago, ex- Prior of the 
Benedictines, and brought to light by 
his two nephews (Paris, 1822). This 
work did not answer, and the part- 
ners se{)arated. M. Arago devoted 
himself to dramatic literature, and soon, 
without adventitious aid, took his place 
among the principal vaudevillistes of the 
day. He wrote incessantly for years, 
his pieces being, with veiy few excep- 
tions, received weU by the public. They 
consisted chiefly of vaudevilles and 
comedies, interspersed with couplets, 
among which may be mentioned, "A 
Day of Troubles" (1824), "To-morrow 
is the 13th, or Sentiment and the Alma- 
nac" (1826), **The Misfortunes of a 
Fine Young Man" (1834), "Just in 
Time" (1836), and **An Invasion of 
Giisettes " (1844). He has l^esides com- 
posed several melodramas of great merit. 
His masteqnece, however, is a comedy 
in five acts, entitled ** Lcs Aristocrates," 
performed in 1847 at the Th^treFnin9ais. the stars lying l>etwevn 45 " and 80^ of 
As director of the Vaudoille Theatre, I declination. He published his obserwi- 
he did not succeed, and in 1840 was i tions in 1846, in a work which coutaius 
obliged to abandon the s^MiCidation. He j the ^losition of 22,000 stars. For many 
then became a contril)utor to the | years back Argelauder has been engaged 
"Si^le," under the assumed name of ' in ol)serving the variations in the ap- 
JolesFemey. Entertaining very decided !i>arent brilliancy of the stars, a phe- 
liberal opinions, he was afterwards a { nomenon never before his time carefully 


de Spa," published at Brussels in 

ARGELAXDER, Friedrich Wil- 
HELM August, an eminent German 
astronomer, was bom at Memel on the 
22nd of March, 1799. He at first tumetl 
his mind to the study of economical 
questions, whilst he was studying at the 
University of Kiinigsberg, but subse- 
quently departed from that jiath to enter 
the more congenial field of astronomical 
science. His progress was such that in 
1822 he was appointed assistant in the 
Konigsberg OlMcrvatory. He afterwards 
was attached to the olwervatory at A1k>, 
in Finland, where he succeeded Waldeck, 
the princi2)al astronomer; and on its 
removal to Helsingfors in 1832, Arge- 
lander followed it. In 1837 he was 
appointed princii^al astronomer at Bonn, 
which post he still retains ; and here he 
superintended the erection of an obser- 
vatory, which was complete<l in 1845. 
He has publishe<l several valuable works 
on astronomy. Continuing the Lilwurs 
of Bessel, he determined the positions of 

A U (J 



un* <tlc^•*t«Hl. Althou>;h indicateil so early 
rt« \Us' t«nu> of Tytho Bniho, 

VliiiVI.L, (iKomiK John Dououvs ; 
ToitMun. PiKK OF, a British states- 
»u»u. wt^** honx ii) 1S*J,S. He entered the , 
•\\vut% ol oorlrsiiustioal controversy in 
l.ii'A h\ piihlishin^ a "Letter to the, 
r.M'irt. Iitmi IX Peer's Son," discussing the , 
i|iiot(iou iif non -intrusion, in which he! 
lolMirntiHl the indej^endence of the i 
{ 'till IT li. In the same year he publishetl 
liii " lit'tter to Dr. CTialmers," in which j 
hr approves of some, Imt not all of the , 
incaxures which were a^lopte<l by the . 
Hi'trMMionists in>m the EstaV^lishment. ; 
III IS47 the Marrjuis of Lome succeeded 
141 hiH father's titles and offices. In 1848 , 
Jn« published "An Essay on the Fxjcle- j 
Hiastical History of ^Scotland since the 
IU'f(»rnmtion," a pnxluction originally 
nuNint as a contribution to one of the 1 
"(piarterlies," but which, haWng grown 
to<» bulky for its original purpose, was 
pnblislietl as a separate treatise. The 
W(»rk is a good defence of the Presbytery. 
In 1 8.') I he was apiwinted a Member of 
till" Privy Council, in 18^3 Lord Pri\'\' 
Sral, aii<l in 1 8r>o was Postmaster-C Jenend ; 
and again in 1859 Lord Privy Seal under 
Lonl Palmerston. In 1844 he married 
the eldest daughter of the Duke of 
Suthcrlantl, Lady Elizabeth Georgiana 
( lower. As a popular lecturer, the duke 
JM unich esteemwl. His varieil attain- 
un'utH and knowledge of the great prin- 
eiples of natural science were evinced at 
ih«' ni(»eting of the British Ass<x;iation at 
(Jlasgow, over which he presided. He 
speaks frtMpiently in the House of Lords, 
has shown considerable talent as a de- 
hater, and exhibited qualifications which 
may yet secure for him a leading place 
anuing the statesmen of the day. 

A KG YROPOULO, Pericles, a Greek 
lawyer and statesman, was bom al)out 
1 810, at Constantinople. He is the son 
of tlie late Jakovaki Argyro])otllo, Grand 
I rit-«'q»reter to the Porte, who publishetl 
A traniilation of Montesquieu's "Spirit of 

the Laws" into modem Greek, and a 
"Life of Catherine" into Turkish, which 
are much esteemed. He studied law for 
some time in Paris, and then settled at 
Athens, where he was ajipointed Pro- 
fessor of Constitutional Law in the 
University. In 1853, having been ap- 
l)ointeil Rector of the University, he 
chose as the subject of his opening a<i- 
dress, the ]>rai8e of the great Alexander 
Ma\Tocordato, one of the most remark- 
able men of moiiem Greece. A member 
of nearly* all the legislatures since 1843, 
he has been constantly in the ranks of 
the Constitutional opposition, of which 
his brother-in-law, another Mavrocor- 
dato, was the chief. In 1854 he held 
the ix>rtfolio of Foreign Affairs, bnt after 
a year's fighting against all manner of 
intrigue and animosity, he ceded his 
office to Boidgaris, without losing the 
respect of his bitterest enemies. His 
great work on municipal institutions, 
entitled ira AT/fioTiica, published at Athens 
in 1843, placed him at the head of the 
philosophical lawyers of the modem 
Hellenic race. 

ARISTARCHI, Nicolas, a Greek 
statesman in Turkey, and Chief Int<-r- 
preterto the Patriarch of Constantinople, 
was bora in that city in 1800. He 
obtaine<l, at the age of eighteen years, 
the situation of Keeper of the Seals to 
Prince Alexander Soutzo of Wallachia. 
Includeil in the disgrace of his family 
in 1821, he accom]»anied them in their 
exile to Asia Minor. His father, the 
last Phanariot Greek who held the office 
of Head Interpreter to the Porte, was 
murdered by order of the favourite 
Khalet EfTondi. The latter having lost 
favour, Aristarchi, under the protection 
of the pashas who had replaced Khalet, 
returned to Constantinople, and has 
tilled several public offices, and obtained 
the titles of a functionary of the first 
class. In his various capacitiee as a 
functionary and diplomatist his name 
has been mixed up with all the great 


Gventa in Tnrkish politica, domestic 
antl foreign, for the last qoArter of a 

ARMSTRONG, Sir William 
Georgk, C.B., an engineer, waa born 
At Newcaatle-riii-Tyne on the 26th of 
November, ISIO, and was destined for 
the legal profesaiaDi bu^ preferring 
mecbanicot studies, became partner in 
the Elawiuk works, near hia native town. 
He was one of the earlieat discoverers of 
the electricity of eteain, which was first 
observed during tlie escape of steam 
from a locomotive safety-valve. He 
has lately been l>rought prominently be- 
fore the public in consequence of hia im- 
provements in the manufacture of rilled 
ordnance, but bas long been known in 
hia profession through his general scien- 


r Will 

after wearisome «id costly ezperimeDta, 
succeeded in producing cannon of extra- 
oniiuary range. In some instances a 
shot has reached the astonishing dis- 
tance of nearly ax miles, and was won- 
derfully true in its direction to the 
target. He has been engaged by the 
Government to auperiotend the manu- 
facture of cannoj at Woolwich, and also 
manufactures a large number of guns at 
his own factory. Many of these have 
been despatched to China, where their 
value has been tested in the contest 
which, unfortunately, has bad again te 
be commenced with the " Cdestials." 
Mr. Armstrong was knitted in 1854, 
is a Fellow of the Royal Socie^, and 
a member of the Cooncil of the Civil 
Engineers' Institute of London. 

ARNOLD, Matthkw, a poet, eldest 
son of the late Dr. Arnold of Rugby, 
was bora on the 24th December, 1622. 
After being educatiid at Winchester and 
Kugby, he went to Oxford as a scholar 
of Balliol College, becoming Fellow of 
Oriel CoUege in 1845.- In 1857 he was 
chosen Professor of Poetry in the Oni- 
versity ot Oxford, and two years after- 
wards Foreign Assistant Commissioner 

I to the Royal CommissioD on Education, 
' in which capacity he visited France, 
' Holland, and Switzerland. His prin- 
cijud works are the " Strayed Reveller, 
and other Poems," and "Empcdocles 
ou Etna, and other Poems." 

ARNOTT, Neil, M.D.. on eminent 
writer on physics, was born at Dysart, 
in Fifeuhire, in 17SS. He is the author 
of several scientiKc works. He gained 
the first prize of his doss in ISOI, at the 
Grammar School of Aberdeen, and tbcu 
entered the Univeraity, where he took 
the degree of M.A. in 1S06. He pur- 
sued fats [irofesBional studies in London, 
under Sir Everard Home. Surgeon of 
St. George's Hospital. His chief work, 
"The Elements of Fiiysica; or. Natural 
Philosophy, General and Aledical, ex- 
plained in PUin and Non- technical 
Language" (1827), is one of the best 
written productions of its kind, and has 
been tranalatad into nearly all the 
European laaguages. 

ARTHUR, T. S-, a voluminous and 
highly popular American author, was 
bom at Kewburgh, in Orange Countj', 
in the State of New York, in 1809. He 
received tui imperfect education at Balti- 
more. In 1833 be became connected, aa 
agent, with a banking company in the 
Western States, but the company failing, 
he returned to Baltimore, and aubsc- 
quently settled in Philadelpbia as a 
writer of fiction. Among his princiiml 
works are, " Sketehes of Life and Cha- 
racter," "Lights and Shadows of lical 
Life," ".Leaves from the Book of Human 
Life," "Tales for Rich and Poor," "Ten 
Nighte in a Bar-room," "Anna Lee," 
" Orange Blossoms," Ac 

ASHBURTON, William Bisgiiam 
BAtUNG, second Baron, wa» born in 
1790. After having studied at Oxford 
he entered the House of Commons in 
1626, and remained a member until 
1848, when, on the death of his father, 
he was called to the Dpper House. 
During Sir Robert Peel's Ministry, from 

^^^^/.J^^"" otZTT^ C;^/'«^« 

'°«nd that fi. "*"W I. ■'^''ssioj an , / ^^'^^ / 

ARM 19 

(■vent? in Turkish polities, domestic 
niid ffireign, for the laat qiuuief ui a 

ARMSTROHG, Sie Wiluasi 
(1ei)R<]B, C.R, an ungineer, waa bom 
at Newcaatlc-oQ'Tyne un the 36th oE 
Niircmbcr, 1810. and was destined for 
tliL- lef[al profesaion; but> prtferriiifi: 
mtthaoical BtuilieH, becune jiartner in 
the EUwiuk works, near his native tovn. 
He was one of the earliest disooverera iif 
tb« electricity nf steam, vbich was tint 
oliserved during tlie escape of stenm 
from a locomotive safety-valve. He 
h/u lately l)eea Jirought prominently Iie- 
fiire the public in cnnseijiieiice of his im- 
provements in the manufacture of riHeil 
'inliiance, but has long been kniiwii in 
his ]>rofes3ion through hia general aoien- 
titic attaiamentB. Sir William hns, 
after wearisome and costly eKperimentu. 
■u<'>;ecded in producing cannon of extra- 
■inlinary ranjje. In some inntanccs a 
fhot has reached the aitonishing din- 
tauc-c of nearly aix milen, and was won- 
dfriully tnio in its direction tu the 
target. He has been engaged by the 
Ciiivcrnmeiit to superintend the manu- 
f.'Ktore of cannoi) at Woolwich, and also 
manufactiirea a latge number of guns at 
his own factory. Many of these have 
been despatched to China, where their 
value has t)een tested in the contest 
which, unfortunately, has had again tu 
be commenced with the " Celestials." 
Mr. Armstrong was knighted in 1854, 
is a Fellow of the Bsyal Society, and 
a member of the Council of tike Civil 
Engioeen' Institute uf London. 

ARNOLD, Matthew, a poet, eMest 
ti^n of the late Dr. Arnold of Rugby, 
was bom on the 24th December, 1822. 
After being educated at VTincheater and 
Rugby, he went to Qifocd as a scholar 
of Balliol College, becomiog Fellow of 
Oriel College in 1S45.. In ISST he was 
choaen Frofeasor of Poetry in the Unj. 
Tcmi^ of Oxford, and two yean after- 
wanla Ponign Auistant Commiinoner 


' to the Royal Comminsion on Education, 
ill which capacity he visited France, 
Holland, snd Switzerland. His priu- 
I'ijial works are the " 8trayeil ILeveller, 
and other Poems," and ■' Em|«docle!i 
on Etna, and other Poema." 

ARNOTT, Nun, M.U., an eminent 
writer on physics, was bom at D}-aart, 
Id Fifeshire, in 1788. He is the author 
of several scinntitic works. He gained 
the timt prize of his class in 1801, at the 
I (irammar School uf Aberdeeu, and then 
entered the University, where he took 
the degree of M.A. in I80G. He jmr- 
sued hia professioEiol studies in London, 
under Sir Everard Home, Surgeon of 
at. George's Hospital. His chief work, 
" The Elements oF Physics ; or, Katund 
Philosophy. General and Medical, ex. 
plained in Plain and Non-technical 
Language " (1827), is one of the I)oi,t 
written productions of its kind, and h.-'.a 
been trail slat ad into nearly all the 
EurO])ean languages, 

ARTHUR, T. S., a voluminous and 
highly [•opular American author, wat 
biim at Ncwliiu^h, in Orange Connty, 
in the State of New York, in 1809, He 
received an imperfect education at Balti- 
more. In 18.13 he l>ecame connected, as 
j^ent. with a banking comj>any in the 
Western States, hut the com ]tany failing. 
he returned tu Baltimore, and subse- 
qucntly settled in PhiUdel[:^ia as n 
writer of fictioa. Among hia principal 
works arc, "Sketches of Life and Cha. 
racter," " Lights and Shadows of Real 
Life," "Leavesfromthe Book iif Human 
Life." "Tales for Rich and Pot.r," " Ten 
Nights in a Bar-room," "Anna Lee," 
' ' Orange Blossoms, " tc 

ASHBURTON, William Bikgium 
Barimo, second Bacon, was- liom in 
1799. After having studied At Oxfonl 
he entered the House of Commons in 
1826, and remained a member until 
1348, when, on the death of his father, 
he was caUed to the Upper House. 
Ihmng Sir Rotwrt Peel'i Miniitiy, from 




o'' jin ittiouMitSoottiHhfiunily, tlieAytoiisi iuibucd with the spirit of Italian 

*\ \\(oii, fnuii whom sprang the ohl 
jHHi Sir Kolvrt AytoiL In 1840 he was 

nationality, in 1842 he al>andoDcd his 
fav(»iirite jtursiiits, and with his friends 

ikd I iiittiMHoUu* Scottish bar, and in 1845; Balbo and Giobcrti he made a tour 
WAV np]Niiiit(Ml IVofessor of Rhetoric and i through tlie provinces of Italy, exciting 
IWlIri* l«i'ttn»« in the I'niversity of E«lin- the revolutionary movement which 
b«rj:!». lie iH a ])rincii)al contributor to troubled the last yeara of Gregory XVI. 
** lUarkwiMKrs Magazine," in the pages i After the revolution of 1848 he sup- 
of M'liioli first appeared his ** I^ys of the ! ]>orted the cause of the King of Piedmont, 
Sooliish i.'avaliers," the twelfth eilitiun and, at the head of the Pajtal troops, 
of wliicli was ]>ublLshed in 18o9. Be- ' fought against the Austrians at Vicenza, 
hides the **Lays," his other principal ' where he served as a colonel in the 
works art*, "Bothwcll, a P«jeni,*' a | Venetian army, and was badly wounded 
vindication of the character oi Queen j l)y a ball in the thigh. Elected deputy 
Mary ; •*Firmilian, a Si»asmfKlic Tra- ' to the Saniinian National Assembly, and 
irtnly ;*' and **The Ballads of ScotlamL" i nominate*! President of the CouncU of 
lie is also part author of "The Book of i Ministers, he resigned the latter office in 
Halliwls, etiited by Bon («ualtier," and of 1852 to his political adversary Count 

a volume of admirable translations of the 

Cavoiu*. Massimo d'Ajseglio is brother 

)M>ems and ballads of Goethe, published of the Manjuis lloberto d^Azc^gUo, and 
in 1859. In 1852 he received the legal | uncle to the Sardinian Minister at the 

appointment of Sheriff and Vice-admiral 
of Orkney, which he still hoMs, its 
duties only implying an occasional visit 
to the islands. In 1853 he delivereil a 
course of lectun« in London on " Poetry 
and Dramatic Literature," which were 
well reecivett Professor Aytoim is a 
conserN-ative of the old sclKxd. 

AZEGLIO, Mas-simo Taparelli, 
Makquis d\ an Italian novelist and 

Court of St. James's. Another brother 
is Padre Lnigi Taparelli, lately Pro- 
vincial of the Jesuits for the kingdom of 
the Two Sicilies, 

B A BB AG E, Charles, a mathematician 
and mechanical inventor, was bom on 
the 2Gth of December, 1792. He entered 
at Trinity College, (Cambridge, and de- 
voted himself chiefly to mathematics 
and mechanics. The laborious calcula- 

statesman, and late Sardinian Minister ' tions necessary in constructing tables of 
to England, was Ixirn at Turin in 1801. . logarithms early called his attention to 
At the age of fourteen he was ex<?om- the value of any invention which shoulil 
municated for an assault ui>on his , substitute for mental calculation the 
teacher, who was an ecclesitostic. In more i>recise principle of mechanism. 
1810 he accomjianieil his father to Rome, Having obtained (Jovernment assistance 
occupying his time princiivally with he commenced (.observations and experi- 
painting and music. He returned to nients on the subject, and made a tour 
Turin in 1821), and uiarrj'ing the (laughter i to the Continent, with the view of 
of the great novelist Manzoni, he . studying the various pieces of mechanism 
wrote se^'eral romances. The earliest enijiloyeil in the arts. On his return he 
of thcjjc was "Ettore Fieramosca," ])ub- 1 iniblished his ** Economy of Manufac- 
lished in 18itt, which, conceived in the i tures," as the residt of the inquiries he 
Ktyle of Manzoni, and fidl of patriotic ■ had made. This work Blanqui, the 
sentiments, was received with great ' French Economist, has described as a 
enthusiasm. His next romance, "Niccolo hymn to machinery. It shows how the 
di Lajipi," published eight years after- division of labour is carried out in 
wards, became equally popular. Deeply manufacturing industry, and how the 




;:^reatest results are to be obtained by the 
Huiallest expon<liturc of means. In 1828 
Ba]>l»aj:e ol)tained at Cambridge the 
mathi^matical chair of Trinity (College, 
U> which he ha<l earned his title by 
numerous contributions to scientific 
l»eri«xlioaLi and transiictions. In 1825 he 
WTDte a i>ai>er on the use of calculating 
machines, and in 1833 the apparatus 
which was made in accordance with the 
views he ha<l i>ublished was found to be 
»o far i>erfect in its construction as to 
pr«>4luce every result which its ingenious 
invont4)r could have desired It was at 
once a calciUating and printing machine, 
and its vahu; may be better estimated 
frrjm the fact, that a table of logarithms 
of all natural numl>er8, ranging from 1 to 
100, 000, was pnxluced, free from error, 
by its agency. Being manufactured on 
unerring mechanical princijiles, those 
miKtaki^ incident to mental exertion 
were entirely done away with. Its 
value and bearing on even the practical 
work of navigation and engineering was 
greater than those engage<l in practical 
details have any conceptitm of. At the 
outset. Government, <m the recommenda- 
tion of the Council of the Royal Society, 
sanctioned grants for the construction of 
the machine ; but from an injudicious 
economy in resi^ect to exj^enditure of 
]»ublic money, its ojierations were ended 
when ap]>arently reaching a triumphant 
issue. Mr. Babbage is a Fellow of the 
Royal Society of London, of the Royal 
Society of £dinbiu*gli, of the Royal Irish 
Academy, and of the Cambridge Philo- 
8o[>hical Society, liesides being associated 
with the chief scientific societies of 
Euroi>e and America. He has been a 
voluminous author. His "Reflections 
on the Decline of Science in England" 
apix^ared in 1830, in which tlie author 
seemed to aj>prehend that scientific re- 
sexirch had seen its l^est days in Great 
Britain, an idea which he has without 
doubt withdrawn since the publication 
of that work. He had i»reviously pub- 

lished several treatises on various sub- 
jects, but his great work is **The 
Economy of Manufactures and Ma- 
chinery," already referred to, wliich has 
reached live editions in this country, 
l)een translated into most European 
languages, and reprinted in America. 
His uTitings embrace an extensive range 
of learning and research, but tlie j>rin- 
cipal works and papc'rs from his hand 
relate to mathematics and mechanics. 
He was one of the founders of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, and of the British 
Association for the Advancement of 

BACK, Sir George, D.C.L., F.RS., 
an English navigator, was bom at Stock- 
port, Cheshire, on the 6th of Novemljer, 
1796. He commenced his naval career 
as midshipman in the Arethusa, and was 
present in several naval engagements, 
in M'liich he never failed to acquit him- 
self with distinction, but did not display 
his peculiar aptitudes until he was em- 
ployed in various expeditions to the 
Arctic regions. Early in 1818 he was 
selected to accom|>any Captain Beechy, 
Captain Buchan, and Lieutenant (after- 
wards Sir John) Franklin, on the first 
modem voyage of discovery beyond 
Spitzbergen. In 1819 he again joined 
Franklin in the ex|>edition from Hudson's 
Bay, and coastwise, east of the Copper 
Mine River. The journey }x>ingi)erformed 
in winter, gave Sir George Back an opjKir- 
tunity of displaying a courage and endu- 
rance under fatigue of inestimable service 
to his party. On his retum in 1825 he 
was made commander. He accom]>anied 
Franklin bevond the M *Kenzie river in 
1825, on a sitecial mission of discover^', 
during which his great abilities were again 
exhibited by his having undertaken an 
exploration on his own account. In 18.'i3 
he commanded an expedition in search of 
Sir John Ross. He jiublished an account 
of the exi>edition, under the title of "Nar- 
rative of the Arctic Land £xi)edition to 
the mouth of the Great Fish River, and 




along the Shoivs of the Arctic Ocean in &c. Since 1S47 he has been the editor 
lS;W-5." After being ma<le poet-captain, of the periodical entitled ** Annals of 
he pn.ioeeiieii in H. M.S. Terror, on an Heidelberg." to which he has contri- 
exiHHlition to Frozen Strait and Re^Hilse bated valuable papers. Some of his 
Bay, with a view of prosecuting dis- contributions to the ** Universal Ency- 
iH>very in the Arctic seas from Regent's clopftdia of Ersch and Grabes," have 
Ca|)e to Oaix> Turn-again, fivm which he been published sej^arately. 
came l»ack in October, 1837. The BAILEY, Philip James, an English 
exiHHlition lUd not pwve successfuL poet, was bom at Nottingham, April 22, 
After Knng ft^r a long time shut up in 1816. After receiving the education 
the ice, he and his crews returned in a afforded by the public schools of his 
mttst miserable plight, fn>m the effects of native town, he proceeded to Gla^ow, 
iH>ld and hunger. He wrote a narrati%-e to study at the universitj- of that city. 
o( the voyage, which is clear, elegant, His first poetic production was entitled 
and interesting. It is entitled "Xarra- . "Creative Imagination," which was 
tivei»f the ExiHHlition of H.M.S. Terror, highly creditable to him, considering 
uiulortiikon ^»-ith a view to Discovery on his youth. Having followed the legal 
the Arctic Shores in 1836-7." It was profession for some time, his taste for 
]uiMi8luHl in 18«*<8, and he was knighted literature, and the promptings of innate 
in the same year. He attained the rank ]K)wer, im^ielled him to abandon it for 
of Itear- Admiral in 1857. He is a the thorny path of letters. \Vhile keep- 
memlHT of several foreign societies, and ing ** terms," and studying in the cham> 
lijis receivetl for his geographical dis- bers of a conveyancer, he s]>ent much of 
coveries the g^^ld medals of the Geogra- his time in the libraries of Lincoln's Inn 
)>hicnl S(K*ictie8 of l^aris and London. ! and the British Museimi, and there ma- 
B.VKHR, John' C^hrlstiax Felix, a tured the tastes which were to determine 
distiiiguislied scholar and idiilologist, was his future career. He retumetl to Not- 
iMiru at Parmatadt, on the 13th of June, tingham, where his father was a pro> 
171)8. Ho studied in the University of prietor of a local paj^r, in the literary 
Heidelberg, when^ he was Assistant management of which he assisted for 
TrofcHMor, and afterwanls Titular Pro- many years. His ** Festus," published 
fessor, <jf I'lasHic Literature. Subse- ' in 1839, was highly successfuL It was 
qucntly (1833) he was appointed Cus- , considered one of the most daring poems 
to<lier-in-l'hief of the Librarj^ Head • of the age when it first ap^ieareti His 
InHpcctor of the Lyceum or College, and thoughts were remarkably original, and 
Inntly. in 1845, Din'ctor of the Philolo-|his imaginative clothing of them bold 
gical Seminary. The Grand I)uke of an<l graceful. Mr. Bailey has since 
\\tn\vu conferrwl on him the title of Pri- ! published the ** Angel Work!," " The 

vati' Aulic Councillor. He is a most volu- 
niinouN author of historico -philological 
Workn, the mowt remarkable of which 

Mystic," and the ** Age," a satire. 

BAILY, Edward Hod«es, K.A., an 
English scidptor, was 1)om at Bristol, 

are hiH edition of *' Herodotus," pub- 10th March, 1788. Although intended 
IJHhed in 1832 and 1833, at Leipzig ; | for commercial pursuits, he seemed from 
••A IliHtory of Koman Literature," of I an early age to have had a taste for mod- 
wliirh iht? thinl edition was pu))lishod elling, and the fact of his father l>eing 

nt r/ulMrulie, in 1844; "A History of 
nonum Literature during the Carlo- 
vifi^iim Teriml ;" a work on "Komano- 
rhriwtian Theology," published in 1837, 

an eminent ship carver may i>o8sibly ac- 
count for this. Having been introduced 
to Flaxman, that artist rendered young 
Baily every assistance in his power, and 

B A I 2.1 

n rapid WM his ■progteet, that he ob- 
tained X prize from the Koyal Academy, 
and BooD became a lucceaaful candidate 
ftn- papular favour. Hii "Eve at the 
Fountain " has been univenally admired, 
and ita reproduction in platter haa made 
it a f»niili«r object in moat parte of the 
kingdom. After engaging as moifeller 
for Menra. Rundell and Ca, the gold- 
Binithi, Mr. Baily produced hii "Her- 
cules caating Lycidsa into the Sea," by 
which he secured the high opinion of | 
competent critics. Hia works hare 
been very niuneroos, and without de- 
touting the whole the following may 
be 8]iecially mentioned ; — "Apollo dis- 
charging his Attowb," "Maternal Love," 
"The Three Graces," "Psyche," "The 
Girl preparing for the Bath," and 
hia various public statue* of eminent 


BAINE.S, Edwasd, an English jonr- 
noliat, politician, and M.P., was bom 
at Leeds in I306l He is seco 
the late Mr. Edward Bainea, who may 
be said to have founded the "Leeds 
Mercury" newspaper, and who repre- 
sented Leeds in Pariiament for many 
years. The subject of this notice waa 
educated at the Protestant Dissentera' 
Grammar School, Manchester. At an 
early age he became hia father'a asaiat- 
ant in the management of the journal, 
then his partner (1827), and ultimately 
the chief proprietor. One of the leading 
principles of the paper hBS been oppori- 
tion Ui all schemes for State interference 
with the education of the i>oor. 
twenty-two years he haa been President 
of the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' 
Inititatee. In poUtics he is a decided 
UberaL advocating Free-trade, the Ballot, 
an extension of the franchise in counties 
and boroughs, complete civil and reli- 
gion* hbraty, tiie total aboUtion of 
Church rates, voluntaiy and religious 
education, and Uie principle of non- 
intervention in continental wan. Mr. 
Bainea has published "The History of 

the Cotton Manufactures)" "The Life 
of Edward Bainee," his father; "A 
Visit to the Vaudois of Piedmont ; " 
" The Woollen Manufactures of Eng- 
land ; " and some minor work*. He i* 
a Justice of the Peace and Deputy- 
Lieutenant for the West Riding of 
Yorkshire. He was returned to Parlia- 
ment by bis native town at the general 
election of 1839. 

poaer, was bom in Dublin, in May, 
1808, At a very early age he allowed 
a great talent for music He received 
some preliminary instruction from Mr. 
Meadows, band-master of a regiment 
stationed at Wexford, which was fol- 
lowed by lessons from hi* father, and 
C. E. Horn, the celebiated composer. 
During a brief coarse of study, he made 
wonderful progress as a violin player, 
and when aiiteen years ot age ai'iieored 
at the theatre of Dniry Lane in the 
0[>era of " FreiachUtE." He remained 
there only one year. In 1825 he set out 
for Italy, where he madehii firstattempt 
■B a composer, writing for the o]iera of 
La Scala a piece entitled "lApeyrouee." 
In 1827 he remoi-ed to Paris, where, 
under the name of " Bolfi," he met with 
great success as a baas singer, with 
Malibran and Sontag. He returned 
again to Italy, and wrote a long series 
of 0}>eras for Milan, Paris, and London. 
In 1845 Mr. BaUe became director of 
the Italian Opera in London. It is a 
curious fact that the operas of this com- 
poser have succeeded butter in Germany 
than in any other country. " The 
Bohemian Girl," and the " Quatre Fils 
d'Aymon," had an immense succesa at 
Beriin. Mr. Bolfe ia a disciple of Paiir 
and BosBini, and to some extent re- 
aembUa Auber in his productions. His 
al ojieras are ' ' The Bohemian 
"The Siege of Rochelle," "The 
Daughter of St. Mark," "The Enchan- 
treas," "The Maid ot Honour," "Lea 
Puits d'Amoor," "The Jewess," "Le* 


V*»irthv Kiln irAymrin/' **The Rose contributed to the "North American 
»•! f.Miik" **S,iUiiclla," &c. Review.*' His articles inserted in that 

I'lANt'Udl'T, (tK«JK(;E, was born at })enodica] have been collected and pnb- 
NVi.ivt'NtiT, MrtMHaj'hiisetts, U.S., in lished at New York, in 1855, under 
I.S<H), Mil ^riuluatcnl at Har\'anl Col- the title of "Miscellanies, Essays, and 
l«*Ki». Mil th<'n travelled in Eiiroi»e, ■ Re\-io\i-8." 

Nhhlh^l ut (iottiM;;en and Berlin, under BARAGUEY, D'Hiluers Achille, 
thtMMi riiiitiunt Hcholars Heeren and ' Oomte, Marshal of France, was bom at 
Ni'liliniPM-r, uiid in 1820 had coufem^il Paris <in the 6th September, 1795u In 
H|»«iii him the diploma of Doctor in Phi- 181*2 he entered the army, attaining in 
liMophy. After making the **p:aud 1 81 «> the rank of captain, when he em- 
tour, " \w. returned to America in 182± bnuHxl thei»arty of the Restoration. In 
Mr uiw orij^niially destined for the pid- j 1827 he became a lieutenant -colonel, 
pit, but a love for literature pn)ved the and in 1830 took part in the expedition 
HtiiMipT attraction. For a brief ]>eri(Kl . to Algeria. His success against the 
ho ln'ld the jKwt of Greek Pn»fes8or in Aralts ^ned him the confidence of the 
liurvanl College. After publishing a : g<»vomment of Louis- Philipi)e, and as 
Volume of jMiems, ami a translation of the reward of his valour he was made a 
*• II(>eren'H Reflections on the Politics i»f heuteuaut-generaL Attached in 1832 
Ancient tireece," Mr. Bancroft devoted to the $chiK>l of St. Cyr, as second in 
hiniHelf to tlie duties of an instructor of ' command, he repressed the republican 
youth, oiKjning a great public sch(K>l at movement, and acted with an energy 
Nortliamjyton, to which he attracted a which met yvith. the ajiproval of govern- 
Very eminent staff of professors from , meiit He was promoted to be field- 
(jermany. The iuter\'al3 saved from i marshal on 29th September, 1836, and 
professional duties were devuted to | took command of the school and of the 
8U|)erinten<Ung and j^ublishing a transia- i guar^ls towanls the end of 1840. In the 
tion of "Heereu's Histories of the States , follo^-ing year he filled the situation of 
of Antiquity, and the Political System « Governor-General of Algeria, and headed 
of Euro|>e and its C»»lonies." Between i many exixnlitions agamst the Arabs, 
the years 1834 and 18oo. Bancroft s great j under the onlers of the Due d'Aumale, 
work, ** The History of the Uuiteil States," I He was Insjtector-General of Infantry 
was publisheil, in which the subject was j from 1847 until tlie revolution. On the 
treated in the sjiirit of that advanced \ fall of the citizen king in the revolution 
criticism which has reformeil the style of j of 1848, the Provisional Government 
modem historical narratives. It placed j ai>pointe<l him to the command of the 
itsauthor at once among the great ^Titers I military diWsion of Besanfon. He re- 
of tlie age. Having given efficient assist- • placed Changarnier in the commanil of 
ance to the inilitical i>arty Ui which he ! the army of Paris, and concurred in the 
bolongtHl, in 1838 he o))tained a i)ost in > accomplishment of Uiecoup (THat on the 
tlie Custom House. In 1846 he was a]>- ' 2ud Deceml>er, 1851. For this sen-ice 
]>ointed Minister to Great Britain, and | he was uominateil a member of the 
inconsequence of this appointment he | " commission consultative. " In tlie war 
resided in London until 1840. In that { with Russia, as Commander-in-Chief of 
year he again returned to the United the Baltic ex])edition, he was for his 
States, ha>ing received the most gratify- 1 services elevated to the tlignity of a 
ing testimonials of esteem from all with ' Marshal of France, and received the 
whom he had come in contact. Mr. Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour. 
Bancroft has published poems, and has He took an active i)art in the camiMugn 




of 1859, wbeu France leaded with Sar- 
dinia to free Italy from the domination 
of Austria. 

BAR ANTE, Am able Prosper Bru- 
niKKK, Baron de, a French statesman 

church or state. Barl>i», at an early age, 
rebelled against these precepts. In 1830, 
after his father's death, he went to Paris 
to attend the law classes, and had an 
opportunity of manifesting his ]>olitical 

and historian, a memlM?r of the French ; opinions at that i>eriod of excitement 
Academy, and formerly a peer of France, : He had inherited a considerable fortune 
wad })om at Iliom, in Auvergne, on 10th from his father, and he had thus ample 
.hine, 1782. After studying in the ' leisure to devote his attention to the 
Military' Si'huol of Elfiat he entered the ' business of secret societies. During the 
Ecole Pol^^echnitpie, where he remained whole reign of Louis- Philipi>e he was 
for three years. In 1802 he entered . constantly engaged in consi^iracies. In 
uivon his ailministrative career, as as- . consequence of an unsuccessful attempt 
si^tant to the Minister of the Interior, : to overthrow the Government, he Mas 
and 8u)»e<pieut]y l>ecame auditor to the condemned to death, a sentence which 
Council of .State. In 1809 he {Hiblished, was commuted to i)eri>etual confine 
anonymously, a work on ** The Litera- . ment. 
ture of France during the 18th Century,'* i him in 
V. liich was such as to excite Madame de ' liberty. He then founded a club, which 
Staers enthusiasm for the author, and | took his name, in which the doctrines of 

The revolution of 1848 found 
prison, and restored him to 

to call forth the eidogium of Goethe. 
Hti subsi;<iuently held various oflicial 
ap{>(^>intmeHtii both on home and foreign 
service, autl was elected a Mem)>er of 
the Aca<lemy in 1828. He is the 
anthor of a niiud>er of paj>ers in the 
** Rcx-ne Fran^aLne,'* and the **Bio- 
^O^phie I'niverselle.'* In 1822 he pub- 
lished **The Commons anti the Aristo- 

socialism were superaddetl to republican- 
The name of Barblis soundeil in 


the ears of the iKJOjJe like the tocitin 
against monarchy and the bourgeoisie. 
On the occasion of the insurrection of 
May, 1849, Barb^s was sentenced to 
'* deportation." In October, I8.>4, a 
letter written to a frienil, by no means 
intended for jmblicity, and expressing a 
cracy,'' and subscfjucntly his greatest j desire that Wctory should remain with 
work, **Thc Histt^ry of the Dukes of: the French army in the Ciimean war. 
Burgundy, of the House of Valois, from | liappened to fall into the han<ls of the 
l.'JG4 t^> 1477." In 1851 ho produced a French Government. The Empei-or 
*'Hi»tor\' of the National Convention;" I thinking that a mark of resjject for 
in 1808 the *' History of the Directoire such a man as K'lrl^ might imjiart a 
Executive;" in 1857 and 1858 two 1 character of jwpularity to tlie im|>erial 
vohunes of "Historical and Literary i jwdicy, took ml vantage of the ojUMirtu- 
Studies," "The Parliament and the nity to set him at liberty. Barlx'S, 
Fronde ;*' and in 1859 ** The Life of | wounded in his iM>liticAl feelings at re- 
Mathieu Mole." I ceiviug a favour uncalled for, hasteneil 

BAKBES, Armand. a French jwU- '■ to denoimce the secret meaning of the 
tician and revolutionist, was l>om at ■ measure, ]mblicly refused to take ad- 
the P<nnte • il - Pltre, in the island of i vantage of it, and after a most energetic 
(>uada]oU|>e, in 1809. At an early age ! i)rotest, left France a voluntary exile. 
he was brought to the south of France. • He is now a resident at the Hague. 
He went to school at iSor^ze, in the « BARING. Sir Francls Thorniiill, 
dei»artment of Tarn, where the instruc- ' Bart. , son of the late Sir Thomas Baring, 
tion given inculcated absolute submis- ; and ne])hew to the founder of the cele- 
aion to the iK>wer8 that be, whether in j bratcd bauking-houBe which bears hia 




name, was bom in 1790. He was educated 
and 4;radiiateil at Clirist Church, Oxford. 
He entered the House of Commons in 
182li, as member for Portsmouth. In 
IKK) he was appointed a Lord of the 
Tivasnry, which office he held till 1834. 
In June of that year he was promoted 
to be Joint-Secretary of the Treasury, 
but resigned with the ministry on King 
William IV. suddenly calling Sir Robert 
Peel to his councils in November, 1834. 
In April, 1835, he was again Joint- Se- 
cretary of the Treasur}', iierforming the 
duties of this office till 1839. From 
that year to 1841 he was Chancellitr of 
the Exchequer; and from 1849 to 18o2, 
First Li»rd of the Admiralty. 

BARING, TnoMAH, a capitalist, 
statesman, and memlx^r of Parliament, 
was l)om in 1800. He is brother to 
Sir Francis Baring. He became mem- 
ber for Yarmouth in 1835, retaining his 
seat till 1837. He contested the re)>re- 
sentation of London in 1843, but was 
defeated by a small majority. In 1844 
he was returned for Huntingdon. His 
political creed is conserv-ative, but he 
never tigiu^l prominently as a i>oli- 
tician, and he derives his chief reputa- 
tion from his connexion 'wiih those 
financial transactionn and mercantile 
speculations in which hiM family has 
long taken Kuch an iiii^Mtrtant jiart. 

BAKLOW, Peter, a physicist and 
mathematician, was Ijom at Norwich in 
1770t Edurated exclusively in the 
schoolH of his native town, he applieil 
himself 7A'alt»UBly to the study of mathe- 
matics ami ]>liy8ics, and soon obtaineil 
reinitatiou as a man of science. He was 
Mathematical Master in the Royal 
>lilit«iry Acatlemy at Woolwich for a 
pcriinl of forty years. In 18*21 Mr. 
Barlow wn)te an article which was pub- 
lisliiHl in the ** Philosophical Transac- 
tions," to which he aften»'anls l^ecome 
A regular contributor during upwanls of 
fiftiH'U ycarM. In 1823 he was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society, from which, 

in 1825, he received the Copley medal 
for his researches in magnetism. In 
1829 he was admitted a member of the 
Astronomical Society of London, and a 
corresponding member of the French 
Academy. Among the most remarkable 
of his books is his ** Mathematical and 
PhiloHophical Dictionary," which at the 
present time is very scarce and of great 
value. His '* Treatise on Materials 
used in Construction*' reconls a great 
variety of exjteriments he ha<l made with 
various materials employed at the dock- 
yani at Wool'^^ich. He is also the 
author of several imiH>rtant articles in 
the *' EncycloiKedia Metro]K>litaua,'' and 
of an elal>orate and imjMrtant work on 
tlic ** Machinery and Manufactures of 
Great Britain,*' published in 1837 ; of a 
'' Treatise on the Force and Rajiidity of 
Locomotives," published in 1838, and 
of various Government reitorU on sub- 
jects of the same kind, of the highest 
value OS coutrilmtions to the literature 
of applied science. His ''Kssay on 
Magnetic Attraction*' was one of the 
first works in which the ]ihenomena of 
magnetism were distinctly enunciated. 

BARNES, Albert, an American 
divine, was 1)om at Rome, in the State 
of New York, on the 1st of December, 
1798. He gnuliuiteil in HamUton Col- 
lege, in 1820, and afterwanls pursuing 
his theological studies at Princeton, he 
was ordaineil to the ministry', and in- 
stalleil pastor of the l^»sbj'terian church 
in Momstown, New Jersey, on the 2oth 
of Fcbniary, 1825. Fronj this place 
he romovetl to Philaileljihia in 1830, 
where he still remains, as minister of the 
tirst Prosbj'terion church in that city. 
Mr. Banies has a high n^putation in 
America as an chxpient i»reacher. He 
is the author of a volume of "Prac- 
tical Sennons ; " a volume of sermons 
entitled **TheWayof Salvation," lirst 
publishetl in London, and itlited by the 
late Dr. Henderson ; and of a vohmie on 
*' Slavery. " Besides other simiUu- works^ 




he has pa1>lished "Notes*' on Job, Isaiah, 
and Daniel, and on the entire New Testa- 
ment, in eleven volumes. These "Notes" 
have all been re[>rinted in England and 
Scotland. Of the ** Notes" on the New 
Testament, more than four hundred and 
fifty thousand copies have been sold in 
the United States, and it is supposed 
an equal or larger number has been dis- 
posed of in this country and in France. 

BARN CM, Phineas Taylor, a well- 
known American ** Showman," was 
bom in the village of Bethel, in Con- 
necticut, in 1810. From an early period 
he exhibited an aversion to work of the 
ordinary kind. After an unsuccessful 
attempt in the newspa]»er line, he had 
a share in the management of a stroll- 
ing theatre. Sulnequently he obtained 
jtossesaion of an old negress, whose pro- 
I»rietors represented her as having been 
the nurse of George Washington ; she 
was said to 1>e 160 years of age. Bar- 
num adopte<l the story, and by means 
of his tact as a showman, and by the 
dint of advertising deWces, induced 
thousands in every city and chief 
town in America to flock to see the 
early guardian of the Liberator. On this 
side uf the Atlantic, pathetic pictures 
were dra^-n by the anti-slavery orators 
of the degradation thus cast u\x>n the 
memory of the great general of the 
Republic. After the death of his old 
negress, Bamum I)ought the American 
Museum, in New York, and soon brought 
it into high re])ute and prosi>erity. His 
next great **canl" was General Tom 
Thumb ; but his most successful enter- 
prise was the engagement of Jenny 
Liud, for a series of concerts in the 
United States, Canada, and Cuba, by 
which he claims to have netted £70,000 
(sterling. On his return to the United 
States, he was elected president of a 
bank, l>ecame largely interested in real 
estate in Bridge^xirt and vicinity, and 
promoted agriculture and enter])rising 
thrift generally, with all the zeal of 

a public-spirited and benevolent citizen. 
In 1855 he published his "Autobio- 
graphy,'' a candid and amusing relation 
of the innumerable arts by which he at- 
tained his notoriety or celebrity as the 
"Pnnce of Humbugs." In 1856 hia 
fortune was frittered away, or greatly 
imperilled, by disastrous business com- 
plications, and in 1857-58 he gave lec- 
tures in London and some of the pro- 
vincial cities of England, on his methods 
of obtaining notoriety as a stepping- 
stone to making money, &c, drawing 
crowded audiences and replenishing his 
treasury. The last advices represent 
him as again in pros))erou8 circum- 
stances, with firm health and unflagging 

BAROCHE, Pierre Jules, a French 
advocate, was bom at Paris, 8th Novem- 
ber, 1802. His father, who had realized 
a small competency in trade, died when 
he was seven years of age, and he was 
sent by his guardian to the Lyc6e Char- 
lemagne, where he distinguished hioi. 
self. He was called to the bar on the 1st 
of April, 182^ and soon acquireil profes- 
sional distinction. On the 27th Novem- 
ber, 1847, he was elected member of the 
Chamber of Deputies for the Cliarente- 
InfC>rieiu*e. He took, however, no pro- 
minent jxirt in the debates of the period 
immediately preceding the fall of Louis- 
Philippe, but he steadily opposed the 
ministry of Guizot. He signetl the Acte 
: d' Accusation drawn up by Odilou Barrot 
on the 23rd February, 1848, in which 
they were accused of violating the rights 
of citizens, and of systematic corrux>tion. 
The purjiose of this manifesto was to 
effect a change of ministry, not to pre- 
cipitate a revolution, and M. Baroche 
nu&y have regretted the step he took. 
He owetl nothing to the revolution of 
February, and in opposing the radical 
party he was guided solely by lii« con- 
victions. His active interierence in 
I>olitical afl'airs dates from the 8th May, 
1848, when the Provisional Government 

EAR 3 

]ininli'tt "vcr ito powtr to Ou NrtionaJ 
A)^s-'ml>1y, At this j^riod the Btnigglc 
lift«i'iii thf rf]inlilioau p«rty mhI llnmn 
wliii wiiiLilit t<i ■•litain ii sCrong gi>voni- 
nii-iit. li:i'l rctrhoil thf timrteat intim- 
sity. Ai.|-iiiitfil Pr.n7iivur-(Mo6na ot 
tUf t'.mrt ..f Piuw, ht u 

,i(;.-iinst the i 
iii'h-<l variaiisi 

with :in cricrfy and olidity 

iit.-iilf liitii an iilijcet of inta 

tin- miliinl party. On the 

Ikt. is.)]. M. Baroche m 

I'rt'xl'k'iit iif the Canital 

Iiii^itinii in tt'hich he hw ' 

nl'ility, bict, anil cniMwityl 

a tinnncHii ■>[ chluriicter do 

frmii liin |>r<>fESBiiinal can^r, u ... 

oiTtainly li"! not tiw to tie vi rt 

iliHtiiK'tion. In LSrhl he wi ^ 

with tlie Cranil CnisB o/ th of 


llAltKOT, CAMfLLE Ht*cihtm 
Ouii.oN', a French statesman, was bom 
at Vil]c|Krt, in the ilepartment of Lcw^re, 
'in the liKh.Iuly, 1791. Hk father, a 
(■i)u»iiic\uiii9 French Btatcsman, wa* a 
m.'Uilii'r 'if the lepalative budy in 1S04, 
and the only iluputy who |>roteBted 
a^ain!<tt1icc9t»b1iahmentof tb«: Emjiire. 
At thf early age of nbetwn, M. Odilon 
Hnrrot was called to the liar. At this 
xtaix 1ti his cariwr, he manifested an 
iitt^icliincnt to the BourboDB, which ho 
luu since juHtifleil on the ground that 
Loids XVIII. was at the time the re- 
|>re8cntative of constitutional govern- 
nient as o|>po(«d to the absolutism of the 
Empiri". Uissatisfied with the policy of 
the j^ivernment, he grailually pasaed 
over to the opposition, and soon found 
hinixelf iu the ranks of the liberals, 
he.ided by Dupont (de I'Eure) and La 
Fayette. The courtn of justice were the 
arena in which be iinit displayed his 
|>oIitical ]ire|>osscsBious. His marriage 
with the f.Tand-daughtcr of Labbey dc 
I*om]>i{^res 1>oimd him still more closely 
to the hbvntl caiue. He wu appointed 

9 BAB 

Pmndent of the Soviet; "Aiihi tn^lifflll 
I'ludvra." II«lookaii«otiTB|«ttte to 
rrvnlntliin iif July, I83D, lla «■) 

which for lome doyi ptvfonnKd tin- fatt> 

tioliH of a pmviiiiODs] (^oi-cmiiwint, anj 

i* tiaiil to havd hail a pnwiTTtitl mtlvMm 

m prorenting any c«iopr<nnilH» Imh^ 

I with th« elileT bntaeli, uti 

ng the Orleana (amUy <m ttt 

Uudor the ixitrona^ of Dnpcnt 

re) and U Fayptto. M. BmtoI 

I 1B31, im TvpTvunxtMivB for fht 

r' [lilt of tlii> Enr«. and at the agi 

intrredtbrCbatiibcrDf IlepotiM 

I he was divtiacd to di«l4iigiUA 

ta a sjieaker anlil the fall ol Uia 

,—.«- Titary system in Franoo. Bii 

lint ech waa a reply to M. tiouBti 

who 1 just been sucri^ded in tte 

ministry by M. Latitte. Me nfiisiil tm 

this occasion to admit that pro y tKt g ^ 

should be oonaidered the only elMonl . 

qualiScatinn, and maintained tlmt the 
oliject» of the government called into 
exiiitenee by the revolution of .luly, ought 
not to he to perpetuate the reBtoration, 
but to create liberal institutions, and, bd 
far as poasibte, to absorb the repDblicma 
party by widening the foundatjona oi 
monarc-bieal inntitiitions. It would lie 
im'iHiBsible within our limits to present 
even a summary of tbe events in the 
active pilitical life of Odilon Bamiti 
When the number and class of pahlia 
fimctionaries rutumed to the Chamben 
in 1 846 called general attention to tlM 
prevalent comiption, and to the aeoet^ 
sity of electoral reform, he took A 
: part in getting up the dcmonstr^- 
in which all shodea of the lilxval 
lemocratic opposition joined, 
was the hero of the ' ' bani|uet8 r& 
■«"ofI847. He faded, howerei 
understand the nature of the tempe 
bad raised. He expected nothing 
a change of ministry, and * 
perfect good faith when he spok 
fidelity to conititutioDa] monan 




thrtiight ho held the reins and could 
dir€*ct the movement as he chose. The 
revolution of February was a bitter dis- 
appointment to him. Under the new 
order of things he was returned repre- 
sentative of the D^jHirtement de TAisne. 
On the 27th Septeml>er, 1S48, he made a 
speech on the question of twochaml^ers, 
which was very warmly applauded, but 
which failed to convince the assembly. 
After the election of Louis Napoleon as 
President of the Republic, >L Odilon 
Barrot t4X>k office as Minister of Justice 
and President of the Council, in the ab- 
sence of the President of the Republic. 
The resignation of the ministry on the 
3 1st Octol»er, 1849, was the signal of the 
rui>ture l>etween the Legislative Assem- 
bly and the adherents of Louis Naix>leon. 
l>n hearing of the dissolution of the As- 
si*mbly, he was one of the first to pro- 
test and proceed to the Mairie of the 
arrondissement to proclaim the fall of 
the President Seeing, however, that 
his efforts were quite imavailing in avert- 
ing the destruction of liberal institutions 
in France, he from that time ceased to 
hold any office under government, and, 
indeed, altogether altandoned pubHc hfe. 
BARTH, Sir Hknry, a scholar, tra- 
veller, and author, was l)om at Hamburg, 
18th A])ril, 1821. After receiving in- 
struction in Hamburg he studied at 
Berlin, where the natural sciences, 
general geography and history, classics, 
and the history of antiquity in its bear- 
ings on the development of modem 
nations, engaged his attention. He tra- 
vellefl in Italy and Sicily before taking 
his degrees at BerUn in 1844, on which 
(occasion he wrote a remarkable thesis, 
r>n the Commerce of Ancient Corinth. 
He went to London in the following year 
to study Arabic The same season he 
visited the Mediterranean coasts of 
Europe, and commenced those explora- 
tory expeditions which have since so 
much increased our knowledge of African 
geography. The goyemment of Morocco 

would not allow him to pass through its 
territory, and he therefore proceede<l to 
Tunis, whence he penetrated into 
Sahara, and crossed the vast deserts of 
Northern Africa to the Nile. In 184(5 
he crossed into Arabia, S^Tio, and Asia 
Minor ; in 1847, travelled through 
(Ireece; and in 1818, returned to Berlin. 
He then l>ecame a private teacher at the 
University, and delivered lectures on 
African geography and tlie history of 
the Greek colonies. In the same year ho 
pubhshed his ** Exploratory Ex])edition 
to the Coasts of the Me<literranean in 
1845, 1846, and 1847." He ha<l just 
completed his work, when news reachetl 
him that the English government were 
fitting out an expedition to Central Africa. 
Bunsen and Petermann recommended 
that he shoidd join it. He did so, and 
with his countryman Overweg and Mr, 
James Richardson, he set out from Lon- 
don in December, 1849. The expe<lition 
lasted four years, during which Barth 
travelled 12,000 miles. On his return, 
in 1855, he drew up a narrative of his 
journey, under the title of ** Travels and 
Discoveries in North andCentral Africa," 
publish(>d in Germany in 1855, and in 
England in 1857. Tliis work is one of 
the most important contributions to 
modem geographical science, and the 
researches it reconls have iilaced Sir H. 
Barth among the most illustrious of the 
geographical explorers of our times. 

BARTHELEMY, Auguste-Mar- 
8EILLE, a French poet, was bom at 
Marseilles in 1796. He first acquired 
a reputation in his native city by a 
satirical poem against the Capuchins. 
The satirical powers of BartliC'l^my fre- 
quently brought him into contact with 
the government of the Restoration, and 
the revolution of July, 1830, found him 
in prison. Restored to liberty, he sang 
the victory of the people, along with 
M. M£ry, in a poem dedicated to the 
Parisians — "L'lnsurrection," which be- 
came very popular. From Louis Phi- 



lii>pe he received a pension of 1.200 Taylor, the ComnuBsioner on the part of 
franc8 ; which, however, he sulwequently the United States to survey the boundaiy 
lost, from not in all things yieliling to line between the United States and 
tlie inspiration of the gi»vemment. Mexico, in conformity with the treaty of 
The latest effusions of the poet^s genius Ouadaloupe Hidalga He organiied a 
are war songs celebrating the triumphs large coq« of engineers, and with them 
of the Crimea. As a writer he is held saileil from New York in August, 1850. 
by his admirers in France to exhibit the Landing on the shores of Texas, he fitted 
vehemence of Juvenal, the bitterness of out his ex^iedition, which^ including the 
Gill>ert, and the causticity of Boileau ; officers, assistants, and an escort under 
but the praise would seem rather exag- Colonel Crony, numbered more than 300 
cerate<l, for numbers of his ]>n>«luctions men. With this party he traversed the 
bear eWdent marks of haste, though vast regions of prairie and desert between 
rarely deficient in pungent sarcasm and the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific. In 
rhythmical exactness. oi>nnexion with the survey, Mr. Bartlett 

BARTLETT, John' Russell, an exploreil a large portion of Texas, New 
American ethnologist, traveller, an<l Mexico, &c. His various journeys ex- 
author, was l)om on the 23nl of Dctober, tended over a distance of 5, 000 miles, and 
I80oy at Pn)videnee, in Rhotle Island iK^cupied nearly three years. The results, 
He receiveil his e<Uication at Laoville embracing observations in astronomy, 
Academy, New York, and at various jjhj-sics, and natural history, -were pub- 
schools in Canada. On lea>-ing school lisheil first in 1854, and afterwards in a 
at eighteen, and after filling several , more extended form in 1857-8, at the 
mercantile situations and taking a pro- ' exi)ense of the American Government, 
minent place in prt»moting literature and On his return from this expedition in 
science in Rhotle Island, he removetl, in 18.>4, Mr. Bartlett took up his residence 
1837, to New York. On taking up his . in Pnn-idence, and was elected Secretary 
resilience in this city, he enterml a large of State of Rhode Island, which ofiSce he 
mercantile firm as a luirtner, but the has since tilled. His published works 
great commercial crisis which 8«M)n after are ** A Dictionary of Americanisms,** 
crusheil so many houses, and letl to 8vo, which has been translated into 
a susjK^nsion of 8i>ecie i»ajTnents by the Dutch ; ** The Progress of Ethnology,'* 
banks involved him in the general ruin. 8vo ; " Reminiscences of Albert Gal- 
Three years after he detennineil to latin;'* ** Personal Narrative of Explora- 
ombark in the book tratle, to which he tions and Incidents in Texas,New Mexico, 
was attracte«l by his taste for literature, California," &c., 2 vols. 8vo ; ** Official 
an<l, in partuershij> with Mr. Welfonl, Dcsi^itches and Ct»rresiK)ndence con- 
ho carried on for ten years this business nectwl with the United States and 
with success and MiL Mr. Bartlett Mexico Boumlary Commission,*' 8vo, &c 
meantime devoteil himself to historical \ BASTIDE, Jules, a French author 
and ethnological studies. He was for and journalist, was lx)m at Paris in 
many years the Secretary of the New, ISOO. After studying at the College of 
York Hifitorical Society, and in con- Henry IV. , he entered the school of law, 
lu'xion with Alln^rt Gallatin founded but ultimately l>ecame a woo<l merchant, 
the American Ethnological Society, of , He took an active part in the opposition 
wliicli he was also the secretary. In , to the Restoration. In 1830, after 
1S41) he finally relinquished business, ' making a conspicuous figure on the 
and retuniing to Pmvidenco the f(»llow- barrica^les, he protested against Louis 
ing yuai-, was ap|>ointed by President l^hilipj)© being raised to the throne. 




Taking part in the disturbances of the 
5th and 6th of June, 1832, on the occa- 
sion of the funeral of General Lamarque, 
he was obliged to seek an asylum in 
EnglancL In his absence he was con- 
demned to death, par contunuux ; but on 
his return to France, two years after- 
wards, he underwent his trial and was 
acquitted. He then became editor of 
the *' National," an appointment which 
he held for several years. On the 6th of 
May, 1848, he was appointed Minister of 
Foreign Affairs by the Executive Com- 
mission; a post in which he was con- 
tinued till the 10th of December, by 
his intimate friend General Cavaignac 
While in office he advocated a tem- 
l)eratc republicanism, o])posed socialism, 
and did all in his i>ower to promote the 
English aUiance. After retiring from 
the '' National'* in 1844, Bastide, with 
several of his friends, started the ** Na- 
tional Review, " and about the same time 
he wrote an ela1)orate essay on the 
"Fortifications of Paris," published in 
English in the '* British and Foreign 
Review," and a nnmlier of political, 
philosophical, and scientific articles for 
Didot's **Encycloi>^iie Moderne." He 
is the author of a treatise on ** Public 
Education in France," a ** History of the 
French Religions Wars," and a work 
]>ubliMhe«l in Brussels in 1858, entitled 
"The French Republic and Italy." 

BAUER, Bruno, a German scholar, 
historian, and critic, was l)om at 
Eisenberg, in the Duchy of Saxe-Alten- 
berg, on the 6th of September, 1809. 
He is the son of a painter on porcelain, 
who settled in Prussia in 1814. Having 
studied in the Colleges and University 
of Berlin, he was received as Doctor of 
Theology in 1834. In 1839 he was 
named Professor at Bonn ; but having 
advocated opinions inconsistent with the 
purposes of the chair, and 1>een prohi- 
bited from proceeding with his lectures, 
he returned to Berlin, and there entered 
upon a series of critical and historical 

labours which have placed him in the 
highest rank of German scholarship. At 
first he devote<l himself chiefly to Bibli- 
cal criticism. Like Fauerbach, and all 
the new philosophical school of Ger- 
many, he made an attempt to reconcile 
theology and philosophy. His most re- 
markable works written at this period 
were ** Doctor Hengstenberg," published 
at Berlin in 1839 ; ** The Prussian Evan- 
gelical Church and Science," published 
at Leipsic in 1840 ; ** A Review of the 
Gospel Narrative," and a "Review of the 
History of St John." The consequence 
of the views expressed in these works 
was an open rujiture with the Church. 
A work which he meant to pubUsh at 
Ziuich in 1843 was seized by the Swiss 
Government on account of the i>eculiarity 
of views expressed in it. It was entitled 
** Christianity Unveiled," and contained 
a complete digest of his theological 
opinions. After this period Dr. Bauer, 
forsaking theology for a time, devoted 
himself to literary and historical studies, 
and produced several valua)>le works. 
The most remarkable of these were, 
"A History of Modem Times sub- 
sequent to the French Revolution " 
(1843 and 1844), *' A History of the 
CHvilization and Enlightenment of the 
Eighteenth Century " (1843, 1845), **A 
History of Germany during the French 
Revolution and the Reign of Nai)o* 
leon" (1846), and several other works 
connected with recent politics. Within 
the last ten years he has returned to 
Biblical criticinn, and published a long 
series of works, the most remarkable of 
which is his "Criticism of the Epistles 
of St. Paul," of which the second edition 
api)eared in 1852, in which he vainly 
attempts to show that these writings are 
not the productions of the usually re- 
ceived canonical authors. He now holds 
a high rank among the thinkers of the 
new philosophical school in Germany. 

BAVARIA, Kino of. {See Maxi- 
milian IL) 


B A X 



BAXTER, William Edward, a | Crosse of Taunton, who was enabled to 

nienil>er of the House of Commons, was I reproduce in the laboratory some of those 
horn in Dundee in 1825. After being gems and other jiroductB which are 
educated therv.>, and at the University of | found in nature, by means of weak bat 
Edinburgh, he bi>came a partner of the long-continued electric currents acting 
firm of Edwanl Baxter and Son, foreign j on mineral solutions. As a philosopher 
merchants in Dimdee. At an early age i M. Becquerel has greatly contributed to 
he travelled over a great part of £uroi)e ! an exact knowledge of the cause of elec- 
and the United States. In 1 855 he was , trie iihenomena being developed in the 
returned to Parliament for the Montrose I voltaic battery, and of the thermo-electric 
district of burghs, as successor to Jr>8e])h ' arrangements which have since been ex- 
Hume. His jtohtical sentiments are of tensively employed for the purpose of as- 
the advanced li1)eral class, embracing certaining and measuring slight changes 
extension of the suffrage and vote by I in the temperature of bodies. In 1837 
l>allot : he also advocates unsectarian ! he received the Copley medal, and was 
national eilucation. He is chiefly remark- 1 electe<l a corresi>onding member of the 
able as one of the few home-bred Scotch , Royal Society of London. His scientific 
members who, understanding Scotch i researches contributed to the Academy 
subjects, venture to take a i»art in the ' of Sciences at Paris have had an im- 
discussions of the House of Commons. | portant influence both in an industrial 
He has written and published ** The | and social )x>int of view. Becquerel is 
Tagus and the Til)cr" (1848), and ' the author of the following works: — 
** America and the Americans" (1850), ! "A Treatise on Electricity and Mag- 
tr)gether with some minor works, all ! netism,'' in 7 vols., 1834, 18401, 1847; 
In^longing to that light and amusing I ** A Treatise of Physics in its Connexion 
deiHuiment of literature to which our | with Chemistry and the Natural Sci- 

French neighbours give the name of 
** Impressions de Voyage." 

BECQUEREL, Antoink Cksar, a 
French chemist, was bom at Chlltillon- 
Rur-Lrjing, in the department of Loiret. 
Having studied at the Polytechnic 
School, he l)ecame, in 1808, an officer -1856; " A Brief History of Electricit}'," 
of Engineers, and served in the Spanish 
campaign of 1810. In 1815 he left the 
army, and having a decided taste for 
experimental science, turned his atten- 
tion to electro-chemistry, and other 
branches of electrical science. To him 
we arc indebted for a vast insight into 
the action of electric forces in nature, 
and the science of chemistry has by 
means of his researches been greatly 
extended, and the cause of the produc- 
tion of mineral bodies to a large extent 
satisfactorily explained in his researches 
on the chemical action of electricity. 
The ideas first suggested by M. Bec- 
fjuerel have been since amplified by Mr. 

ences," 2 vols., 1844; "A Treatise on 
Climate," 1vol.. 1845; "A Treatise on 
Mineral Manures,'* 1 voL, 1845; "A 
Treatise on Terrestrial Physics and 
Meteorology," 1 vol, 1847; **A Treatise 
on Electricity and Magnetism," 3 vols.. 

1 vol., 1858. 

BEDEA U, Marie Alphonse, a French 
general, was bom in 18(^ Having stu- 
died at St Cyr, he enteral the army, and 
distinguished himself greatiy during the 
Belgic cami)aign in 1831-32. In 1836 
he went to Algeria, and within little 
more than four years rose to the rank of 
(reneral of Brigade. In Algeria he was 
engaged in a perpetual succession of com- 
bats with the Arabs. Being victorious, 
he organized the province, and as the 
reward of his services was named a 
General of Division. On the return of 
the Duke d*Aiunale to France, he be- 
came Governor of Algeria. In 1851 




Bcdeau was one of the generals arrested 
by Louis Napoleon and confined in the 
prison of IlanL In common with his 
(:ompani(»ns in arms, he was subsequently 
not at liberty. As he is known to be a 
devout Roman Catholic, it was reported 
not long since that he had taken orders, 
but he has contradicted the rumour. In 
the crisis at Neufch&tel he offered his 
8t.T\-ice8 to the Swiss. 

BEECHER, Miss Catherin-e Es- 
TTIRR, an American authoress, the eldest 
daughter of Dr. Lyman Beecher, was 
l»om on 6th September, 1800, at East 
Hampton, in Long Island, where she 
re.sideil for about ten years. Her early 
Ofhication was received at Lichfield 
After leaving school she experience<l a 
st^vere shock by the death of Professor 
Fisher, of Yale College, to whom she 
was l>etrothed. A life of activity was 
required to ameliorate her distress, aud 
in 1822 she opened a female seminary 
at Hartfort, Connecticut, where she 
remained for ten years. During that 
period MissBeecher published a "Manual 
of Arithmetic," and several elementary 
)>ooks of instruction in theology and 
mental and moral philosophy. In 1832 
she accomi>anied her father to Cincin- 
nati, and was for two years engaged in 
teaching ; but failing health obliged her 
t«> resign her connexion with the insti- 
tution of which she had been at once 
the ornament and the head. Miss 
Beecher soon after devised a plan for 
female Christian education, to be pro- 
moted through a National Board, with 
normal schools and competent teachers. 
For many years she has pursued this 
object with untiring energy ; it has been 
the purpo«ie of her life ; it has induced 
her to write, to travel, and to exert all 
the influence of her active intellect 
throughout the United States. Her 
scheme has been often laid before the 
public in detached works, among which 
may be cited, ** Domestic Servants," 
**The Duty of American Women to 

their Country," **The Housekeeper's 
Receipt Book," ** The True Remedy for 
the Wrongs of Women," aud a * * Treatise 
on Domestic Economy. " Recently Miss 
Beecher has published a work on **Phy- 
si(dogy, and the Condition and HaViits of 
American Women," and the first volume 
of a course on "Theology and Moral 
Philosophy, " in which she ventures to 
depart from the theology of Calvin. 

BEE(.'HER, THE Rev. Charles, an 
American clergyman, is son of the Rev. 
Dr. Lyman Beecher, and pastor of a 
church in Newark, New Jersey. He 
has published a work entitled "Tlie 
Incarnation ; or. Pictures of the Virgin 
and her Son," with an introduction by 
his sister, Mrs. Beecher Stowe (1849); 
**A Review of the Spiritual Manifes- 
tations" (1853), and "Pen-Pictures of 
the Bible" (1855). When his sister 
visited England and the Continent, 
during the height of the popularity of 
** CTncle Tom*s Cabin," he acconipanie<l 
her, afterwards contributing largely to 
her work, ** Sunny Memories." 

BEECHER, Rev. Edward, D.D., an 
American author and divine, the eldest 
son of Dr. Lyman Beecher, was bom in 
1804. He received the princijtal part of 
his education at Yale College, where h« 
graduated in 1822. He studied divinity 
at Andover and New Haven, and was 
appointed a tutor in Yale College in 
1825. Subsequently he was elected 
pastor of the Park -street Church, Boston, 
an office which he filled for five year^^, 
and which he resigned in 1831, to dis- 
charge the duties of President of the 
Illinois College, Jacksonville. He re> 
taincd the latter post for thirteen years, 
retiring in 1844. In 1840 he was 
called to the charge o£ Salcm-strect 
Church, Boston, where he mimstere<l 
for ten years, and is now pastor <i£ 
a chiu*ch at Galesburg, Illinois. He has. 
published the "Conflict of Ages," 
"Papal Conspiracy," and "Bai>t£uu> 
its. Import and Modes^" 




BKETHER, Henry Ward, an 
Anu»rionn author and dmne, is another 
»<»n of tho Ilov. Dr. Lyman Beecher. 
Mr wjw lM»m at Liclifiekl, Connecticut, 
•In no i»4th, 1813. He graduated at 
AnduTHt College, Massachusetts, in 
\H'M, and studitnl theology under his 
fniluT at Lane Seminary, (.HncinnatL His 
lii-Mt Hcttloment as a minister was at 
Luwn'noehurg, Indiana, in 1837, where 
ho roniftinwl for two years, and then re- 
moved to Indianaj^olis. He continueil 
in the latter charge for eight years, 
at the end (►f whicli, in 1847, he was 
invit<Ml to the pastorate of the church of 
whii'li he still continues minister. He 
XH hM to have the largest uniform con- 
gn»gation in the United States; he is a 
|M»j»ular lecturer, and is moreover deter- 
niiiuHlly opjHvsed to the institution of 
ulavery. Besides occasional atldresses, 
he has published a volume of '* Lectures 
to Young Men,'* which has attainetl 
imnu'nso poimlarity. He edited the 
** Plymouth (Collection of Hymns," and 
was one of the founders of the '* Inde- 
IM'udent," a religious newspaper, pub- 
liMJHMl in New York, to which he has 
hvru a constant contributor. Two 
volunu'8 of liis articles have Ijeen col- 
lected and j)ubli8hed under the title of 
the "Star PajHjrs," his contributions 
iM'ing well known by the signature of an 
aHterink. Since the spring of 1859 his 
morning and evening sermons havel>een 
regularly n*jM)rttHl and published each 
week in the "Indejwndent,*' and "Ban- 
ner of Light." Many of his works have 
bi'en reprinted in Englanil, and, under 
the title of ** Life Thoughts," have en- 
joyed great ]>oj)ularity. 

BKKdlKK, LvMAX, D.D., anAmeri- 
ean rU-rgyman, and father of the distin- 
guished jHTsons noticed in the preceding 
nienjoirH, was born at New Haven, Con- 
niHtieut, OetolHjr 12th, 1775. He gra- 
d(nit<d at Yale College in 1797, and 
•tudied theology under President 
J) wight. In 1798 he was ordained 

pastor of a church at East Hampton, 
Long Island, and in 1810 he removed to 
the charge of the first church at Lich- 
field, Connecticut. There he continued 
about sixteen years, a deyoted and 
active minister. In 1826, at the time 
when Unitarianism was attracting con- 
verts in various districts of New Eng- 
land, Dr. Channing leading the way 
to desertion from the ancient Puritan 
faith. Dr. Beecher was chosen pastor of 
the newly-established Hanover-street 
Church, in Boston. Under the circum- 
stances, his ministry was necessarily, to 
a considerable extent, controversial, and 
he entered upon it with a full sense 
of his responsibility, throwing himself 
into the conflict with equal ardour and 
ability. In 1832 a theological seminary 
was founded at Cincinnati, of which Dr. 
Beecher was invited to take the direc- 
tion ; a position which he accepted, and 
for ten years retained, adding to its 
duties the pastoral charge of the second 
Presbyterian church. His learning, 
decided views, and stirring eloquence 
had a i>owerful effect on the population 
of the West ; for he was thoroughly in 
earnest, and known to take an active 
part in the promotion of temperance 
and every great philanthropic movement 
of the day. In 1842 he removed to 
Boston. He has since remained there 
without fixed employment, although 
remarkably vigorous in mind and body 
for a |>erson of his years. In the cause 
of temperance he has written very 
effectively. His collected works have 
been published in three volumes, under 
his own su[)ervision. Mr. Beecher is 
the father of nine children, who have all 
diHtinguished themselves in literature, 
and by their exertions in the abolitionist 
cause. The best known are those whose 
memoirs immediately i»recede this. 

BEKKKR, Emmanuel, a German 
scholar and philologist, was bom at 
Berlin in 1785. He studied at Halle, 
under the celebrated Wolf, and in 1807 




was appointed Profeasor of Greek Lite- 
rature in the University of Berlin. Hav- 
ing s]>ent Bonie time in Paris, he returned 
t4> Berlin, and published the first of his 
works, an edition of ** Plato," in ten 
volumes. In 1815 he visited France 
and Italy, with his colleague, Gsschen, 
to prejiare a '* Corpus Inscriptionum 
Gnucanun," and to decipher the manu- 
scri|>t of Gaius, discovered by Niebuhr. 
He afterwards made a tour through the 
Crerman and English libraries. His re- 
searches were diligent, and his conclu- 
sions, when given to the world, were 
found eminently accurate. He has pub- 
lished various important editions of 
Crreek works, among which may be enu- 
merated his "Attic Orators" (Oxford, 
1823), "ThucycUdes" (Oxford, 1821), 
and '^ Aristophanes" (London, 1825). 
More recently Bekker has devoted lus 
attention to Pn)ven9al literature, and 
has published in the Berlin reviews a 
series of articles on the chief works in 
this and other cognate dialects of South- 
em Euroi)e, which possesses the highest 
merit. New editions of Plato, of Homer, 
of Thncydides, of the Attic Orators, of 
A ristotle, and of Tacitus, and numerous 
(tther works, are the results of his learned 

BELCHER, Sir Edwaio), an English 
navigator and author, was 1)orn in 1709, 
of an old English family, which for many 
yean occupied a high j)osition in the 
administration of the affairs of the Ame- 
rican colonies. Having joined the navy 
in 1812, he served with honour in several 
im]M>rtant naval actions, in 1819 became 
a Lieutenant, and in 1829 was made Com- 
mander. Havingafterwardsl>een engaged 
in various ser\4ces on the coasts of Af- 
rica and Portugal, he commenced a long 
voyage in the year 1836, being absent 
for nearly six years. On his return he 
published a highly interesting account, 
entitled **A Narrative of a Voyage 
Round the World, on board the ' Sul- 
Iihur'" (London, 1843). In 1842 he 

was promoted to the rank of Post-Cap- 
tain, made a Comi>anion of the Bath, 
and received the honour of knighthood 
for services rendered in the Chinese sea&r 
In 1843 he returned to the Chinese seas, 
and was engaged with fearful odds against 
liirates off Gilolo, and wounded. He at 
this time visited Labuan, rendering Sir J. 
Brooke most valuable assistance against 
the pirates infesting the Malay Archi- 
I)elago. He published an account of 
his labours during this period in a nar- 
rative of a '* Voyage to the Eastern 
Archi|)elago during the years from 1843 
to 1846." In 1852 Sir Edward com- 
manded the Arctic expedition sent iu 
quest of Sir John Franklin, which, how- 
ever, turned out unsuccessful, and oii'iug 
to the dangers which beset the vessels, 
he was compelled to abandon them. In 
1855 he published an account of his ex- 
l)edition, under the title of **The Last 
of the Arctic Voyages ; " an imi>ortant 
work, of which the scientific part was 
entrusted to a number of able natural- 
ists. In addition to the volumes refer- 
ring to the voyages, which are of high 
scientific im])ortance. Sir K Belcher has 
jiublished various works of more strictly 
])rofc8sional interest, and of great ]>rac- 
tical value, among which may be men- 
tioue<l a '* Treatise on Practical Sur- 
veying" (London, 1835), and works r>u 
the navigation of the rivers Douro and 

BELGIANS, Kino of the. {S^.e Leo- 
pold George Christian Frederick.) 

BELL, Henry Gla^ssford, a poet and 
Scottish lawyer and judge, was bom at 
Glasgow on the 8th of Noveml>er, 18<>5. 
He is tlie son of the late James Bell, an 
eminent advocate. He was educated at 
the University of Edinburgh, where he 
gnuiuated, and was called to the Scot- 
tish bar in 1832. His taste for litera- 
ture was early evinced, but he rendered 
it subservient to the practice of his )>ro- 
fession. Before passing advocate, he 
published a *'Life of Mary Queen of 


ScotA,** which appeared originally in ' were commissioned; the Monimient of 
** Cuusta]>le's Mifjcellany." lliia work \ Wellington between Peace and Ww, in 
frrew rapitlly in public favour, and eili- 1 the T^oudon Guildhall ; and the statue 
tion fdllowed edition until a))4>ut tifty ' for *' Armed Science," at Woolwich, all 
thou.s;ind copies were exhausteiL The ' large works in marble. His latest pro- 
style is elegant, the narrative clear, the ' ductii«i8 are the ** Guards* Memorial of 
descriptions graphic. At an early age Waterloo,** consisting of four coloseal 
he i>ublishiHl a volume of }HK.*try entitlinl bn)nziY figures, on a granite pedestal ; 
'* Summer and Winter Hours,** and a and the memorial to those officers ami 
miscellaneous volume (.>f priMc and verse, ' men of the Artillery who fell in the 
with the title of **My Old i*ortfolit».'* Crimea, to }>e erectetl on the parade at 
B«»th tliej*e lN)oks have Ikh-'U long out of Wo«)lwich. To his chisel we owe "The 
print. He liko^ise established, and fur lialx^ in the Wood,** and **Andro- 
»ome years e<lited with markinl suci'esis, mcnla.'* Mr. Bell has not confined his 
the ** Edinburgh Literary' Journal/* a attention excliisiyely to sculpture, but 
weekly ]K'ri(Klical which obtained a wide has also made designs for fountains, 
circulation. Mr. Bi'll was a])]N>inted dome«tic objects, &a, which have met 
First >5heriir Sulwtitute for Lanarksliire, with high praise fwm Art critics, 
at (ihiMgow, in 1830. He takes a wann I BELL, Robert, an English author, 
inten.*>t in every movement calculateil was lK>rji at Cork in 1800. He is the 
to inipi'ove luM native city ; and there is Hon of an Irish officer. He resided at 
no eli'ort made tow:mls advancing the tirst in Loudon, afterwards in Dublin. 
Hiicial well-being of the cttmniunity ' He is the author of the ** History of 
which he w not found advt vat iiig with Uiissia,** in three vols.; of the condud- 
that tnuhtof eliMpience, the language of ing vtilimies of Sir James Mackintosh's 
the heart. We need »k'arcely nay that. ** History of England,** and Southey's 
he is the author of ]HH'tical i>iiHVs which : ** Lives of the Admirals ; '* the ** Lives 
have found a ]»lace in every »chiK»l ct»l- j of English Poets,** two vols., in **Lard- 
h'ction. but M'hich have been so long ' ner's Cycloiwedia ; ** of the "Memorials 
familiar to um, that we are often teniptinl of the Ci>-il War," two vols.; ** A Lifo 
to think of the author as belonging to of (ie«»rge Canning;** and "Wayside 
a i»;tst generation. j lectures through France, Belgium, and 

UELI^ John, an Englir*h scidptor, (Jermany.** Mr. Bell has also written 
was iHtm in Norfolk, in 181*2. In his several tales and novels of which the 
various ppnluctions Mr. Bell has evi- i **l^'ulder of Gold,** and "Hearts and 
denced a desire to strike out an original Altars," are the best known and most 
i.oui-se by the exercise of his own in veil- widely ]K)imlar, as well as numerous 
tive faculties. In 1837 he exhibititl the dnunatic pieces, including three tive-act 
"Eiigle Slayer,** which has lH.*en j>n>- conieilies, "Marriage," "Mothers and 
mmnceil by comiHiteiit critics to l>e hi« Daughters,*' and "Temper.** An eru- 
iK'st work. Four years later he ]>ro- • dite and accurate writer, Mr. Bell has 
duci'd his "Don ithea," which has K'cn Ih'Cu largely connected with current 
eoi>ieil in |K)rcelain, aiyl has met with ' liteniture and criticism, and a constant 
very high praine f n)m tht tse who have n* it ci >iit r il tutor to the quarterly and monthly 
had the opiMirtunityof studying the other ]teri<Klicals. Originally editor of the 
proiluctions of the author. Among hi8 , *» Atlas" newsi>ai)er, and the "Monthly 
works are statue» of "Lonl Falkland,*' , Chronicle Magazine,** he is also eilitor 
"Sir Robert Walpole," now in the of the "Annotateil Edition of the Bri- 
Houses of Parliament, for which they ' tish Poets^** a work on which great 




labour and reaoarcli liavc been ex- 

BELL, TnoMA.s, an English naturalist 
and author, was bom 11th October, 1702, 
at Poole, Dorsetshire. He was educated 
in his native town and at Shaftesbury. 
He entered the medical profession in 
1814, at Guy*8 Hospital, was admitted 
a member of the College of Surgeons in 
the following year, and in 1817 he be- 
came a lecturer at (iuy's HospitaL For 
eleven years he was a member of the 
Council of the Zoological Society, and 
for about eight years he acted as Vice- 
President. He was appointed Professor 
of Zoology in King's College, London, 
iu 18:^ In 1828 he l>ecame a Fellow 
of the Royal Society; in 1839, 1841, and 

1847 was chosen one of the Council; in 

1848 was elected Secretary, which office 
he held until 1853; and has subsequently 
l>oen a Vice-President of the Royal So- 
ciety for live years. He has been Presi- 
dent of the Ray and Linno^an Societies, 
and an Honorary Fellow of the College 
of Surgeons since 1844. He is the 
autht)r of a number of papers which 
have ai)i)eared in the Proceedings of 
those societies with which he has 1>een 
so long identified. His larger works 
are on British Reptilia (1829), British 
Quadrupeds (1836), British Crustacea 
(1853), and the Fossil Crustacea of 
Great Britain (1858). A new edition of 
*' White's History of SellK)me," with 
numerous additional letters, is announced 
as being now in preparation by Mr. 

BENDEMANX, Edward, a German 
jtaintcr, was bom at Berlin, December 3, 
181 1. He received an excellent literary 
education, but art was his true vocation. 
In 1831 he exhibited in the Berlin Exhi- 
tion **The Mourning of the Jews," the 
subject being taken from the 137 th Psalm 
— **By the waters of Babylon we sat 
down and wept" In 1833 he produced 
hia '* Two Young Girls at a Fountain," 
accounted one of the best works among 

those purcliase<l for the Westphalian 
Society of Arts. His next, and perhaps 
his most perfect work, was ** Jeremiah 
on the Ruins of Jerusalem," a colossal 
I)ainting, which procured the artist a 
medal of the first class from Paris in 
1837. This picture occupies a promi- 
nent i>lace in the Gallery of the King of 
Prussia. Between 1835 and 1837 Ben- 
demann painted the following pictures : 
— "Harvest," for the Society of Arts at 
Berhn ; '* The Shepherd and Shei>- 
henless " (of Uhland's |>oem), for Count 
Raczenski's collection; and "The Art 
of Painting at the Font of Poetry " (Die 
KUnste am Brunnen der Poesie). In 
1838 he was ap[K>inted Professor in the 
Academy of Dresden. He there com- 
pleted a series of wall-paintings in the 
halls of the Royal Palace ; a third haU, 
which was projected by the king, not 
j having been carried out Al)out the 
same time he produced "Nansikaa," an 
oil- (minting, in the possession of the 
King of Prussia, and an a(|uarelle of the 
same for Mr. Thomjison of Belfast In 
1859 he was appointed Director of the 
Academy of Dusseldorf. His last pro- 
duction is a small oil-painting, entitled 
" Ulysses and Penelope," which was 
only completed a short time ago. Ben- 
demann in all his works exliibits the 
characteristic excellences of the Dussel- 
dorf school, its accurate drawing ami 
skilful composition, its wealth of inven- 
tion and ])oetic feeling. But to these 
he superadds a profound acijuaintance 
with nature, and a grace which arc spe- 
cially his own ; and he is one of the few 
painters of the school to which he l>e- 
longs who have been equally successful 
in UiUemtx or genre^ and in the grand 
historical style. 

BENEDICT, Jcuus, a German 
musical com^xxser and pianist, was bom 
at Stuttganlt in 18()5. He is the son of 
a banker in that place. At an early age 
he showed a great taste for music, re- 
ceived lessons from Hummel, at Weimar, 

nnil wlit-n fifteen ftars i>f age beomi! 
till- i.u[iil (.f the ifl-tat Weber. H* 
l>L'Oniiic iifttTWanls miiifl;^ director at 
San I'nrl", in Naiile* In IBSfll after « 
sliKit yisit to Stiitty.-init and Berlin, 
wlirn- h<- ini-t with considerable mctwM, 
In- first wpiit tr> Pari!', and tiiHn reinnj- 
iil t» Naplm. Ill 18.15. at ttw iutMuM 
i.f till- l.iU- MilniL>. Mftlibran ■--^---• 
UmiUi fur thi- first time, * 
t'npngemf ut by > 

N:i],l..,. , 

tioxed 1 

r yiinng Lablach' 
that town. TliU ojM-TS. hav 
i-ivul Vfry faviiural>!y, l_ 
p[il!ag(ini-iit as coniliictiir of b.. 
Kutl'o in l^>n<luii, whither, attca 
ni'iiitli!)' rt-aiik-nce in Paris, he tsniuvnd 
in IKHi, nnii has «vt<r sinoe rmnaiood. 
Ill ISi'lS ht- iirodnccd his fin 
<i]H'r.-v, "The Gii«y'K Wsmiiift" which 
i-npidly tilitnini^il a success for which it 
w!is iiuiilitnl to its (lower, beniitv. and 
-Iratuatic <xi;flU-nce. "Thf Brides nf 
Veuic.-,"' .111(1 "The Cniaa.ierti," M- 
i.>v,i-.l. Ill l8.TOhuaoc(irapanie<lJenDy 
Lind ti> AmeriL-B, as piiinist and con- 
■tiict<>r, and iiliarcd in that gifted lady's 
triuni|ii]s. Fur muiy years Benedict 
han Im-n tlic direct^ir of varinus muaical 
nsHomlilicn nud couoerts, not only in 
Li>iul»n, Imt thnnighoat the jirovint'eB. 
His iniuical abilities are of the first 
mak, ami his qualilicationa aa a lender 
uii.<nr|i,-i.«¥i.-d. His most wonderful 
tnuni|ih is in the fact that, altbmigh a 
lierinau and eiliioated exclnaiveiy in 
the uiHsiral schools of Germany, he has 
Kucceedeil in writing 0]>enu for the 
Italian and English sta^, which have 
met nith the liijchest suceeHS. 

BESNKTT, WiLUAM Stersdalk, a 
|>Liui«t and c(iDi|>oser, was Inm at Shef- 
field in 18la He studied in the Royal 
Academy iif Music, where he had the 
j;or>d fortune to receK-e inatriiction from 
two admirable mastera, Dr. Crotch and 
Cipriani Potter. His jirogress was re- 
markable, and his talent for nuuic wm { 

diitidctly iloTdoped. la IBM 
to Ldpiuc:. to tokiD fMrt in I 
ci'imTls the pvat ooiD[KiKT MuuMh 
was conductiug, and bia corajvadllim 
fwrfurmud there were ao highly ^ 
jilaiidHl tliat the name of young 8Uflft- 
dale Bonnfitt Itecanie familJAT thrcn^ 
ont Gonnaiiy as tliat of » kwrnid, 

~ ^ativl^ and fertile miuictan. Ub 

uda returned to Eaghuid. kod 
>r nearly twenty-five jman b- 
inoCTsintly in bis art. M« omik' 
f. «|iidly : overturea, aonataa, ma* 
tx jnun studies, mni^ all flow with 

ia>l>-. lABc from his prolific mind, imd ■• 
a pv jnnor and tiutnictor he raoka 
amoii^ the foremost. Uis style ui 
scorinj is in nn<> se4iae jieculiiir. He is 
simple in his cotiatmction uf nituKad ' 
phnues, seholasbc without pedanby, 
and produoes effects where no tOect 
ooold have been auttcipatud. Hla or- ' 
chettral arrangement is remarkable fbr 
these qualities. Mr. Bennett is one of 
the professors uf the ICoyal Aculemj of 
Music, and toniluctur of the orchestn 
of the Pltilhanuouic Itooiety, a body 
which owes much of its renown t«) hk 
aeol, activity, and genius. 

BEUUHAL;^, Hbkhv, a Germao 
geographer, was bom at Cleves on the 
3r<l May. 1 797. The sun of John laau ' 
BerghauE, a well-knovm historical Hnd ^ 
edentilic writer, he was eilucated porUy 
under his father's immediate core, and 
partly at the Gyumasium Pauliuum, ak 
Munster, where he directed his attention 
chiefly to mathematics and ei 
At the early age of fourteen 
employed under the French 
bration in Clenuan 
lonneiion with tile great 
inlaud navigation projected by N^M- 
leoD, and meant to extend from LUl 
and Hamburg to Paris. This ofi 
ajipointment, of coume, ceaacd with 
"lattle of Leipaic, and the rt-treat o 
French beyond the Rhine. Aft 
treatj of FtziM, be went to the 

B£B 41 

sity of Marburg, where he prepared, 
while engaged in other studies, various 
works for the Geographical Society of 
Weimar. After Napoleon's escape from 
£11 »a, BerghauB entering the Commis- 
sariat department of the army, was 
quartered at Rennes, and took advan- 
tage of his residence in that part of 
France to study carefully the geography 
of the surrounding country. On his re- 
turn to Germany he published his excel- 
lent Map of France, in which he laid down 
his personal observations. In 1816 he 
entered the Faculty of Philosophy at 
Berlin, as a student under the rectorship 
of Schleiermacher. In 1818 he was ap- 
{Ktinted Geographical Engineer to the 
second section of the War Department, 
and in this capacity he took part in the 
Cvovemment survey which begun in 1810, 
had been interrupted by the war of 
1813-15, and was reconmienced after the 
|>eace of 1816. In 1821 he obtained a 
chair in the Academy of Architecture, 
and withdrew from his military employ- 
ment. He now devoted himself with 
renewed zeal to geographical pursuits, 
l>estowing immense labour on the maps 
constructed by him, and the geogra- 
phical [»apers and works of which he 
is the author. His chief productions 
2kre his Map of the Spanish peninsula, 
which is considered the best yet pro- 
duced ; his large Atlas of Asia, consisting 
of lifteen ma[is, with notes, published at 
Gotha iKstween 1833 and 1843 ; and his 
I*hysical Atlas, consisting of ninety- three 
maps with explanations, the first edition 
(»f which was published at Gotha, be- 
tween 1837 and 1843, and the second 
edition between 1850 and 1852. Physical 
geography was raised to the high position 
it now holds as a science by this work, 
which has been largely pirated from, 
and almost copied in publications which 
fail to acknowledge the source of their 
information. An FiUglish edition of 
this work, incorporated with new mat- 
ter, was poblished by A. K. Johnston 


of £dinburgh, in which the materials 
derived from Berghaus were duly 
pointed out The geographical works 
written by Berghaus are very numerous ; 
several others are at this moment in the 
press, or in course of preparation. In 
1852, at the request of a society imder 
the auspices of the East India' Comjtany 
and the Crovemor-General of India, he 
wrote a Manual of Geography, which 
on being translated into the Hindustani, 
Tamil, and other dialects, was to be 
introduced into the Indian native schools. 
Among the students who attended the 
geographical school founded by Berghaus 
at Potsdam in 18391, were the well- 
known A. Petermann of Gotha, who is 
his foster-son, Henry Lange of Leijisic, 
and Hermann Berghaus of Gotha. 

BERKELEY, the Hon. Francis 
Henry Fitzhardinge, an English poli- 
tician and member of Parliament, was 
bom on the 5th of December, 1794. He 
is the fourth son of the Earl of Berkeley, 
the re])resentative of one of the oldest and 
most distinguished families in England. 
Elected in 1837 for the city and coimty 
of Bristol, he has sat in Parliament for 
that constituency ever since. Among 
Mr. Berkeley's sjieeches, one on the 
Oonmions' Enclosure Bill, and a 8])cech 
in seconding Sir John Bowring's motion 
for the abohtion of corjwral punishment 
in the army, and a defence of the con- 
duct of his brother Sir Maurice Berkeley, 
who resigned a seat at the Admiralty 
because the Board, with Lord Minto, 
decUned to increase the crcw8 of Her 
Majesty's navy, were among his earUer 
efforts. A si)eech in moving for a com- 
mittee on the Beer Bill, which he car- 
ried, and a motion to abolish the Yeo- 
manry force, were a hapi)y mixture of 
satire and argument ; ,and one moving 
for inquiry into the conduct of Lord 
Lucan, was acknowledged to l>e ex- 
tremely able. Mr. Berkeley, however, 
has chiefly acquired his reputation as 
the chief speaker on the Ballot question. 




his speeches in favour of which have 
always secured the ear of the House, 
fnuu tlieir happy combination of wit and 


BEKLIOZ, Hecti>r, a French musical 
coniiH>ser, was bom on the 11th of De- 
cemWr, ISiVS, at La Cdte St Andr6, in 
France. He was intendeil for the pnv- 
fession of me<Uciue, but soon abandoned 
it for that of music Proceeding to Paris, 
he was eua])led to acquire from Reicha 
and Lesuour, at the Consen-atoire, all 
the instruction within reach likely to fit 
him for the jtrofession he had adopte<l. 
He went to Italy in 1830, and, on his 
return to France in 1832, i)ro<luce<l 
varitms o]>eras and s^'mphonies, which 
were, however, more 8chola<jitic than 
])0])ular in their character. His jiroiluc- 
tiiiiis thi>roughly combine the uentle and 
plaintive with the massive and s(»norous 
elements in music, and his style is founded 
on that of Beethoven. 

BERNARD, Claude, a French ana- 
tomist and physiologist, was boni at 
St, Julien, near Villefranche, Jidy 12th, 
1813. He studied me<Ucine at Paris, 
was rcceiveil into the Hospitals in 1839, 
and became assistant to M. Magendie in 
1841. In 1843 he received his diploma 
AS Doctor of Medicine ; and his know- 
letl.ijt? increasing with study and practice 
in his profession, he became Doctor of 
Sciene(^sin 1853. As princiivil assistant, 
in the fullest sense, to M. Magendie, he 
was calletl, in 1854, to the Chair of 
(fcneral Physiology, foundeil by the 
Paris Faculty of Sciences, and in the 
Hamc year elected Meml>er of the Aca- 
demy of Sciences. In 1855 he was 
appointed Professor of Ex]>erimental 
Physiology' to the College of IVance, suc- 
ceiHling 'SL Magendie in that chair. M. 
Bernard struck out a new path in the 
science of which he wjis a brilliant 
ti*achcr ; his discoveries were imjwrtant ; 
and he rtrcalled attention to physiolo- 
gitral ])n>l)lems that hail l)een roganled 
as definitely solved, but of which he 

l>roved the solutions unsatisfactory. His 
papers published in the ** Gftxette Medi- 
cale" and the **Comi)tes Rendos de la 
Society de Biologie,'^ are considered 
admirable exjMMitions of the effects of 
the secretions on animal organization; 
but his reputation as a physiologist was 
firmly founded by his *' Recherches but 
les Usages du Pancreas,'* inserteil ori- 
ginally in '*Comptes Rendns" to the 
Academy of Sciences. He has pabliahed 
various i^apers on physiological subjects, 
all striking for their minute investi- 
gation and close logic, establishing 
jirinciples previously unknown or un- 

BERRYER, Pierre Antoine. a 
French lawyer, Legitimist politician, 
man of letters, and member of the In- 
stitute, "was bom in Paris in Janmuy 
1700. The son of an eminent pleader, 
he was educated at the College of Juilly, 
and embracetl the ]>rofession of the law. 
His first appearance at the bar was in 
1811. In jH^litics he was a Legitimist^ 
but iK'lieving that clemency would best 
ser\'e the throne, he joined his father 
and M. Du]>in in defen<ling Marshal 
Xev and others who had been devoted 
to the cause of Napoleon. " It is a dis- 
grace in conquerors," said he, ** to gather 
the woumled on the field of l>attle to 
lead thom to the scaffold.'' In vain he 
recommended Ney to the clemency of 
the Royalists. Notwithstanding the 
Legitimist traditions of his family, he 
pursued a course quite independent of 
party tactics or feeling. In 1816 he 
attacke<l the Minister of Police — De- 
cazes, and warmly advocated the rights 
of the ]»ress. In a ])rofes8ional point of 
view his upright and indei>endent con- 
duct proved of great advantage. His 
denunciations of all measures that ap- 
jiearod oppressive, brought him inmiense 
]>ractice. Returned to the Chamber of 
Deinities by the de|)artment of Haute 
Loire, he became the most brilliant 
orator of tho Legitimist xMuty. On the 




Revolution of July, 1830, taking place, 
M. Berryer of all the Royalist party 
sdoue, remained in the Chaml)er to atlvo- 
cate a fallen cause. His i)olicy, when 
tie coulil no longer resist a change, was 
to turn the altered circumstances to the 
best account. He disjmted the right of 
the Chaml>er to give a new constitution 
bo France, in every instance advocated 
liberal measures, and demanded a broad 
3nlai*gement of [lolitical privileges. When 
bhe Duchess de Berri landed in France 
in 1S32, M. Berryer endeavoured to in- 
iluce her to pursue a course the reverse 
Df that which she had pro]K>sed to follow, 
but his efforts were fruitless, and dread- 
ing being more deex>ly compromised he 
tied to Switzerland, but was arrested, 
and imprisoned at Nantes. Tried, how- 
ever, by the Court of Assize at Blois, he 
was acquitted triumphantly of all the 
charges against him. In 1833 he spoke 
from the tri1>une, on behalf of the 
Duchess de Bc-rri, defended Cli&teau- 
briauil, and otherwise engaged himself 
in the interest of the Bour1)ous; in all 
his s|X}eches exhibiting the same cauilour 
and liberality. In ISlU: he opjKised the 
government in the attempt to proceed 
against two members of the Chamber for 
libel, and was equally hostile to further 
restrictions on the press. When Louis 
Ka^Xfleon, in 1840, was captured at 
Boulogne, M. Berryer boldly undertook 
bis cause. In the same year he made 
9ne of his finest s]>eeches on the Eastern 
question. He visited London some time 
afterwards, to lay his allegiance at the 
feet of tlie Due de Bordeaux. After the 
Kevohition of 1848, he was assiduous in 
endeavouring to jiromote the Legitimist 
i^aoBO, but he afterwards perceived that 
FVance was not ri[»e for a second resto- 
mtion of the Bourbons. He was, in 
1848, returned by the department of 
Boaches - du - RhOne, but he confined 
liimself in the republican assembly to 
inestions of finance and administration. 
Ln coujunction with M. Thiers and other 

Orlcanists, he op])osed the pretensions of 
the Prince President, and in 1851 ex- 
pressed himself as hostile to the extreme 
course which was adopted by Louis 
Napoleon in December of that year. 
Since then he has retired from pubHc 
political life, and devoted his great 
talents to his profession. The political 
importance which M. Berryer had at- 
tained to, almost unsought, involved 
him in pecuniary difficulties, which com- 
pelled him, in 1836, to advertise for sale 
his estate of Agerville. but to the honour 
of the party to which he belongs, and 
for which he had made so many sacri- 
fices, it was disencumbered of the debts 
he had contracted, and restored to him. 
In 1852 he was apix)inted Dean or 
Mtonnier of the Faculty of Advocates 
at Paris. In 1854 he was elected a 
member of the French Academy; the 
customary visit to the Chief of the state, 
in his case, being dispensed T^dth. He 
is still engaged in laborious practice at 
the bar, as all English readers of news- 
papers know from the reports of his 
8|>eeches in cases which excite an in- 
terest in this country, such as the 
Jeufosse case in 1857, and the Mon- 
talcmbert case in 1859. His s|)eeche8 
are quoted in all French collections as 
models of forensic eloquence, and those 
for Seguin against Ouvrard, for Cas- 
taing. Dehors, &c., have long been con- 
sidered masterpieces by those best able 
to judge. 

BETHELL, Sir Richard, an English 
lawyer and law reformer, was born at 
Bradford, in Wiltshire, in 1800. His 
father, a distinguished physician in Bris- 
tol, was descended of an eminent Welsh 
family. He was educated at the Bristol 
Grammar School, and afterwards en- 
tered Wadham College, Oxford, where 
he took his degree of B. A. In 1823 he 
was called to the bar, and in 1840 ]>e- 
came Queen's Counsel In 1851 he was 
elected for Aylesbury, was nominated 
Solicitor-General in the Aberdeen ad- 


iiiliiwt-ratiim, and kiii;;ht«d. Hn "W- 
.-.•.■il.-.! Sir AleirmdiT i.'xcblmrs m Al- 
t' .rtirv-C. ■iitral in 18SG. Tlunigh di»- 
l>l« \<y till! retirtiui'iit of Lonl Aljcr. 
ili.'ii. it hiv iMeli rtstfil tlutt he might 
tiavf ri'taiiiMl hia i'tlli(» oficlwr Ixml 
li.-rli)-. The r,iscillati<inB of pwtm luivc | 
nji.iiii plinTil the Att'^rDcy-GvnvnlKhipj 

ill tlk- liaii.U of Sir Kicha " " 

whii liiiH liiiig been uiiivemli 
Iji 111' till' sblmt nml ooe « 
li'ni'iii'cl law-yeni At the btt. 
a Hiii-i'i-twful ]iractiti(>iier il 
liii'lmnl Ih'thell haa ruen t« 
His dr.M-lH iu the cnuBc of 
li:ivi' ^niiK'il fi.r hbi the a 
will, nr.' lint inteiTJit*'.! in tl 
tiiiii <iF the aliusej he hns ati ii 

IM til Ih: hii]iei1 that what be iv e i» 

liiit a iiii'ri' Jirelude t« what he Bwoeil 

toil'.. Tlii'EuclMiiutionlOati: mlthe 
[ir.'M'iit BV-tem at conyeyMKniig, wwhiob 
III' has liitliiTtn. chiefly directed his nttvn- 
timi. arf merely jiartJi of a great nyBtt'in 
iif uliiiKi'-H which urgently taiH tor retomi. 
In his Biliemna (or the inijiro vera eat nf 
I.'^nl iiliitatioo in the Inns of Lloiirt, he 
lia'i j"i'li;i|M not sirfBciently advertt-d to 
I'k'iiii.'LitK ill the iireseat machinfiy which, 
iliiiiiHy a» they aro, terve to protect the 
iM'; charftcter of the !&igliiih Imr, 
mill t>i iiiniire in ita memhets qnahlica- 
tiont nut tfHted liy exnminntioa papem. 
Duriiigtlio kteaession {I860) Sir lUchanl 
iiitii-liici'd a must eklMirate act, which 
WHS iiiti-iiilMl to tlTect a rcFonn in the 
ail mi lustration of t3ieBiuifc™]it<'y Lawa, 
lint 'iwiii^ tii the protracted length of 
the sessii.n, he wna com[ie!le<l to with- 
ilriiw it frrim th^ coutudemtjon of the 


IIIUKSL'O, Gkobob Deuethiuh, ex- 
Hi.«iKKlar of WaUachia, waa Ikitti in 
1WH. Hi- ia & younger brother of the 
HnsiKKlar Barbo Stirbey. After lieing 
i.-diicate<l at hotue, he went to Biii;hArpBt 
niid I'aria, where he sjient seren yi 
in jierFectin)^ hiB studies. Before 
elevation tu the Hoapodant he held 

■fterwBrda he naif^nMt, and VinDM 

F^nud *nil AiiMii*, <M>atr«>t«d fhvD^ 

nhigia with nuuiy of thn mint itrirt"* 

BtatPinnoii of thoae coaatriw. tio hit 

Tvtum U< WilliK-Jtll hv whb docluj H<» 

[Miiliir, the choice being umliniinl tf 

''oTtc. Eight dayi httm thr virc- 

le WM wilvDinly inatAllKL P** 

y UbHnvl in his priiid|iU«, the on- 

irmal lurty founded ail Outt hopM 

a aduiiiilatrati'io, but b« aooD Ifr 

1 ft tinulonoy tnvkrda kbaolittMK 

■Itnire tn oiuiciliatc BuMian infla- 

OpiHwitiun grew ntroug In iMj 

i<^ irea were adopted ti> impada. if DDt 
end, the encroaching nile n( tlie Haapo- 
dnr; theonro popularOii%'vniiirwM(li»- 
likwl when it wan found that lie baaf»- 
rizcil ivnd wavered, until M Imgth, 
■btuuloned by the iio|i4i1m» ami flu 
nntiy, he (lave in hia adhcuion to a new 
cnnNtitution, and nainol aa his miDtsleli 
the leaders of the oppneition, Hia pw- 
oet'iliu^ were of no avail ; in a few dajs 
after, nutwithstaniling the represenla- 
tions of the RunMan C'linsul, he abdi- 
cated the HoBpodarat, and eet out hy 
Ttonaylvauia to Vienna. Since tbia 
]>eriod Prince Bilieaco haa resided d- 
temat«>ly at Bucharest, ConstanlJDopliB, 
aiid Paris. He ia not the author of k 
work nttribiited to him, enldtled "TlM 
liiiuniui Principalitiea before Europe."' 

BILLAULT, AiAirjTB AuolfOt; 
Maiub, advocate and tienator, waa btO 
at VaoneB, in 180.1 Aft<!r studying ! 
at Keunea, he settled at Nautea, 
advocate, and n»e r&pidly to 
and pmaice. In 1S3(I he 
memlier of the Muui('i]wl Consei^ 
in 1834 memliar of the (.'oiinoil-~ 
of the Dei>artment. In 1837 i 
elected to the fhamlx-r of DepQ 
three oonrtitnencita, of which I 
tiuit of Ancenia. He entered i 
tical life with great Eeol, hia tt" 
libenL In 1640 it woa uqt 


c portfolio of Commerce uid Agricol- 
re would be placed in hii iuuidB by 
. Thiers ; but iuatead, the then new 
actions of Under- Secretai7 of Stftte 
:re cnalided to him. He Bubsequentlf 
ined the ranks of a moderate though 
ogresaive opfKwitioiiT in conjunction 
th M. Diif auTC He was much abused 
; accepting the law busiuesa of the 
ic d'Aumale, but without any tan- 
gle reason. After the Revolution of 
43 he was elected lepreaentative for 
e Loire toffrieure, and took his place 
the ranks of the moderate democratic 
rt;. to which he has since remained 
ithful, though acknowledging the force 
circumstances which it was out of his 
wer to control In 1854, beheving 
■ couid be usef\il to France, he aoceiited 
e api»iutment of Minister of the In- 
rior, on the retirement of M. de Per- 
piy ; but in February, 1858, resigned 

favour of General Espinasse. He is 
Commander and Grand Officer of the 
igion of Honour. 

BINNEY, . Rev. Thomas, an English 
onconfomiist clergyman, was bom at 
ewcaatle-iin-Tync, and educated for 
e ministry at Wymondley, Hertford- 
ire. He was first placed at Newport 
le of Wight, from which he removed 

1829 to London, to become the pastor 
the Wuigh House Chapel, Little East- 
leap. Tho building was taken down 

1834, when Eastcheap was widened, 
id the present large and more com- 
ndious chapel built on Fish Street 
ill, the old name being retained. Since 
en he has always been recognised as 
le of the leaders of the English Inde- 
■ndents. He has both travelled and 
ritten, but the great source of his fame 
the pulpit, where he has acquired im- 
ense popidarity, by the dear and strik- 
g way in which he explains the mean- 
g of Scripture, the wide and thorough 
'a«p he takes of the subject under dis- 
uaion, and the Christian love and 
Miity which everywhere perrade his 

45 BIO 

sermons. He has lately returned from a 
lengthened tour in Australia, whither 
he had proceeded for the benefit of his 
health, and where his ministrations were 
highly valned. 

BIOT, Jkas BiPTisrre, an illustrious 
French tatiant and man of letters, was 
bom at Paris in 1774. After studying 
at the College of Louis le Grand, Biut 
joined the artillery ; but, preferring 
scientific punuits, he was eventually 
appointed Professor of Mathematics in 
the Central School at Beauvais. In the 
year 1800 Biot was appointed to the 
chair of Natural Philosophy in the Col- 
lege of France, and when only twenty- 
eight years of age was elected a member 
of the Academy of Sciences. In 1806 
he was a member of the Bureau des 
Longitudes; and, in conjunction with 
Arago, continned a series of researches 
on the properties of gases, which had 
been commenced by Borda. With 
Arago he aaBisted in extending the 
French arc of meridian, and for this 
purpose visited Spain, and subsequently 
embarked for England. The " Inves- 
tigator " brig of war was placed at 
his service. The "Investigator" sailed 
north to the httle island of Uist, and in 
this bleak region of fogs and stonns his 
observations wero comjileled. In 1840 
the Boyat Society awarded Biot their 
Rumford medal for his researches on the 
polarization of light He has conducted 
an immense number of researches in 
physical science ; a few in conjunctaou 
withM. Pouillet, most of them independ- 
ently. They are recorded in the ' ' Mi- 
moires " and " Comptcs Rendus " of the 
Academy, the ' 'M^nioires d' Arcueil" and 
the "Journal des Savants," of tho mathe- 
matical section of which he was long 
the editor. He is the author of " An 
Analysis of the Mieanv/at Cilede of 
Laplace," published in 1801 ; a work 
on ' ' Analytical Geometry, applied to 
Curves and Surfaces of the Second 
Order," of which an eighth edition was 

piiMisheil in ISM : of " An Ekmentory 
Tirati-L- OH Physii-rtl Airtronomy," of 
wliHi ,1 tliiM cilLtiiiuwas iraliiiahwl in 
IS.'ill; anil iif B great iiunjbBf of other 
Ri.-ii-ntili(- worka of Ihi' hi^iest miirit. 
M ISiiit iH iliHtiDKiiishcii at » literary 

i-fU it 



till: aiLtlinr of ,tn iiV(K/>^ of Uinitai);:De. 

niiil (iLiiitlicr of (Jay Lf""" **■* 

ri'iiini'k.H on Hlucaticiii in 

nttr.i<*ti'il much attention 

n;:i>. Ax a lilKntimr Iia ) 

niitUit :i iitL-mlieF of the '< 


tlio FrL>ii<-li Academy; ft nt 

fi.r a H,ii;ii:l, ami thil tl p«b 

u^iiWiii:!' that i:aDbe addnotJ 

cstiiuati.m in which his UU 

cations arc hi-lil M. Biot i- ihu- 

niauiliT »f thi- Lei^oD of Hoi>« 

bl.srKK', MadaueAnna, ih 

viittilist, was liom in Ijondi B. 

Hit Rin'iitaJ taste having neen early 
evirlonci'il. she eatKred the Rjiyal Aca- 
ileniy of MiDiir, and soon ditituiguiahed 
liLTst'lf. Hhe had at first intcndal to 
dovritu her atteutioD to instrumental 
music, liiit Ijfing atrongly ui^jcd by her 
[irofmsional frionda, who hod not failed 
til mitiee the aniierior voioe she poseesspd, 
she resulveil to study with the view of 
I>cc{imiTi{! a Tocalidt. Hat'ing made 
C( 'iisi I leriilile progress, sheaBngas jiri-ma 
•lonon. in 1838, nt the Philharmonic 
Ctiiiccrts, and at tha Gloucester, Wor- 
ccstur, and other festivals. At first she 
hail chittly suDg the prodnctions of 
Hanilel, Mozart, and Beethoven ; but 
eventually devoting herself to the ItalioQ 
school. Hho appeared at the Royal Italian 
f Ipcra House, At a concert given there. 
She subsc<|ucntly travelled through most 
])art3 of continental Europe, and in 
every city achieved astonishing succcsfi. 
In iSlfi she visited Copenhagen, and in 
IS*) Stockholm, where, notwithstanding 
the presence of Jenny Lind, Madame 
Bishop created a complete /vrorv. She 
next visited St. l*ot«raburt^ where she 

achlevml Milqual ■iMMHa. PmeM&t 

southwanla, iliB afUnraMila mumM w l t 

Sovogorod, at Kmui tn Torliuy, dif 

iog in the Tartar Un^aK'>> <^> OdiNh 

antl, eventually tvtchiiig \'ie(iiia. itMd 

still further to hnr Lmmlii. Rf tu ra iM 

through varioiD Gpttuui citicsi, ^e md( 

at AIunicK In IMS xbo viut«dlbJf, 

— ■! -ong at Floranm. VlTIuc>^ lie.. W- 

ig jirimn donna at Xa|Jt«i, at ttt 

rv at Son Cuio. At Roiuc dK 

■took the rilet of ' Amina' in "lA 

unhnU," and ' Lucia' in "ijte^ 

1110. she wan ivceiverl wiA gtM 
udann. She ajtcrwarda i^>)iMt«i 
. vcrnl concerts in Enj^Mid, mu) in 
m6 went to Amenca and viaitad tbt 
fToited 8tato9. Mexico, and CalifonuK 
In 1853 ibe left America for Sydatr, 
and appeared alio nt Melbourao nl 
Adelaide. South America waa lier boI | 
deetination, and after nnging in VatfW- ' 
roiso. &c.. she returned to England in 
1858. After siiigio!; nt various concertfi 
she gave her farewell one on 1 7tli of Au- 
gust, 19fi9. and shortly afterwanla sailed 
for America. Prom the above imperfect 
sketch it will lie oi>aerved that Madame 
Bishop has sung in every civilized pait , 
of the world, a feat unequalled by any 
other vocalist, and in the pmsecKtion of < 
which her succeaa has been as conatast I 
as it has Im^cu deserved. | 

BLACK. Adah. M.P., pnbljshar d 4 
in Edinburgh, in the year 1784. Afi# : 
completing his education at the UniTM^ 
flity of Edinburgh, he commenced bOlk 
uesa OS a boakseller in 1607. MeettB| 
with anccpasin trade, he erected eXteMim 
premises at the North Bridge, ^ 
connects the old and new town 
Edinburgh, where hie [ilace of h 
has ever since remained. UeUv 
of many imjiortant works ; thr 
which, however, ia the recent i 
the " Encyclo]Kedia Britaun< 
many yean lie was also publi 




" Edinburgh Review. " More recently, 
lie baa bouf;hl the copyriglit of Sir 
Walter Scott's workn, of which he haa 
iBsued many well-known cheap editioae. 
Mr. Black's oonneiion with the " Edin- 
burgh Review " brought him into close 
contact with the most intelligent and 
influential memliera of the liberal party 
in Scotland ; and for the last half centiuy 
he may be said to have taken a lead in 
every agitation for burgh and parlia- 
mentary reform, which haii met with 
the approval of moderate Liberals, and 
haa distinguished himself by his cordial 
ajid indefatigable attention to tlie affairs 
of his native city. The highest municipal 
office, that of Lord Provost, wa« held by 
him from IS41 to IMS. As an ocknow- 
ledfineiit of his unwearied public ser- 
vices the honour of knighthood was 
offered him , which, however, he declined. 
In 13SC he was elected by a large 
majority of hia feUow-citizeni as their 
rqireeentative in Parliament Through- 
out hia parliamentary career he has been 
a supporter of every practicable measure 
of social reform, especiallyof an extended 
and unsBctarian system of education, 
and he has always been an ancompro- 
mising opponent to all intolerance in 
Church or State, 

BLACKWELL, Euzabbth, M.D., 
was bom in Bristol, February 3, 1S2I. 
Her father emigrated with his family 
to the United States, where hia death 
threw the latterontheirowneiertionsfor 
support Having assisted her elder Mster 
in bringing up the younger members of 
the family, she determined to devote 
her attention to medical studies. With 
this view, she spent several years in 
accumulating, as a teacher, the neces- 
sary firnds for tlie prosecution of her 
plans ; during which period she studied 
Latin, and went through a preparatory 
course of medical and anatoinical read- 
ing. Befnaed admission to twelve me- 
dical ediools, she was at length received 
•a a pupil at Geneva (N.Y.), where, in 

l&4d, she passed her examination, and 

obtained the first medical degree ever 
conferred upon a woman. Havingeom- 
pleted her medical studies in the hos- 
pitals of Paris and London, she settled 
in New York as a physician fur women 
and children only. On revisiting Eng- 
land in 1859, she met with a cordial 
welcome ; was admitted by r^^tration 
to the right of practising medicine in 
this country, and dehvered lectures on 
Hygiene to ladies in London, Birming- 
ham, Manchester, and Liverpool She 
haa a very large practice in New York, 
where she has founded on hospital for 
female patients, and has published a 
book on " The Physical Education of 

BLANC, LoDls, a French man of letters 
and publicist, was bomat Madrid, in IS13. 
in which city his father held the office oE 
Inspector-General, under Joseph Bona- 
parte. By his mother's side he is descended 
from the Coraican family of Pozzi di 
Burgo, of which the celebrated dipbiua- 
tist of the same name was also a member. 
At the age of seventeen, imme<liately 
oCter the Revolution of 1830, and the ac- 
cession of the House of Orleans to the 
throne, he returned to Paris, and connected 
himself with the " Boa Sens" newspaper; 
and by his contributions to that and other 
journals, si>eedily succeeded in acquiring 
for himself a high reputation as a political 
writer. He was the founder of the 
" Kevue du Progria," in the columns 
of which he first published his ideas 
upon industrial economics ; a subject of 
peculiar interest to the working-classes 
of a country like France, in which 
there is no legislative provision, as in 
England, for the support of the poor 
when in distress, or when, from age 
and infirmity, they have become incapable 
of earning their subsistence. In the still 
more important work by which he esta- 
blished his claim to the rank of an his- 
torian, "L'Histoire de Dii Ana," he 
; gave a description of the corruption of 




Louis Pliilippe's government so vivid, 
that he did more than any other writer 
— M. de Lamartine excepted — to produce 
that electrical state of feeling in the 
public mind which exploded in the Revo- 
lution of 1848. When that event took 
place, the (arty known as that of the 
Social Democratic Republic, looking uix>n 
him as one of its most prominent leaders, 
saw with satisfaction that he had courage 
enough to accejtt tlie risks and responsi- 
bihties incurred by being a member of 
the Provisional Government, He sub- 
sequently undertook the office of Presi- 
dent of the ** Labour Conunission," and 
thus gave the guarantee of his name 
and character to the working classes, 
that their interests would not be neg- 
lectcil in the great revolutionary con- 
tiict of the time. He was elected as 
one of the rei>resentative8 of the city 
of Paris, in the National Assembly of 
1848, by 120,000 votes; and, in that 
capacity, brought forward and carried 
the famous motion for a rei)eal of the 
law by which the Bourbons, both of 
the elder and the younger branches, 
doomed the family of the Bonai)artes to 
lK?ri)etual exclusion from the soil of 
France. Neither the author nor 8upix)rtcrs 
of this motion foresaw the consequences 
that would result — consequences no less 
startUng than the destruction of the 
Republic, which the Assembly were 
anxious to consoUtLate, and the re- 
establishment of the Naix>leonic dy- 
nasty. The creation of the National 
Workslioiw, or Ateliers XatiotianXy 
shortly after the Revolution, has been 
attribute*! to the influence of M. Louis 
Blanc. But this is quite a mistake. 
The princijiles on which they were 
established are directly at variance with 
all the iileas expounded in his work, the 
** Organisation du TravaiL'* He pro- 
tested agaiust them most emphaticaUy, 
both in his place at the councils of the 
Provisional (Government as well as in the 
National Assembly. Their inevitable 

dissolution led to the memorable insur- 
rection of June, 1848, and the invasion 
of the National Assembly by an aimed 
mob. After the insurrection had been 
quenched in blood, it was asserted that 
^L Louis Blanc had been a party to the 
attempt, and the new Crovemment de- 
manded authority for the Assembly to 
institute a prosecution against him. 
The Assembly declared by its vote, with- 
out any discussion, that there were no 
grounds for the prosecution, and the 
matter dropjied. But amid the fearful 
excitement of that period, when ** So- 
cialism" had become the enemy which 
the whole of the influential and moneyed 
classes of France thought it their duty 
to denounce and combat^ the charge 
was again brought forward. This time 
it met with more success. The As- 
sembly recalled its previous vote, and 
leave was given for the prosecution. 
^L Louis Blanc immediately proceeded 
to the railway station, and made his 
way unmolested to England — a step 
which saveil the Oovemment from some 
difficulty if not danger, and for good 
reason, no effort was made to prevent 
his escai>e. M. Louis Blanc has ever 
since resided in EIngland, and devoted 
himself to the i>eacefid ])ursuit8 of litera- 
ture. He has published ten volumes of 
his "History of the French Revolution," 
and is still engaged u]x>n that work. 
During his exile in this country, M. 
Blanc has thoroughly mastenxl the diffi- 
culties of the English language, and 
si>eaks and writes it -with as much ease 
and elegance as his oym. He first wrc»te 
in English his work entitled "Historical 
ReveLitions in answer to the Marqius of 
Nornianby's *A Year of Revolution 
in Paris,'" and translated it from Eng- 
lish into French, for pubhcation on the 
Continent. The most successful of M. 
Louis Blanc^s works is his "History 
of the Last Ten Years," from laSO to 
1840, the publication of which was begun 
at Paris in 1841. The work, which con- 




aistsof six Yolumes 8vo, has gone thiougli 
a great number of editions. 

BLANQUI, Louis AuousTis, a French 
politician and rivoluHoniudrt, was bom 
at Paria in 1805. He is the younger 
brother of Jdrome Adolphe Blanqui, 
the celebrated economist. In his youth 
he studied both law and medicine, and 
entered into all the political agitations 
occurring at the period of his student 
life, having for their object the entire 
reversal of existing political and social 
institutions. He was wounded in 1827, 
in the affair of the Rue St Denis. He 
was a combatant on the barricades of 
1830, and decorated for his services on 
that occasion. Taking an active part in 
the conspiracies and inuutu of the early 
part of Louis Fhilippe^s reign, he was 
condemned to various terms of imprison* 
ment, which it would be tedious to 
enumerate. The Provisional Govern- 
ment of the 24th Februaiy, 1848, had 
no sooner been installed, than M. 
Blanqui formed the Club of the Central 
Republican Society, which created great 
popular excitement at that period. The 
last revolutionary manifestation in 
which he was concerned was the at- 
tempt of the 15th of May, the failure 
of which led to his flight. Appre- 
hended and tried by the Court at 
Bourges, he was condenmed to ten years* 

BO£CKH, Augustus, a Cerman phi- 
lologist and classical scholar, was bom in 
1785, at Carlsruhe, in the Grand Duchy 
of Baden. He was educated at the Uni- 
versity of Halle, and in the Teachers* 
Seminary at Berlin. Subsequently he 
became Professor of the Greek language 
in the University of Heidelberg, and, 
since 1811, in the University of Berlin. 
The works of this great scholar form an 
epoch in historical criticism, and lq phi- 
lology and archaeology. The object of 
Philology should be, he maintains, to 
reproduce the whole political and social 
life of a people within a certain period. 

Althou^ the views adopted by Professor 
Boeckh have been opirased by scholars 
of the old school, who fear that they will 
lead to a neglect of grammatical studies, 
they have had a most important influ- 
ence on classical education in Germany. 
Professor Boeckh's principal philological 
and critical works are his edition of 
Pindar, consisting of the Greek texts, 
with various readings, a Latin transla- 
tion, and notes ; "Die Staatshaushaltung 
der Athener, *' translated into English by 
Sir Creorge Comewall Lewis, under the 
title of ** The Pubhc Economy of 
Athens;*' and the '* Corpus LuKoip- 
tionum Grsscarum, auctoritate et im- 
penn. Academiie Regi» BoruariiB." 
Professor Boeckh is a member of most 
of the leameds ocieties of Europe, and 
holds a high position amongst living phi- 

BOHN, Henry G., an eminent Lond- 
on publisher and bibhopole, was bom 
in London, of German parents, in the 
year 1796. He is favourably known 
as the editor of the **BibUotheca Parr- 
iana,** and as a translator from the 
German. He has translated various 
works of Sduller, uiduding '* The Rob- 
bers;'* compiled a "Handbook of Pro- 
verbs,** and a ** Polyglot of Foreign 
Proverbs,** from the French, Italian, 
German, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, 
and Danish ; also a ** Handbook of 
Games,*' and numerous other works of 
merit, published in his popular Ubra- 
ries. He has edited Addison*8 works, 
and also a new and enlarged edition of 
Lowndes's ** Bibliographer's Manual ;*' 
but his great work is his ** Catalogue," 
published in 1841, which consists of 
1,948 pages, and contains the titles of 
about .100,000 volumes. It is a literary 
lexicon on the most extensive scale, and 
admirable as a work of reference. Mr. 
Bohn has done great service to the read- 
ing public of tlus country by republish- 
ing cheap editions of books which, 
previous to lus time, were conflned to the 




great libraries. He has shown great 
discrimination in selecting the works 
which form his Scientific, Illustrated, 
Classical, Antiquarian, Philologico-phi- 
losophical. Historical, and Ecclesiastical 
Libraries ; his Library of the British 
Classics; and his Cheap Series, which 
form, altogether, nearly 1000 volumes. 
To Mr. Bohn is due the first cheap edi- 
tion of the ** Cosmos" of Humboldt ; a 
work which has had a remarkable influ- 
ence in widely spreading a taste for the 
natural sciences in this country. In 1850, 
he added a translation of the * * Views of 
Nature," by the same author, the English 
edition being the joint work of Miss 
Otte and himself. 

BONAPARTE, Jerome, the youngest 
brother of Napole<>n I., was bom at 
Ajaccio, on the 15th of December, 1784. 
On Napoleon becoming First Consul, he 
removed Jerome, then fifteen years of 
age, from college, and placed him in the 
naval service. When hostilities broke 
Dut between France and England, in 
1803, J6rome cruised off the West India 
Islands. Forced to quit that station 
without doing anything either brilliant 
or effective, he took refuge in New 
York. In the United States he married 
Miss Elizabeth Paterson. The marriage 
was a misalliance in the estimation of 
his brother, and Jerome's wife was for- 
bidden to enter France. Under this 
interdict the daughter of the Baltimore 
merchant proceeded to England, where 
she gave birth to a son, J6rome Napoleon 
Bonaparte. Napoleon, on becoming 
Emperor, caused the marriage to be 
annulled by a decree of the Council of 
State. The Pope, however, refused to 
ratify the divorce. As Jerome made no 
figure at sea, Nai>oleon transferred him 
from the naval to the mihtary service, 
and in 1807 he entered the army with 
the rank of general In the same year he 
married Fr6d6rique Catherine, daughter 
of the King of Wurtemberg. Some time 
after, Napoleon L erected Westphalia 

into a kingdom, and created Jftxnne 
king. Compelled to abandon his terri- 
tories on the abdication of Napoleon, he 
lived in exile until the return from Elba, 
when he repaired to Paris, and distin- 
guished himself at Waterloa After the 
final abdication of his brother, he lived 
chiefly at Trieste, where he porchaaed 
a palace, until Louis Napoleon became 
ruler of France. Jerome was then re- 
called to Paris, and the old man who 
had witnessed so many changes of for- 
tune was created a Marshal of France, 
President of the Senate, and, in failure 
of the direct succession, heir to the 
Imperial throne. All jiarties concur in 
pronouncing him a most estimable gen- 
tleman, and if not the most fortunate 
yet the most amiable of his race. 

BONAPARTE, Louis Lucien, second 
son of Lucien Bonaparte, was bom in 
Worcestershire, January 1813, during 
his father's residence in England. He 
passed his childhood in Rome, and his 
youth in Florence. He visited Italy in 
1854. Though travelling under evwy 
disgiuse that could secure privacy, he 
was recognised by his likeness to the 
Bonapartes, and met with an enthusiastic 
reception. The science of chemistry has 
much engaged his attention, and he has 
written several works on the subject 
On the establishment of the Empire he 
was made a member of the Senate of 
France. Of late years he has been 
busily employed in translating the Pa- 
rable of the Sower from St. Matthew 
into seventy-two European languages 
and dialects. He has also translated 
|K)rtion8 of the Old and New Testaments 
into the various dialects of the north of 
England. It is understood that he con- 
templates giving a version of the Holy 
Scriptures in every dialect spoken in 
England ; a work certainly of immense 
labour, and requiring no ordinary philo- 
logical discernment. 

BONAPARTE, Napoleon Josbph 
Charles Paul, second and only but- 




Tiving son of Jerome Bonaparte by his 
second wife, was bom at Trieste, 9th of 
September, 1822. He passed his earlier 
days alternately at Vienna, Florence, 
and Rome, and occasionally in Switzer- 
land and America. Elected a member 
of the Legislative Assembly in 1850, 
Prince Napoleon, supporting the Red 
Republic and Ultra-democratic opinions, 
was known as the '* Prince Montague." 
The elevation of Napoleon IIL , however, 
to the throne made Prince Napoleon a 
devoted adherent of the imperial i>olicy. 
During the Russian war in 1854 he held 
a command in the Crimea, but did not 
gain any distinction, although present 
at the Alma. He married, in 1859, the 
Princess Clotilde, daughter of the King 
of Sardinia, in pursuance, it was suj)- 
prtsed at the time, of a design ui)on the 
throne of Tuscany or of Central Italy, to 
be brought to completion by the war 
against Austria for the liberation of 
Italy. At the head of a division of the 
French army, the Prince landed in Italy 
to co-operate with the forces of his im- 
perial cousin and his royal father-in-law, 
but no opiwrtunity presented itself for 
his being of service ; and the sudden 
peace declared at ViUafranca forbade his 
indulging in further hopes of military 
glory. The Prince is understood to be a 
warm friend of the English alliance, and 
a staunch Free-trader. 

BONHEUR, Madsmoiselle Rosa, a 
French animal painter, was bom at 
Bordeaux, March 22nd, 1822. She ex- 
perienced considerable advantage in 
being the daughter of a French artist of 
some note, and from this circumstance 
her intense devotion to art may have 
arisen. She was in a great measure 
self-taught. At first riie had few oppor- 
tunities of studying from life the ani- 
mals to the painting of which she 
specially devoted her attention. Her 
enthosiaaiii, however, was so strong 
that she has even repaired to the 
■laug^bter-bomet of Paris in searoih of 

subjects for her penciL Her earliest 
productions were "Goats and Sheep," 
and "Two Rabbits" — ^paintings which 
attracted considerable attention; and 
from that time she advanced rapidly in 
public estimation, her position, however, 
not being attained without severe study 
and indefatigable labour. Her first 
great work, that which at once settled 
her position as the French female Land- 
seer, was the "Labourage Nivemais," 
finished in 1849, and now in the Lux- 
embourg. ** The Horse Fair" is known 
over the world by engravings, and 
stamps her as among the foremost ani- 
mal painters of this or any other age. 
Her subsequent productions, although 
of great merit, have not surpassed in 
their execution and finish this splendid 
painting. Since 1849 she has been 
directress of the Free School of Design 
for females at Paris. 

BOPP, Franz, a German philologist, 
was bom on the l#h September, 1791, 
at Mayence, in the Grand Duchy of 
Hesse-Darmstadt He studied at As- 
chaffenbur^, where he formed an inti- 
macy \i'ith Professor Windischmann, a 
learned Sanscrit scholar, who held the 
chair of philosophy and history in the 
University, and eventually Bopp deter- 
mined to devote himself to the Uterature 
of the East. Having obtained a small 
pension from the Bavarian Government, 
he went, in 1812, to Paris, where, under 
the gr^t French orientalists, Chezy 
Silvestre de Sacy and Auguste Guil- 
laume Schlegel, he pursued for some 
years a course of severe study. He j)ro- 
ceeded from Paris to London, where he 
continued his studies. After his return 
to Germany, he was appointed Sanscrit 
Professor at Berlin. The labours of 
Bopp form an epoch in the Unguistic 
researches which have been prosecuted 
with so much success in our times. His 
great work, which indeed is the standard 
treatise on the subject of which it treats, 
is the '* Comparative Granmiar of tho 




jv^^^-^ti. ZoiuhI (^nJt'k, Latin, Lithu- 
,.,.^»^ ^woitnU Skvio, Gothic, and Ger- 
;...« l.iwM*^'^^*' A 8iH.M>ml edition was 
.V,a»-^*^» *t IWrliu in 1857. It is the 
L«t »»«|K^riaut contribution which has 
U^'« MtixW in our times to the science of 
,^x»u|>.^mti\'v pliilology, which is indebted 
xvi> »»«^'»» ^♦»»* '^^ ^1""^ growth to this 
cUviU' muuiuary of its principles. Pro- 
|,vMt»i' l»«»pp w t^o author of several edi- 
f umit liud translations of the old Indian 
IHH'Ui* ; of important works on Sanscrit 
^muunar ; on the Celtic languages (1849); 
on <!»«♦ connexion between the Malay- 
|*olvm*i»ia» ^^^^ *^® Indo-Germanic lan- 
uuap''* J *""^ ^^ *^® Caucasian members 
of thr Iiid(>-Gennanic languages. 

HO U ROW, Georob, an English 
uutlior, was bom near Norwich, in 1803. 
IliM early education seems to have in- 
ehidud a period of study at the Uni- 
vemity of Edinburgh. HB father, as 
HU otiicer in the army, was obhgeil to 
iiiove alK)ut a good deal, and that may 
have given rise to those wandering 
habits, that love of a<lventure, and pre- 
diltH."tion for the study of languages to 
which we are indebted for some of the 
most agreeable accessions to our litera- 
ture. He made himself familiar, when 
but a youth, with the habits, customs, 
manners, and dialects of the gipsy tribes 
who roamed through England. Leaving 
this country, he travelled in France and 
Spain — almost over the entire Coati- 
nent, — associating with the gipsies as 
with famihar friends. The result was 
his first work, "The ZincaU," which 
gave Uvely and faithful descriptions of 
the tSpanish giiwies, with a collection of 
their songs and ])oetry, and a dictionary 
of their language. This was new groimd, 
broken for the first time in 1 841 . The work 
became instantly popular, for it was fresh 
in subject and style. The Bible Society 
of London discovering that he ha^l a fit- 
ness for the task, despatched him shortly 
afterwards on a mission to distribute the 
Bible, printed in the Spanish language, 

whereyer opportumty aroae, in the Pe- 
ninsula. He undertook the minion, and 
on his return in 1843, published his 
"Bible in Spain," wherein he recounts 
his adventures, his journeys, and his 
imprisonment, — the latter being the 
cause of a misunderstanding so serious 
between this and the Spanish Govern- 
ment as to nearly produce a rapture. 
His " Bible in Spain" was followed by 
" Lavengro," a work partly autobiogra- 
phical and partly imaginative. He is a 
considerable landed proprietor in the 
county of Suffolk, but spends mnch, if 
not all his time, in rambling throng 
foreign countries on foot He was hxun 
his youth upwards a determined pedes- 
trian, having, in 1825, walked from 
London to Norwich, a distance of 112 
miles, in about twenty-seven houn. 
He has written several works which 
have not yet been committed to the 
press, amongst others one called '* WUd 
Wales,** said to be in many respects a 
counterpart of the " Bible in Spain.** 

BOSQUET, PiebrsFr^X90is Joseph, 
a French Marshal, was bom at Mont- 
de-Marsan, Landes, November 8, 18101 
He entered the Ecole Polytechnique in 
1829, from which he passed to the Ecole 
d'AppUcation, at Metz, in 1831, be- 
coming a sub-lieutenant of Artillery in 
1833, and in 1835 he went with his re- 
giment, the loth Artillery, to Algeria, 
where he served until 1853. During 
that i>eriod his promotion was rapid, 
and after passing through various grades 
he was appointed colonel in 1848. In 
May, 1843, he distinguished himself, at 
the head of his corps, in a ** razzia** 
against one of the Arab tribes. He was 
more than once wounded. Raised to 
tlie rank of general of division in 1854, 
he accompanied the French army to the 
Crimea, where, at Balaclava and Inker- 
mami es|)ecially, his gallantry and mili- 
tary skill were conspicuous, acquiring 
for him the highest character for courage 
and military daring. In 1856 he was 




named tSenator, and soon after received 
the highest honour that can be conferred 
on a French soldier, the hdt4m of a Mar- 
shal of France. He has received from 
the Qneen the Order of the Bath ; and 
the Emperor conferred on him the Grand 
Cross of the Legion of Honour, in ac- 
knowledgment of his valuable services. 
BOSWORTH, Joseph, D.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S., an Anglo-Saxon scholar and 
Professor at Oxford, was bom in Derby- 
shire in 1788. He studied at the Uni- 
versity of Aberdeen, passing the ex- 
amination for and obtaining the degree 
of Master of Arts. He was ordained a 
clergyman of the Church of Fngland ; 
and that he might be enabled to fulfil 
the duties of his position efficiently, in 
addition to Latin and Greek, he at an 
early age acquired a knowledge of 
Hebrew, with its cognate dialects, Chal- 
dee, Syriac, and Arabic. His success 
was soon acknowledged by various 
honours conferred on him by the Uni- 
versities of Cambridge and Oxford, 
and he received the diploma of Ph.D. 
from Leyden. In 1857 he received the 
degree of D.D. from Christ Church, 
Oxford. Besides two Anglo-Saxon Dic- 
tionaries and three Grammars, he is the 
author of works entitled the '* Origin of 
the Danish Language" (1834); **Origiu 
of the English, Germanic, and Scan- 
dinavian Languages and Nations' ' ( 1 836) ; 
an *' Abstract of Scandinavian Litera- 
ture ;" " Origin of the Dutch, with a 
Sketch of their Language and Litera- 
ture." He is editor of "King Alfred's 
Anglo-Saxon Version of the Compen- 
dious History of the World, by Orosius, 
wiih an English translation," and a 
"Description of Europe, and the Voy- 
ages of Othere and Wulfstan," written 
in Anglo-Saxon by King Alfred the 
Great. An edition of King Alfred's 
works in Anglo-Saxon and Latin; and 
tiie Gospels in the version of Wycliflfe, 
of the ABglo-Saxons, and of the Maeso- 
Ootiis, in parallel columns, has engaged 

his attention. He is a member of the 
principal literary and scientific societies 
of England and the Continent. 

BOTFIELD, Beriah, an English 
author and man of science, M. P. , F. R S. , 
F.S.A., is son of the late Beriah Bot- 
field, Esq., of Norton Hall, Northamp- 
tonshire. He was bom at EarFs Ditton, 
Salop, in 1807, and received his educa- 
tion, first at Harrow and then at Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he graduated 
Bachelor of Arts in 1828, in 1847 
taking the degree of Master of Arts. 
He entered Parliament as representative 
for Ludlow, in May 1840, and continued 
to sit for that borough until 1847, l>eing 
again elected in 1857. Mr. Botfield has 
^Titten a " Tour in Scotland," privately 
printed, and "Notes on the Cathedral 
Libraries of England," published in 
1849, besides contributing various 
papers to the learned societies of which 
he is a member. The politics of Mr. 
Botfield are moderate Conservative. 

BOTTA, Paul Emilee, a French tra- 
veller and archxeologist, was bom in 
1805. He is son of an eminent histo- 
rian of the some name. After studying 
medicine, he made a voyage round the 
world in the capacity of surgeon. Be- 
tween 1830 and 1833, as physician to 
Mehemet Ali, he visited Sennaar, and 
other parts of Egypt. On his return to 
France he was appointed French Consul 
at Alexandria, and afterwards, on 
settling on the banks of the Tigris at 
Mosul, having learned that a mound in 
the \'icinity was supposecl to cover part 
of the seat of ancient Nineveh, he com- 
menced excavating, but obtaining no 
great success he next examined a similar 
moimd at Khorsabad, and there he com- 
menced operations anew. In this in- 
stance his hopes were realized, for ulti- 
mately he had the gratification of lay- 
ing open the apartments of an Assyrian 
palace, thus opening up the way to 
discoveries which have since been fol- 
lowed up with so much success by Mr* 




I-lyaril anil otben Scii^turai ud 
otliiT oliji'i.'la nf interest removad bom 
tlio I'lliliet- wore bnuiBfcrreil to th* AjlJ- 
riaii Miucuni id Porin, thuika to tiiv 
t.inlinlity with which tlm French »utho- 
ritii'' M'uonilvJ M. Bottn'B Uboun. In 
I3-'>T liv waa a|>fKiiutt.-d Oonnil-Qciuenl 
ftt Trij-ilL Hi- hna imLlinhed m "Utr- 
rativi' nf a Jtmrni-y t<i Yemen, nndor- 
Ukni in IS.U for the 
Nntiiral History »t Paris ; ' 
titloil. "I'he MoDimiGDtll 
ili»<'iivvrtil and detciibed 
Butt.1, nuil measareil and 
:M. R FLiudin" {1g49, U 
nlisti'ni.'t fnim the same 
'■ liit<..'H]>ti.>ns Discovered 
nla-V |184S). 

<'iivTE VE, a French ilrpka 
Iwi'ti at I'.iria, in ISOO. Ha i 
bis (Uplnniatie career under tl 

tioti. Hf was attached to ti„ ^ 

enibft'^sy at Lonilon in 1822, lith M. 
An (.'li.ltt'aiibriantl, and waji afterwartU 
Si'civtary of Legation at Berne. £m- 
l.liiy.'il <iii the editorial deiHrtmeut of the 
"Uflsits" (under the direction of M. de 
ChfttiniiliiiaiKl), he l>ec!U[ie a Councillur 
of Statf. After the Revolution of 1830, 
lie was succeBsivcly Secretary and 
C1iar;jt' d' AHaircs to the French Embassy 
in Loniliin, under M. Guizot. He was 
after wanls appointed Anil>aBsadc)r at 
Cunstantiniilde. At the Ci>QferenceB of 
Vienna, in ISSi, he insisted on the 
"fuur guarantees" as necessary con di- 
tionx of jieoce. He was next accredited 
as Aniliassador to Vienna, in 1H6G, after 
having taken part as French Pleiii[Hi- 
tuntiaiy, in theU>ngreB9of Paris. After 
the signature of the Treaty of Zurich, 
where he represented France, he retired 
from the public service of the state, and 
took his seat in the Senate. 

BOUS.'jINOAULT, Jejn Bajtiste, a 
French cliemist and agriculturist, and 
a member of the Institute, was bom 
at Paha on the 2nd of Fcbriuuy, 1802. 

He bf«ams a pupil at the Miuli^ SchaJ 
of Ht Ktiennc. and gave iudiokliiiM 

tbon- uf his intelligeiice and UMnoa 
diagiositioD. Havios iBouvwl an oSir 
from an En^ltth oomiiktty to ^ to Sumk 
Aniurica, for the puquiHt o| retnwin)! 
oU tninei which had beoD feft nswoifcid 
tor many jruan. be at onoa dMided si 
accepting it, and proceeded to lua doCi 
in. Hi* liitandve powoiB uf obaa- 
lu wvn^ thiu called into kMRvai 
In iB'il ht! waa ^|i>iint«d Pruf^ait 
MotaJlut:gy at BogotK, im Saaili 
riua. Thv ravtiliiUott in the 
linb ciilonieH oompidled him, fat ( 
at loBit. to entsr lbs tntlititrj p^> 
'□ aa an engineer, with the nek 
lieutunant-Cohmol, on the atkff of 
L..>ral Bolivar. In 1626 he waa ap- 
ttd Superiatendent of Mtnca la 
Grenada, and while hotding thu 
II >ti»n he proaecutnl several impiitt- 
. dcientide investagationa. His geoln- 
al and geogriiiihii-il obsi'rv;itiouB, hii 
'ursions to the volcanoes of Ecuador, 
and his exploration of Chimboiaio, 
vhich he ascended to the height of 
9,700 English feet, with the view of 
studying the law of the decrease of tem- 
perature in the higher regions of th« 
atmosphere, attracted the notice of 
Eur[)|)enn men of science, and more par- 
ticularly of Humboldt and Arago. On 
his return to France in 1833, he was 
named Dean of the'Faculty of Scienoe^ 
at Lyons, and aubaeijuently appointed to 
the Chair of Agriculture at the Coneer- 
vatoire des Arts et M6tier9, at Faria 
He has devoted himself, with great enecgf 
and success, to the study of scienoa !■ 
its application to agriculture, bor 
especially in reference to the econamiad 
-oduction of food for cattle, and Ui 
observations on this subject havial<H« 
pubhshed in the " Annates de I 
et de Chimie," and in the "< 
Beodus " uf the Academy of 
He bos also published van 
the chief of which is a "' 




Rural Economy." He has been a mem- 
ber of the National Assembly and the 
Council of State. He is a Commander 
of the Legion of Honour. He has, how- 
ever, entirely withdrawn himself of late 
from ]K)litical affairs, and has given him- 
self to the pursuit of scientific research. 
BOWRING, Sra John, an English 
writer and colonial governor, was born 
on Octc»ber 17th, 1792, at Exeter, where 
his father was engaged in the woollen 
trade. Belonging to a family of Dissen- 
ters, he early contended, both through 
the press and on the platform, against 
the laws which excluded from ])olitical 
authority persons holding similar reli- 
gious principles. This did not prevent 
him from turning his attention to matters 
of more enduring interest. Trade, eco- 
nomics, literature, and languages engaged 
his intellect, until his qualifications as 
a linguist were recognised throughout 
£un>pe, not less, if not more, than 
his knowledge of commerce, extensive 
though that was. He l>ecame conversant 
with many modem living tongues, and, 
so to si)eak, "excavated" the literary 
treasures hidden in many of the nearly- 
forgotten dialects of Europe. The Uni- 
versity of Groningen showed its appre- 
ciation of his acquirements, by conferring 
on him the degree of LL.D. One of his 
earliest literary productions was pub- 
lished between 1821 and 1823, entitled 
'* Specimens of the Russian Poets ; " in 
1834 '* Bavarian Anthology ;" "Ancient 
Poetry and Romances of Spain ; " in 
1827 ** Si)ecimens of the Polish Poets," 
and ** Servian Popular Songs ; " in 1830 
** Poetry of the Magyars ; " and in 1832 
'^Clieskian Anthology." His compre- 
hensive views of commerce led, under 
various governments, beginning with 
that of Earl Grey, to his employment as 
a Commercial Commissioner to other 
countries. In that capacity he visited 
France, Italy, the states of the Zollve- 
rein, and the Levant. At this period of 
his career he drew ap several reports of 

the highest merit, published as Govern- 
ment Blue-Books, among which the chief 
are : " On the Commercial Relations be- 
tween France and England " (1834 and 
1835) ; "On the Commerce and Manu- 
factures of Switzerland" (1836); "On 
Egyi)t, Candia, and Syria" (1840) ; and 
" On the Prussian Commercial Union " 
(1840). He was appointed Secretary to 
the Commissioners of Public Accounts 
by Earl Grey, and from 1835 to 1837, and 
from 1841 to 1849, he sat in Parliament. 
When the treaty of Sir Henry Pottinger 
had opened to our trade the five prin- 
cipal ports of China, and gave us a 
footing on the seaboard. Dr. Bowring 
was nominated British Consul at Canton 
in 1841, and afterwards Chief Superin- 
tendent of Trade in China, and Plenipo- 
tentiary to the Court of Pekin. Having 
performed his duties satisfactorily, he 
returned to England in 1853, was 
knighted, and ap|>ointed Crovemor of 
Hong-Kong and its dependencies, with 
the chief control of the naval and mili- 
tary power. In 1855 he visited Siam, 
concluded a treaty with the two kings 
of that country, and returned to his go- 
vermental {wst About two years after- 
wards a serious matter occurred, which 
led to the nomination of Lord Elgin as 
Ambassador Extraordinary, without, 
however, displacing Sir John Bowring. 
By an ordinance of the Legislative 
Council of Hong-Kong, which had been 
confirmed by the Queen's authority, 
certain colonial vessels were recognised 
by licence as of British ownership, and, 
consequently, were entitled to the privi> 
leges of the treaties with China. In 
defiance of this ordinance, a lorcha desig- 
nated the "Arrow," which had been 
sailing under the Hong-Kong licence, 
was lx)arded by the Chinese authorities, 
who seized the whole of the crew. Pro- 
testing, but not obtaining any redress, 
I Sir John referred the question to the 
j British Admiral, who resorted to strong 
. measures to enforce obedience to the 




Vt\\4iu>M : tkut owing to the small force at 
Uu vU»|HMal, faiktl to obtain satisfaction. 
U %^aii Haiti that the licence of the 
"Am»w" hatl expired; but such an 
avi^nni^nt wan not put forward by the 
dituitm* authorities, who stated she did 
not at tlie time cany British colours, 
and wan amenable, as a Chinese vessel, 
to tlie law of China. Sir John Bowrlng 
was accused of wanton and barbarous 
conduct in bombarding Canton. Be 
these matters as they may. Sir John re- 
turned from his post in 1859. The most 
imiH)rtant of his recent works are : "The 
Kingdom of Siam and its People," which 
was publishetl in 1857; and "A Visit 
to the Philippines," in 1857-8. At the 
meeting of the British Association at 
AlHjrdeen last year. Sir John Bowring 
read a ] taper on the opiiun trade, which 
attracte<l much attention. 

BRANDE, William Thomas, an 
English chemist, was bom in London, 
in 1788. Having received his early 
tnlucation at a school in Kensington, he 
afterwards i>roeeeded to Westminster 
ScIkmU, where his abilities soon gained 
him the re8i>ect of his tutors. After 
trav<*lling on the Continent, he entereil 
.St. (}<M)rgi'*H H<ispital as a medical pupiL 
\{v \mv evidencetl tliat devotion to 
rhniiiMtry which has since made him so 
(«iiiinoiit as a man of science. In 1809 
1it« was chosen a P'eUow of the Royal 
NiM'irty, and iMHumie, in 1816, the secre- 
tary <»f that leamisl Innly. About this 
titiif« Mr. Brando had Ixicome highly 
|NtpuUr ai* a Iroturer on chemistry, and 
llintuuh hiH scieiitiHo attainments ob- 
initHMl n |Mintin the Mint in J8'25. Con- 
nci>t4Ml with various sr.iontitic societies, 
boili ill r'.ii^land and abn»a<l, he ha<l the 
Imiiour nf IM-. Ih of Oxfonl conferretl 
I III him at ilu* time that Lord Derby 
wnn vUnmvw ( 'haui^llor of that Uuiver- 
dlty. Min fiiuin as an author rests on 
Iwii KhilMitiiin Riid niaNt4*rly jtnMluc- 
Itifii* • hl« "Manual of ( ■heniistr>'/* and 
hi4 " iMi'lionnty of Seieneis literature, | 

and Art,*' — ^worka which rmnk, at llie 
present time, among the best anUMci- 
ties on the subjects of which they trert. 
BRA VOMURILLO, Juan, aSpanidi 
statesman, was bom at Frejenal de la 
Sierra, in the province of Badajoi^ qq 
the 8th of June, 1803. Destiiied lor 
the church, he studied theology at 
Seville and Salamanca. AbandoniBg 
theology, however, he became a stodeat 
of law, and, in 1825, entered the College 
of Advocates of Seville, filling at the 
same time the chair of philosophy in the 
university of that city. His great ora- 
torical powers soon gave him celebrity, 
and he was appointed Attomey-GencnJ 
at Caceres, in the province of Estrama- 
dura. This official positioii was held by 
him until the beginning of 1896, iHien, 
for various reasons, he proceeded to 
Madrid, and became the chief editor, in 
concert with Pacheco and Perez Her- 
nandez, of the ** Bulletin of Juriiiini- 
dence." In 1837 he was elected to the 
Cortes, and in 1838 he was twice ofiered 
the |>oet of Minister of Justice, once hy 
the Count of Ofalia, and again by the 
Duke of Frias, which, however, he did 
not accept. When the Cortes was dis- 
solved, he established the "Porv^ur" 
newspajter, in which he renewed his 
attacks on the Government, as he did 
afterwards in the "Pilot," and had 
done before in several other newspapen. 
He became involved in }Kilitical affiuis 
in 1840, was arrested, but escaped hy 
some means, and at last fled to Pteris. 
He afterwards returned to Madrid ; and 
in 1 843 he was i4)pointed, by the Lopes 
Cabinet, member of a commission which 
was formed for the compilation of a 
code, and of which he became afterwards 
the pre&ident, fulfilling this charge gra- 
tuitously for a long time. In 1847 he 
l>ecame Minister of Justice. In the 
same year General Narvaez, Duke of 
Valencia, l>eingat the head of afiairs, he 
^-as apiKiinteil Minister of C-onunerce, 
and fulfilled this charge until August, 




1149, when lie passed to the miniitiy 
of Finance, the Dtike of Valencia being 
8til Preeident, nntil November, 1850, 
whei he resigned. Two months after, 
in Jaiuary, 1851, on the fall of Narvaez, 
he was charged with the formation of a 
new cibinet, and was appointed Presi- 
dent aid Minister of Finance ; he dis- 
charged the duties of both of these 
offices, worked a great deal in Finance, 
and made the arrangement of the 
Spanish debt by the law of August 
1851. On the 14th of December, 1852, 
he resigned his office, and the counter- 
revolutionary measures of his successors 
resulting in the insurrection of 1854, 
obliged him to quit Spain, Espartero 
and O'Donnell being then at the head 
ol affiurs. He was recalled in 1856, 
and elected member of the Cortes and 
President of the Chamber of Deputies 
in the legisUture of 1858. This Cortes 
was dinolved by the cabinet, O'DonneU 
calling another, in which he decided to 
take no part. He has since retired 
from pubhc life. 

BRAY, Mss. Anita EuzA, an English 
authoress, daughter of the lato John 
Kempe, Esq., was bom in the county of 
Surrey, towards the end of last century. 
She was married in 1818 to Charles 
Stothard, author of "The Monumental 
Effigies of Great Britain,** son of the 
eminent painter. Her first work, illus- 
trated by her husband, was "Letters 
from Normandy and Brittany,** pub- 
lished in 1820. In the following year, 
Mr. C. Stothard was acddently killed, 
and she published a memoir of his life. 
She subsequently married the lato Bey. 
Edward A. Bray, vicar of Tavistock. 
From that period she has produced, in 
quick succession, "De Foix,*' a romance 
of the 14th century; "The White 
Hoods;** "The Protestant;** "Fitzof 
Fitiford ; ** " The Talba ; ** " Warleigh ; 
or, the Fatal Oak;*' "Trelawny;'* 
"Trials of the Heart;*' "Henry de 
PoDMioy;" "Courtenayof Wahreddon;** 

"Trials of Domestic Life;" "Borders of 
the Tamar and the Tavy,** in letters to 
the late Robert Southey, poet laureate ; 
" The Mountains and Lakes of Switzer- 
land;** " A Peep at the Pixies ; ** "Life 
of Thomas Stothard, R. A. ; ** " Sketch 
of the life of Handel," kc &c. Her 
style ia graceful, and her works are 
alike remarkable for sound morality and 
interesting narration. 

BREMER, Miss Fridbika, a Swed- 
ish novelist and poet, was bom in 1802, 
at Abo, in Finland. At the time that 
Finland was ceded to Russia, she was 
three years old. Her father then sold 
his estate and removed to Sweden ; 
where she resided with her family, some- 
times at Stockholm and sometimes at 
Asta, a property which her father had 
purchased, three miles from the capitaL 
When eighteen years of age, Miss 
Bremer began to compose verses in 
Swedish, but it was not till a much later 
period in life that she committed any 
important production to the press. In 
1828, she published at Stockholm the 
first volume of her " Pictures of Every- 
day Life.** They were succeeded by a 
new collection of the same kind, pub- 
lished between 1844 and 1848. The 
striking descriptions of modem Scandi- 
navian life contained in these works 
obtained for them a wide circulation in 
(Germany, and subsequently in France 
and England, and even in Italy and 
Holland, they having been translated 
into the languages of all these countries. 
In 1831 she obtained the gold medal 
of the Academy of Stockholm. Miss 
Bremer, shortly after publishing two 
books, giving an account of tours in 
Sweden and Norway, undertook, in 
1849, a journey to America. The letters 
which she wrote to her sister during 
her stay in the United States and in the 
island of Cuba, from October 1849 to 
September 1851, were published at 
Stockholm, London, and New York, in 
1853-4 in 3 volumes 8vo^ under the 




title of ** Homes of the New World." 
In this work she gives a very interest- 
ing account of the manners and institu- 
tions of our Transatlantic cousins, who 
seem to have accorded to her a very 
warm and flattering reception. On her 
way home to Sweden, she stayed for 
some time in England. She is at present 
engaged in carrying out philanthropic 
schemes connected with the education 
and elevation of children of the poorer 
classes. In 1842 Mrs. Howitt first 
introiluced her to the literary world of 
Great Britain by a translation of ** The 
Neighlwurs, " which, on account of its 
vivid delineations of domestic life in 
Sweden, at once found favour. **The 
Home " followed, and afterwards ap- 
l)eared in English "The Diary," "The 
H. Family," "The Midnight Sun," 
"The President's Daughter," "Nina," 
and "Brothers and Sisters." 

BREWSTER, Sir David, M.A., 
LL.D., K.H., a physicist and author. 
Principal of the University of Edinburgh, 
was born at Jedburgh, in Scotland, on 
the 11th December, 1781. He was edu- 
cated for the Church of Scotland, and 
admitted a hcentiate, but a decided bias 
led him to the study of natiu*al science. 
In 1800 he obtained the degree of M.A. 
at the University of Edinburgh. Taking 
up his abode in the Scottish capital, he 
commenced his researches and experi- 
ments in physical science, meantime 
studying under Robison, Playfair, and 
Dugald Stewart, then Professors in the 
University. Having made important 
discoveries regarding some jffoperties of 
light, he received, in 1807, the honorary 
degree of LL.D. from the University of 
Aberdeen, and in 1808 was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh- He became editor of the 
"Edinburgh Encyclopjedia," a great 
work, which employed many years of 
his life, and of which he remained 
editor till its completion in 1830. The 
attention of Dr. Brewster was more 

especially directed to optics, a sdenoe 
in which many of his discoveries kave 
been of the highest scientific and prac- 
tical value. In 1813 api)eared his 
" Treatise on New Philosophical Instru- 
ments," in which, and in variouF pliers 
and essays, he gave publicity to disco- 
veries on the refraction, dispersion, and 
I>olarization of light, which placed him 
in the first rank of contemporary in- 
quirers in physical science. In 1815 
Dr. Brewster was awarded the Copley 
medal, by the Royal Society of London, 
in recognition of the value of his optical 
researches, and in the same year that 
learned body elected him a Fellow. In 
1816 the French Institute decreed him 
l,t500 francs, being one-half of their 
prize for the most important discoveries 
in physics made in any part of the 
world during the two preceding years. 
About the same time he invented the 
kaleidoscope, on which he published a 
treatise in 1819, and in 1818 the Royal 
Society awarded him the Rumford gold 
aud silver medals for his " Discoveries on 
the Polarization of Light" In 1819 
he commenced, with Professor Jameson, 
"The Edinburgh Philosophical Jour- 
nal," and in 1824, as sole editor, "The 
Edinbiu-gh Journal of Science," of 
which twenty volumes were published, 
— these periodicals being the first esta- 
blished in Scotland devoted to scientific 
subjects. In 1821 he founded the Scot- 
tish Society of Arts, which was incorpo- 
rated by Royal Charter in 1841. In 
1825 the French Institute elected him a 
corresponding member, and he received 
the same honour from other continental 
scientific societies. He originally sug- 
gested the formation of, and, indeed, 
may be said to have founded, the " Bri- 
tish Association for the Advancement 
of Science," which has since proved so 
successful in forwarding the objects for 
which it was intended. So early as 
1811, Sir David Brewster had thrown 
out the suggestion that a powerful lens 




night be confitnicted of zones of glass 
built up out of several circular segments, 
and had recommended the adoption of 
the instrument, as a means of brilliant 
illumination, to the Scottish Lighthouse 
Board. It was shown that by the use 
of this invention, the navigation of our 
coast would be freed from many of its 
dangers. The plan was not^ however, 
adopted, until Sir David Brewster had 
imblished, in 1826, his ** Account of a 
New System for the Illiunination of 
Lighthouses," and urged its adoption in 
** The Edinburgh Review," and had ob- 
tained a parliamentary committee for 
inquiry into the management of our 
British lighthouses. At last, however, 
the dioptric system, his invention, was 
introduced in 1825 into the Scottish 
lighthouses, and afterwards into those 
of England and Ireland. It is now in 
general use in our colonies, and in every 
l>art of the world. Sir David Brewster 
is also the inventor of the lenticular 
stereoscope, now to l)e found in every 
household throughout the whole civi- 
lized world. He was elevated to the 
dignity of knighthood in 1832 by King 
William IV., an honour weU won and 
justly conferred. In 1831 he received 
the decoration of the Hanoverian 
Guel]>hic order. He is now Vice-President 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
having twice obtained its medals and 
long ))een its secretary. In 1833 he 
received the degree of D.C.L. from Ox- 
ford, and afterwards from the Univer- 
sity of Durham. He is also an officer of 
the Legion of Honour, and in 1849, on 
the death of Berzelius, was chosen one 
of the eight Foreign Associates of the 
Paris Academy of Sciences. He is a 
Chevalier of the Prussian Order of 
Merit, a Fellow of the Astronomical and 
Geological Societies, and a Member of 
the Royal Irish Academy. In 1838 Sir 
David Brewster was appointed Princi|)al 
of the United Colleges of St. Salvator 
and Stb Leonard's, in the Univenity of 

St. Andrews, a position which he 
retained until 1859, when he was in- 
vited to assume the duties of Piincipal 
of the Edinburgh University. He holds 
that office at present, enjoying at the 
same time a pension of £300 per annimi 
from the Crown. Sir David has written 
extensively on scientific subjects. His 
principal works are a *' Treatise on New 
Philosophical Instruments," published 
in 1813; "Memoirs of the Life, Writ- 
ings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac 
Newton ; " se|)arate Treatises on the 
* * Kaleidoscope " and * * Stereoscope ; " 
"The Martyrs of Science;" "More 
Worlds than One ; " and " Letters on 
Natural Magic.*' He is also the author 
of nimierous articles in the "Edinburgh 
Review," the "Quarterly Review," and 
the "North British Review;" his 
contributions embracing a wide range 
of subjects, scientific and literary, and 
attesting the versatility of his talents 
and the variety of his accomplishments. 
To the "North British Review," in 
particular, he has contributed a series 
of articles, one of which will' be found 
in almost every number of that periodi- 
cal The subjects are generally con- 
nected with astronomy, physics, optics, 
geology, and physical geography ; but 
they treat of many purely literary 
and historical topics, in no way con- 
nected with science, and all are remark- 
able for elegance of diction. At the 
disruption of the Scottish Church, Sir 
David Brewster joined the Free Church ; 
he has been uniformly a liberal in 

BRIGHT, John, an English orator 
and statesman, was bom at Greenbank, 
Rochdale, in Lancashire, on the 16th of 
November, 1811. He is the second son of 
the late Jacob Bright, a cotton-spinner 
and manufacturer at Rochdale. Having 
received an ordinary school education, 
he was transferred, at the age of fifteen, 
to his father^s office, to be initiated into 
the detail and management of the busi- 




nom, which in default of his elder pelletl to admire hia genius. But the 
hnithcr, who died young, he was des- > oratory of the platform, however useful, 
tinod to inherit. In 1835 he spent some is of comparatively little influence unless 
monUiH on the Continent, and extended its echo be heard in Parliament. The 
his travels as far as Egypt and Palestine ; , League was always aware of this iact^ 
thus helping to complete an education and lost no opportunity to find and make 
which circumstances had somewhat re- , an opening for the admission of its most 
striutcfL In 1838, when the famous prominent members into the House of 
A nti*Com Law Association of Manches- Commons. In 1841 Mr. Cobden was 
tcr was formed, Mr. Bright became one retiu-ncd for Stockport, and in April, 
of its council ; and when in the following 1S43, a vacancy having occurred, Mr. 
year the agitation assumed larger pro- - Bright contested the city of Durham ; but 
porti<ms, and grew into the Anti-Corn- • the influence brought against him was 
]j&w League, the public career of Mr. , too strong, and he was defeated. Not 
Bright received its final determiDation. j deterred by the failure, his opponent. 
He became intimately associated with Lord Dungannon, having been unseated 
Mr. Cobden and the other leading spirits ' for bribery, he contested the city a 
of the most powerful political organiza- second time, in the month of July, in 
tion of our time, and by the force of his the same year, and was successfuL His 
genius, perseverance, and eloquence, ' general political profession was that of 

■hook the ancient citadel of monopoly 
till it tottered to its fall While Mr. 

a Radical and Free-Trade Refonner — 
attached to no party, but willing to 

Cobden lent his calm and unanswerable support either Whigs or Tories, if their 
logic to the cause, Mr. Bright gave it I measures were such as he could approve, 

the impetus of zeal and |)a88ion. The 
one sap|)ed the foundations of economie 
error, the other battered at its walls. 
The one convinced his opponents, the 
other carried them away caj)tive ; and 

and founded upon the wants of the 
coimtry and the rights of the people. 
Mr. Bright, although the repeal of the 
Com Laws was the one leading object 
of his political life, found time to on* 

both rendered such efficient service as ' ginate and supxM)rt the ax>pointment of 
to make it difficult to say which was the ! two select committees of the House of 

most usefid or the most iwworful. The 
organization of the Anti-Corn Law 
League was remarkably adapted to ac- 
complish the object in view. Public 
meetings were held in every part of the 
country ; newspajiers were established 

Commons. The first of these was a com- 
mittee on the Game Laws, ap]>ointed in 
1845. The evidence which it procured 
was printed in the usual Blue-Book form 
in 1846. The same year, through the 
instrumentality of Mr. Bright, an 

in the interest of the agitation ; wherever ! abridgement of this evidence was pub- 

there was a chance of success, the coim 
try was deluged with pamphlets ; emi- 
nent men entered the ranks, but tower- 
ing high alx)ve them all were the names 
of CoMen and Bright. The 8i>eeche8 of 
Mr. Bright were of the most effective 
description, and thoroughly English in 
tone as well as phraseology. Powerful, 
impassioned, and convincing, he so car- 
ried his auditors with him, that even 
those who ox^posed his politics were com- 

lished in a voliune more suited for 
general circulation, and containing, from 
his pen, an '* Address to the Tenant 
Farmers of Great Britain," strongly 
condemning the existing Game Laws. 
The other committee was on the subject 
of cotton cultivation in India ; and the 
bulky volume containing the evidence 
taken by it has been often since referred 
to in discussions on this question. On 
this point Mr. Bright has always been 




well infonned; and it was chieflj 
through hiB ingtrumentality that the 
hite Mr. Alexander Mackay was des- 
patched to India, at the expense of some 
of the leading manufacturers of Man- 
chester, to report upon the causes, 
fiscal, natural, or political, which pre- 
Tented and impeded the cultiyation of 
cotton in such quantities as to render 
this country less dependent upon the 
Southern States of the American Union. 
Mr. Bright continued to represent the 
dty of Durham until the repeal of the 
Com Laws, and the consequent final 
establishment of Free-trade principles 
as the policy of the British Empire. 
After the repeal of the Com Laws, and 
the ministerial crisis that followed the 
break up of the Conservative party by 
the defection, or self-sacrifice, of Sir 
Robert Peel, Mr. Mark Philips, 
a Liberal and Free Trader, who 
had shared with Mr. Milner Gibson 
the representation of Manchester, an- 
nounced his intention of retiring from 
parliamentary life. After some discus- 
sion, involving the claims of Mr. Cob- 
den (who refused to stand), and an 
invitation to Lord Lincoln, now the 
Duke of Newcastle, who withdrew, 
however, before the poll was taken, 
Mr. Bright became a candidate for the 
city of Manchester. Although many 
were opposed to his claims, their oppo- 
sition was fruitless, and the party of 
Free Trade, aided by the Ultra Libe- 
rals, carried his election triumphantly. 
During the interval between his elec- 
tion for Manchester and the accession 
of the first Derby Ministry to power, 
Mr. Bnght*s activity in Parliament 
and on the platform was varied and 
continuous. In the House of Commons 
he proposed to apply the remedy of 
free trade in land to the state of things 
which jiroduced the Irish famine. He 
appealed, unsuccessfully, for the des- 
patch of a royal commission to inves- 
tigate the coij^dition of India; and in 

1849 he was appointed one of the 
members of the Select Committee of the 
House of Commons on official salaries. 
At Westminster, and still more in the 
provinces, especially at Manchester, he 
co-operated with Mr. Cobden in the 
movement which the latter sought to 
create in favour of Financial Reform, 
mainly with a view to tl^e reduction of 
our naval and military establishments. 
In 1851 he added his vote to those who 
attempted to censure Lord Palmerston 
for his conduct towards the Grovem- 
ment of Greece in the matter of the 
claims of Don Pacifico, a British sub- 
ject ; and in 1852 he took a prominent 
part in the welcome given to Kossuth 
by the Liberals of Manchester. On the 
formation of the first Derby Ministry, 
Mr. Bright aided in that temporary 
re-oiganization of the Anti-Com-Law 
League which the acceptance of Free 
Trade by the new Government after- 
wards rendered unnecessary. At the 
general election which followed, the 
return of Mr. Bright, as well as of Mr. 
Gibson, for Manchester, was opposed. 
But the principle of Free Trade was 
supposed to be once more at stake, and 
Mr. Bright, with Mr. Gibson, were 
re-elected by a considerable majority. 
Soon after the accession to power of 
the Aberdeen Ministry, the Emperor of 
the French, then newly elected to the 
throne, began to develop designs upon 
the custody of the Holy Places in Syria, 
which alarmed the jealousy of the late 
Emperor Nicholas, and led to the mission 
of Prince Menschikofi* to Constantinople 
to insist upon concessions to Russia, as 
the head of the Greek Church, which 
the Ottoman Porte could not with safety 
or with dignity agree to. The Porte 
being supported in its resistance by the 
Government, the jMJoplo, and the Press 
of Great Britain, the Emi)eror of the 
French saw that he had made a mistake, 
and withdrew from a false i)osition. Not 
so the Emperor of Russia : persisting 




in his claims, and being encouraged in 
the belief that under no circumstance 
whaterer would the people of Great 
Britain consent to undertake a war to 
support the independence of Turkey 
or of any other state — ^he marched his 
armies across the Pruth. The result 
was the immediate alliance of England 
and France, who were afterwards joined 
by Sardinia, in support of the rights of 
the Sultan and the integrity of the 
Turkish empire. Mr. Bright and his 
political friends protested against the 
war, but his health having become im- 
paired, partly from over-work in the 
service of the public, he was ordered by 
his physician to seek change of scene in 
foreign travel In the spring of 1857, 
during his absence from Parliament, 
Mr. Cobden proposed and carried a 
vote of censure on the Grovemment of 
Lord Palmerston, for the origin and 
conduct of the Chinese war that arose 
out of the quarrel incident to the capture 
of the lorcha "Arrow," in the waters of 
Canton. This vote led to a dissolution 
of Parliament, and at the election for 
Manchester which ensued, Mr. Bright 
lost his seat. In the autunm of the 
same year, the death of Mr. Muntz 
caused a vacancy in the representation 
of Birminghamu Mr. Bright having 
been invited to offer himself as a can- 
didate, was unanimously elected, and 
took his seat once more in the House of 
Commons, amid the general acclamation 
of the country, who valued his honesty 
too highly to see him without regret dis- 
carded from Parliament. He supported, 
but did not speak on the motion of Mr. 
Milner Gibson, hostile to the second 
reading of the Conspiracy Bill, brought 
in to satisfy the jealous fears of the 
French Government, and the result of 
which was the overthrow of Lord Pal- 
merston*s Government. During the 
remainder of tbe session he spoke occa- 
sionally, especially on the subject of 
India, and with every evidence of a 

complete restoration to health. In the 
autumn and winter of 1858-9, Mr. 
Bright made a tour of the j^rovinces, 
and published an elaborate scheme of 
change in our representative system. 
Although dissatisfied with the moderate 
liberalism of the Palmerston- Russell ad- 
ministration, he ha« generally supported 
that ministry, and gave in his adhesion 
to the Reform Bill imsuccessfuUy intro- 
duced by Lord John Russell in the ses- 
sion of 1860. 

BRODIE, Sir Benjamin Collins, 
Bart., D.C.L., an English surgeon, was 
bom in 1783, at Winterslow, Wiltshire. 
His professional education was received 
at an anatomical school in London, and 
at St. George's Ho6i>ital, as a pui)il of Sir 
Everard Home. After having delivered 
lectures on anatomy (in conjunction 
with Mr. Wilson) and on surgeiy, he 
was, in 1808, elected assistant-surgeon 
to St. George's Hospital, and eventu- 
ally surgeon. He was chosen a Fellow 
of the Royal Society in 1810, ha\ing 
contributed a paper to the "Philosophi- 
cal Transactions," on the circulation of 
the blood in a foetus without a heart, 
during the previous year. In 1811 he 
received the Cojiley medal for paj)ers 
published in the * * Transactions. ' ' These 
contributions treated of the influence of 
the brain on the action of the heart, 
the generation of animal heat, the modes 
by which death is produced by vetjeta- 
ble XM)iBons, and other physiological pro- 
blems. In 1814 he published an account 
of his experiments and observations on 
the influence of certain nerves on the 
secretions of the stomach. Dr. Brodie 
then rose gradually in reputation ; and 
in 1832 was appointed Sergeant- Surgeon 
to Queen Adelaide. In 1834 he was 
created a baronet, and in 1850 he re- 
ceived the degree of D.C.L from the 
University of Oxford. He is President 
of the Royal Society, and a correspond- 
ing member of the Institute of France, 
and also a member of numerous learned 




■ociefcies in Europe and America. Sir 
Benjamin has published works "On 
Local Nervous Affections," ** On Tarious 
Snbjects in Pathology and Surgery," 
''Pathological and Surgical Observa- 
tions on Diseases of the Joints,^' ** Phy- 
siological Researches,** '* Psychological 
Inquiries,*' and "Lectures on the Dis- 
eases of the Urinary Organs." He has 
bendes contributed largely to the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Medical and Chirur- 
gical Society. 

BROGLIE, AchilleChables L^once 
Victor, Due db, a French statesman 
and member of the Lnstitute, was bom 
on the 28th November, 1789. His father 
was a nobleman who refused to emigrate, 
and was guillotined in 1794, for his ad- 
hesion to the cause of the Ck)nstitution. 
Vuder the Elmpire, M. de Broglie dis- 
charged duties in the administrative 
office he held with so much intelligence 
as to attract the notice of the first Xapo- 
leon, who entrusted him with missions 
in niyria, Spain, and Poland, although 
he was well known to be unfriendly to 
the empire. He was appointed by Louis 
XVILL a peer of Franco, but he soon 
oppo6e«i, as a liberal, the Government of 
the Restoration. In 1828 he founded 
the ** Revue Fran9aise," contributing to 
it many articles, among which the most 
remarkable was one on Capital Punish- 
ments. After the revolution of July 
1830, he held office for a few days as 
Minister of the Interior, ceding it, how- 
ever, to his friend M. Guizot, for the 
ministry of Public Instruction. He was 
Minister of Foreign Affairs in October 
1832, resigning the office in April, but 
resuming it in May 1834. He retired 
** finally" from public life in February 
1835 ; but after the election of Louis 
Napoleon he returned again to the arena 
of active politics, as a representative to 
the Legislative Assembly. The c(mpd'€kU 
changed affairs once more, and the Due 
de Broglie has not since been heard of 
as a politician. In 1856 he was elected 

a member of the French Academy, his 
title to this distinction being founded 
on his contributions to reviews, and his 
parliamentary speeches. His reception 
was quite an event, as it gave him, a 
statesman respected by all classes of 
politicians, an opportunity of exi)re8sing 
his opinions on the political changes 
which had overthrown the great men of 
Louis Philippe's time. 

BROOKE, Sir James, the Rajah of 
Sarawak, and Governor of Labuan, in 
the island of Borneo, was bom in the 
year 1803, near the city of Bath. His 
father was in the Civil Service of the 
East India Company, and the subject of 
this notice at an early age went out to 
India as a cadet. The corps to which he 
belonged being engaged in the first 
Burmese war, he was wounded in the 
chest so severely as to render it neces- 
sary for him to return to England on 
furlough. As soon as his health and 
vigour were restored he returned again 
to India, but found himself su|)erscded 
in the service for undue length of ab- 
sence from his duties. This was owing 
chiefly to his being shipwrecked on his 
voyage to India, and the lengthened 
period required for his convalescence. 
He determined to take a voyage to 
China, and on the passage he was very 
much impressed by the natural wealth 
and fertility of the great islands of the 
Malay peninsula, rich in minerals and in 
all the products of the tropics, to an 
extent unknown on the continent of 
India. He wondered even at this time 
that no attempt had been made to put 
down piracy in seas so much frequented 
by European vessels, and to introduce 
European civilization into countries so 
accessible by the great extent of their 
sea-board. On his return to England in 
1838 he urged upon the attention of 
Government the schemes he had formed 
respecting the Malay islands. He wrote 
a paper at this time, an abstract of which 
was published in the Journal of the Geo- 

BRO 64 

logical Society, in which he pointed out 
the importance in an industrial and 
commercial point of view of the Malay 
archipelago, and enforced the necessity 
of something being done to establish peace 
and civilization in one of the most fertile 
regions of the tropics. All his efforts 
proving unsuccessful, he determined to 
proceed to Borneo as a private adven- 
turer. Purchasing a small yacht named 
the * * Royalist, " he set sail with a picked 
crew of twenty men ; and, well provided 
with the munitions of war, he under- 
took the formidable task of extirpating 
piracy in the Indian archipelago, and 
founding a settlement on some part of 
it. Fixing upon Sarawak, in the island 
of Borneo, as his first scene of opera- 
tions, he sailed for that place. On his 
arrival he found the Rajah Muda Hassim 
engaged in suppressing a rebellion in his 
territories, and being asked to assist him 
in the undertaking, vnllingly consented. 
With the aid of Mr. Brooke and his 
small band of followers, Muda Hassim 
easily put down the insurrection, and 
with the consent of the Sovereign in- 
stalled Mr. Brooke as his successor. The 
latter then vigorously applied himself to 
the reform of the most open abuses. In 
1841 his domination was finnly estab- 
lished. In apa}>er which he wrote during 
the following winter, he claimed the assist- 
ance of the English government, on the 
ground that his objects were * * to call into 
existence the resources'of one of the richest 
and most extensive islands of the globe, 
to relieve an industrious people from 
oppression, and to check, if possible to 
suppress, piracy and the dave trader 
which are openly carried on within a 
short distance of three European settle- 
ments, on a scale and system revolting to 
humanity." He had received no assist- 
ance up to this time, and had expended 
£10,000 of his own fortune. It is 
impossible to give any account of the 
beneficent measures he carried out in his 
attempts to put an end one after the 


other to the barbarous customs of the 
country. In 1847 he returned to Eng- 
land, and was warmly welcomed by his 
friends and the public, created a Knight 
of the Bath, and invited to dine with the 
Queen. The Government of the day ac- 
knowledged his title of Rajah, sent him 
out in a man-of-war, and made him 
governor of the new settlement of Labuan, 
in Borneo, with an allowance of £1,500 
a year, and £500 more for his services as 
consular agent. In the mean time, how- 
ever, his enemies had been at work. 
The late Mr. Joseph Hume, prompted, 
it is said, by persons who had an inte- 
rest in putting down Sir James Brooke, 
arraigned him in the House of Commons, 
accused him of various malversations, 
and endeavoured to have him morally 
condemned as a reckless spiller of human 
blood. While these charges were being 
discussed, Sir James Brooke, forsaken by 
the government, was attacked at Kutchin, 
his head-quarters, by the Chinese settled 
in the colony, and only succeeded in 
quelling the insurrection at the immi- 
nent peril of his life. A most satisfactory 
reply to the calumnies brought against 
Sir James Brooke will be found in his 
** Private Correspondence,' ' published in 
185^ which fully establish his claims 
to be considered a man of genius, actu- 
ated by the purest and most unselfish 
motives in his attem^vts to reclaim from 
barbarism the races of the Malayan archi- 
pelago, and entitle him to our esteem 
and admiration as one of the most daring 
and heroic men of the age. We regret 
to add that the Rajah has been com- 
pelled by shattered health to return 
again to England. 

BROOKS, Charles Shirley, a dra- 
matic author and journalist, was bom 
in 1815. His father was the eminent 
architect, William Brooks, who built 
the London Institution, and the Church 
Missionary College. Mr. C. S. Brooks 
was educated for the law, and admitted 
a solicitor; but abandoning the profes- 




he derated his attention to the 
dma and joumalum. A aeries of 
pbyii including '*The Lowther Arcade," 
** Our New €h>vemes8/' and " Honours 
and Richea," produced by him at the 
Lyceom in 1845-51, made his theatrical 
repatetion. Becoming connected with the 
"Morning Chronicle,** he visited, as its 
^pedjd coirespondent. Southern Russia, 
laim Minor, and Egsrpt, with the yiow 
diiefly of inquiring into the condition of 
the labouring classes in those countries. 
He has written several novels, of which 
"Aspen Court** and "The Gordian 
Knot *^ are the best. Mr. Brooks is also 
a contributor to the " Quarterly Re- 
view," and other leading perio<licals. 
He is one of the principal writers in 
" Punch. ** He has collected the greater 
part of his contributions to the ** Morn- 
ing Chronicle** in a work published 
■eparately, entitled *'The Russians of 
the South.** 

BROUGHAM, Henry, Lord 
BsouoiLAM, a man of science, orator, 
statesman, and lawyer, was bom at 
Edinburgh in 1778. He is the descend- 
ant of one of the oldest families in 
Westmoreland, which dates from the 
Conquest, and has title to the ancient 
peerage of Vaux. His education was 
commenced in the High School and 
finished in the University of Edinburgh. 
His quick intelligence and extraordinary 
aptitude were not unolieerved, and during 
his residence at the University he gave 
himself ardently to the study of mathe- 
matics and physical science. At seven- 
teen years of age he wrote a paper which 
he forwarded to the Royal Society, 
entitled an "Essay on the Inflection 
and Reflection of Light,** which was in- 
serted in its * ' Transactions, ** in 1 796. He 
contributed another on the same subject 
in 1797> and one on Porisms in 1798. 
Having left the University on the termi- 
nation of his studies, he travelled for 
some time on the Continent, making 
Sweden and Norway the principal points 

of his tour. On returning to Scotland' 
he settled in Edinburgh as an advocate 
or barrister for a few years. During 
this period he was the friend and com- 
|>anion of Jeffrey, Murray, Sydney 
Smith, Homer, Thomas Brown, and the 
other young men of genius who at 
this period did honour to the northern 
capital In 1802, when the *' Edinburgh 
Review** was founde<l, he was one of 
its most indefatigable contributors. He 
removed to London in 1806, and in 1807 
he was called to the English bar. In 
the short truce which followed the peace 
of 1814, he visited Paris, and as a savant 
became acquainted with Camot and 
other eminent Frenchmen. Once fixed 
in London, his practice as a lawyer grew 
upon his hands, his first great appear- 
ance being before the Houhc of Lords, 
as counsel for Lady E&iex Kerr, whose 
family claimed the Dukeilom of Rox- 
burgh. In 1808 he was counsel for 
some British merchants in London, 
Lancashire, and Yorkshire, claiming a 
rcixial of the Orders in Council which 
had been issued in retaliation of Na- 
l)oleon*s Berlin and Milan decrees, — 
ordeiB which went to prohibit, under the 
}>ain of capture, neutral vessels from 
entering any port in France. For some 
weeks Mr. Brougham examined wit- 
nesses for his clients at the bar of the 
House of Commons, doing his utmost 
for the interests of his clients ; but the 
"Orders in Council'* were not rescinded 
until 1812, when he was in Parliament, 
and could as a memlier support the 
petitions of his former clients. He htui 
in 1810 entered Parliament for the 
burgh of Camelford, and at once 
ranged himself with the Whig oppo- 
sition. In 1811 he carried the Bill 
which declared participation in the 
slave trade a felony, and thereby put 
an end to that traffic. On the dissolu- 
tion of Parliament, in 1812, he pre- 
sented himself to the electors of Liver- 
pool as a candidate for their suffrages; 




but Canning, whom he opposed, pos- 
sessed the weightier influence, and Mr. 
Brougham was defeated. He did not 
re-enter Parliament for four years, when, 
in the recess of 1815, he was returned for 
Winchelsea, a dose borough. He en- 
tered with spirit, energy, and consum- 
mate ability on the discussion of all the 
questions that then agitated the public 
mind. Slavery and the slave trade, 
agricultural distress, parliamentary re- 
form, Catholic emancipation, the Holy 
Alliance, reduction of the army, the 
Corn-law monopoly, and other topics, 
occupied his attention, and elicited his 
most fervid oratory. It was during one 
of his impassioned speeches about this 
period, that he accused Canning of 
'* baseness,*' and designated Peel an 
"ignominious parasite.'' Popular though 
Mr. Brougham had become, as a member 
of Parliament, exposing and denouncing 
abuses in the State, he was destined to 
command a still higher degree of estima- 
tion. Queen Caroline came to England 
to claim her rights as Queen Consort 
and wife of George IV. Supported by 
Lords Eldon and Liverpool, and all the 
Tories of the day, the King not only 
repudiated the claim, but put her on 
her trial before the House of Lords for 
adultery. Mr. Brougham having been 
the Queen's legsd adviser on previous 
occasions, was now appointed her Attor- 
ney-General, and it fell to him to vindi- 
cate her honour and chastity before the 
first Court of Judicature known to the 
constitution. His labours were incessant, 
his eloquence without parallel ; and, 
eventually, the King felt constrained to 
withdraw his Bill of Pains and Penalties 
against his wife. Mr. Brougham's cause 
was the cause of the people, and thence- 
forth he became a popular idol, and 
continued to mix himself up with every 
prominent question of the day. When 
Parliament was dissolved, on the death 
of George IV., Mr. Brougham contested 
the representation of the most important 

seat in England, that of the West Riding 
of Yorkshire, and won it In the new 
Parliament he gave immediate notice of 
various measures of parliamentary re- 
form. Before, however, his motion could 
come on. Sir Henry Pamell a])plied to 
the House for an inquiry into the Civil 
List, which was resisted by the Welling- 
ton government, but carried. The Duke 
resigned, and Earl Grey was commanded 
to form a ministry, in which he ap(K>inted 
Mr. Brougham Lord Chancellor, with a 
peerage, the title being '* Brougham and 
Vaux." In the House of Lords, Lord 
Brougham was mainly instnmiental in 
carr3ring the Reform Bill, and for four 
years, from 1830 to 1834, he toiled with- 
out intermission on behalf of various 
measures of reform; but in the latter 
year, William IV. caused the Melbourne 
administration to retire, and caUed the 
Conservatives to office, the Duke of 
Wellington being interim dictator, while 
Sir Robert Peel was on his way from 
Italy. The Peel government having 
been defeated on the first motion of 
importance submitted to the House of 
Commons, the Irish Church Revenues 
Bill, Lord Melbourne returned to power, 
and nominated his ministers, among 
whom, however. Lord Brougham had 
no place, and he has never Rince been a 
servant of the Crown. When Louis 
Philippe was deprived of the throne and 
a republic established, Lord Brougham, 
who had purchased property and built a 
house at Cannes, where he went every 
winter, applied, along with other English 
residents having property there, for 
naturalization as a security for it, but 
the claim was unsuccessful, in conse- 
quence of the opinion of the French 
lawyers, that the ajiplicants must, as a 
preliminary to naturalization in France, 
cease to be English citizens. As an 
orator, Lord Brougham has had few 
equals in or out of the Senate ; no living 
statesman possesses the same versatility. 
As an author he is occasionally care- 




bafe alwitji dear ; m Chanoellor, he 
parfcuBMd the greatesfc judicial feat on 
reeosd: he retired from the Ck>urt of 
Chuftoery without leaving a single case 
which had been heard in arrear for 
jndgmeDt. It ia impossible to enume- 
rate in thia place Lord Brougham's 
practieal efforts in the cause of ednca- 
tioD ; ndBce it to say, that among his 
oiher undertakings he established the 
"Society for the Difiusion of Useful 

"Sketches of Eminent Statesmen of 
the Reign of George IIL ;" *' Natural 
Theology/* comprising a Discourse on 
Natural Theology; ** Dialogues on In- 
stinct, and Dissertations on the Struc- 
ture of the Cells of Bees, and on Fossil 
Osteology;** ** Rhetorical and Literary 
Dissertations and Addresses, with Dis- 
courses of Ancient Eloquence,*' &c. ; 
* * Historical and Political Dissertations, ** 
contributed to various periodicals ; and 

delivered by Lord Brougham to 
the meetings of the Social Science Asso- 
daAkm st Bradford, on the occasion of 
ahe foondation of the monument to 
Newton, and of hia installation at Edin- 
borig^ ** Chancellor of the Univeiuty 
on which he has conferred so much 

Knoiwledge,** and was the founder of | *' Speeches on Social and Political Sub- 
UniTennty College, London. The ad-ijects, with Historical Introductions;*' 

** Contributions to the Edinburgh Re- 
view, Political, Historical, and Miscel- 
laneous,** in three octavo volumes, ar- 
ranged under the heads of Rhetoric, 
History, Constitutional Questions, Po- 
litical Economy, Finance, Conmiercial 
Law, Physical Science, and Miscella- 
honour, show that his activity and in- neous Subjects ; ** Paley's Natural The- 
tellectoal vigour are unimpaired. He I ology, with Notes and Dissertations by 
has again evinced his interest in social ! LordBrougham, and Sir Charles Bell,*' in 
affairs in his presidential address to the | three volumes; "Political Philosophy;" 

and what may be termed his Lordship's 
magnum opusy " A Treatise on the Bri- 
tish Constitution,** which has just issued 
from the press. 

Cam Hobhouse, Baron, an English 
statesman, was bom in 1786. The son 
of a wealthy brewer in London, he was 
educated i^ Cambridge, and in 1809 
travelled in the East, publishing his 
observations under the title of ** A 
Journey into Albania, and other Pro- 
vinces of the Turkish Empire.** Lord 
Byron dedicated the fourth canto of 
"Childe Harold** to him. Being in 
France during the ** Hundred Days,*' 
he wrote, after Waterloo, his ** Letters 
to an Englishman," the opinions ex- 
pressed in which subsequently led to his 
incarceration in Newgate. This con- 
demnation rendered him popular, and 
on his release he was returned to tho 
House of Commons in 1820. He 
adopted at first radical opinions, but in 
a few yean his liberalism became leas 

Social Science Congress lately held at 
Gbuigow (September 1860), where, in a 
speech of great length, he reviewed 
same of the most interesting occurrences 
which had taken place since the previous 
meeting, and which had a bearing on 
the objects of the Association. These 
recent efforts would alone, could they 
be detached from his earlier career, 
give him a title to be ranked as a phi- 
lanthropist, statesman, orator, philoso- 
pher, and savant, among the most illus- 
trious men whom this country has ever 
produced The title of Brougham and 
Vaox descends by a recent grant to his 
brother, who also inherits the old claim 
to the title of Vaux. A collected 
edition of Lord Brougham's works has 
been published by Messrs. Richard 
Griffin and Co. They consist of Critical, 
Historical, and Miscellaneous works, 
forming ten octavo volumes, including 
**The lives of Philosophers of the Time 
of George IIL ; ** ** The Lives of Men of 
Letters of the Time of George IIL ;** 




extrome. In 1831 Lord Grey appointed 
him Secretary- at- War, and in 1833 he 
became Chief Secretary for Ireland ; 
subsequently, Chief Commissioner of 
Woods and Forests, and Secretary to 
the Board of Control. He was elevated 
to the peerage in 1851. 

BROWN, Mias Frances, a blind 
poetess, was bom June, 1818, at Stran- 
orlar, in Ireland, where her father was 
postmaster. She lost her sight by small- 
pox, when only eighteen months old, so 
that education in the ordinary form she 
could not receive. But her memory 
was most retentive, and she learned, 
from listening to others, to read and re- 
peat their lessons. She attempted verse 
at seven years of age, and continued to 
compose, her sister being her amanu- 
ensis, until 1841, when the ** Athe- 
naeum" introduced her to the publia 
She is the author of a large number of 
poems and tales of considerable merit, 
and enjoys a small pension from the 

BROWN, William, a capitalist, donor 
of the Liverpool Free Library and Mu- 
seimi, was bom at Ballymena, county 
Antrim, in 1784. ffis father, Alexander 
Brown, was a native of Ballymena. Wil- 
liam Brown was early sent to England 
for his education, which he received at a 
private academy, kept by the Rev. J. 
Bradley, of Catterick, near Richmond, 
Yorkshire. His educational opportu- 
nities were slender. At the early age 
of sixteen he was sunmioned from his 
books to acquire a knowledge of men 
and things. An active business career 
awaited him, and he was thenceforward 
compelled to pursue his studies and self- 
improvement under disadvantages, and 
in the absence of aids and auxiliaries 
which he has generously supplied to his 
younger and more fortunate fellow- 
townsmen. In the year 1800 his father 
determined to emigrate to America, and 
to seek his fortune in that land of pro- 
luise. His family accompanied him; 

and when the father had established 
himself in Baltimore as a linen mer- 
chant, William assisted in the counting- 
house. He soon became so useful and 
manifested such aptitude for business, 
that his father took him into partner- 
ship. Mr. Brown, pire, was a man of 
remarkable shrewdness and enterprise. 
He established one son at Philadelphia, 
another at New York, while a third 
remained in Baltimore to assist him in 
carrying en the parent or central busi- 
ness. William, the eldest, was sent to 
England in 1809. The young merchant 
lost no time in revisiting the scenes of 
his birth, and in 1810 he married Sarah, 
daughterof Mr. Andrew Gihon, of Bally- 
mena. The young couple came to Liver- 
pool, and here William established a 
branch of his father's Baltimore firm, 
in correspondence with his brothers in 
New York and Philadelphia. The name 
of William Brown soon became known 
upon the Liverpool Exchange, and 
henceforwanl he became identified with 
the unparalleled progress and prosperity 
of the port. And to so great an extent 
did his business increase, that in 1836 
his transactions for the year amounted 
to above ten millions. In 1844 Mr. 
Brown offered himself for South Lanca- 
shire, but was defeated ; although even- 
tuaUy he took his seat in the House, in 
1846, having been elected by that consti- 
tuency without opposition. His political 
principles are liberal, and throughout his 
career Mr. Brown has been the earnest 
advocate in every way of the principles 
of Free-trade. He retired from active 
political life in 1859. Mr. Brown has 
always shown the deepest interest in 
the affairs of the town of Liverpool, and 
the last instance of his munificence has 
been the presentation of a Free Library 
and Museum to his fellow-townsmen, 
at a cost to himself of forty thousand 
pounds, an instance of princely gene- 
rosity scarcely paralleled in any age. 
BROWNING, Mbs. Elizabeth Bar- 




mxn, an '^"g''*>' poetefls, was bom in 
Londoiiv in 1809^ of a family in affluent 
circii]iistaiioe& She was educated with 
great caz«, and at the age of fifteen her 
powers as a writer were known to her 
friends. Owing to the bursting of a 
blood-Teasel in the lungs, she was for a 
long time in TBiydeUcate health, residing, 
for the sake of the climate, at Torquay. 
There she experienced a shock which per- 
manently tinged her character with me- 
lancholy. Her brother, and two young 
men, friends, took out a small sailing- 
Tessel, for a few boors* trip. They had 
been but a few minutes on their voyage 
of pleasaie^ when the boat went down, 
and all on board perished, within sight 
of the house where Miss Barrett resided. 
She was married to Mr. Robert Brown- 
ing in 1848, and immediately after 
accompanied him to Pisa, subsequently 
removing to Florence, which they made 
their permanent home, varied by an 
occasional visit to England. In 1850, 
the publication of her collected works 
increased her reputation in England 
and on the Continent. Mrs. Browning 
can boast of a rich mine of poetical 
ideas, but the diction in which she fre- 
quently indulges detracts from what 
would otherwise be appreciated as the 
result of unlaboured poetic impulse. 

BROWNING, Robert, an English 
poet, was bom at CamberwcU, in 1812. 
He was educated at the London Uni- 
Tersity, where he was looked upon as 
a thoughtful and imaginative student. 
His first literary production, ''Para- 
celsus, " was published in 1835. In 1 837, 
he brought out *' Strafford, an Historical 
Tragedy;" and in 1840, a long poem, 
entitled «'Sordella" Each of these 
works attracted much notice, from their 
originality, choice of subject, and style 
of treatment ; but being more addressed 
to the minds of cultivated readers than 
to the million, none of them became 
extensively popular. From 1842 to 
1846 he published a series of poems, 

which he entitled "Bells and Pome- 
granates.** Many of these are very 
beautiful ; though they aU, more or less, 
|>artake of that intellectual subtlety 
which j>rccludes aU but highly intel- 
lectual readers from clearly and fully 
comprehending theuL Still they tended 
generally to extend and confirm the 
reputation he had previously acquire<l. 
In 1846 there appeared a collected edi- 
tion of his poems ; and in the same year 
he married Miss Elizabeth B. Barrett, 
the celebrated i>oete8s. In 1850 he 
published one of his finest comi>ositions, 
"Christmas Eve, and Easter Day," and 
in 1855 his "Men and Women," a col- 
lectiun of miscellaneous poems which go 
further than all his other works* to 
prove him a genuine poet, not of the 
merely intellectual and metaphysical 
order, but one who feels as deeply as he 
thinks. Mr. Browning has frequently 
been compared with Tennyson, but their 
ideas and their styles are widely diver- 
gent. Since his marriage he has resided 
principally at Florence. 

BRUNEL, IsAMBARD Kingdom, an 
English engineer, was bom at Ports- 
mouth in 1806. His youth was spent 
in France, receiving his education at 
the Ck)llege of Caen. One of his earliest 
engineering attempts was that of form- 
ing a tunnel under the Thames, which 
has been completed at great cost, but 
has not afforded the results which its 
promoters at first anticipated. After 
various engagements in connexion with 
engineering affairs, Mr.. Brunei was ap- 
|>ointed, in 1833, the engineer of the 
Great Western Railway, and in this 
capacity introduced the broad gauge. 
His views in reference thereto were 
strongly opposed by many eminent en- 
gineers, but eventually he carried his 
point. Many of the bridges on that 
line are fine specimens of engineering 
talent. He has been connected with 
several foreign railways, and was one of 
the chief engineers engaged in erecting 





the Britannia and Conway tubniar 
bridges. He was the first to propose 
building large vessels for long voyages, 
and the Great Western steam-vessel was 
constructed on plans furnished by him. 
The boldest effort of Mr. Bniners genius, 
however, has been the construction of 
the Great Eastern, which is the largest 
vessel ever built. Mr. Brunei is a Fel- 
low of the Royal Society, and a member 
of many foreign learned Associations. 

BRUNNOW, ERNE9T Phiup, Baron 
TON, a Russian diplomatist, was bom at 
Dres^len, Aug\ist 31st, 1796, his father 
belonging to an ancient family of Cour- 
land. After having studied at Leipsic, 
he was admitted in 1818, by order of 
the Emperor, to the ministry of Foreign 
Affairs. From 1820 to 1823 he was 
Secretary to the Russian Embassy in 
London. After serving in various sub- 
ordinate diplomatic offices, in 1839, 
haWug fallen into bad health from too 
close application to business, he was 
ai)|M>inted ambassador to Wurtemberg, 
and conducted, at Darmstadt, the ar- 
rangements relative to the marriage of 
the Grand Duke Alexander. In 1839 
he was sent to London on 8|>ccial busi- 
ness, and the following year he returned 
as ambassador, and then it was that he 
displayed rare ability as a diplomatist in 
ncgociating the treaty of 18th of July, 
1840. When the Russian war broke out 
in 1854 he was recaUed, and sent, in 
1855, as Plenipotentiary to the German 
Confederation, with instructions spe- 
cially to secure the neutrahty of the 
lesser states. Along with Count Orloff 
he was chosen by Alexander IL to as- 
sist at the Conferences of Paris, and in 
1857 he was sent to Berlin as Minister 
Plenii)otentiary. He has since been re- 
appointed to his old post in London. 

BRYANT, William Cullek, a poet 
and journalist, was bom at Cummington, 
Massachusetts, on the 3rd of November, 
1797. After receiving an excellent pre- 
Uminaiy education, he entered WilQam 

College, at the age of sixteen, where he 
soon reached a conspicuous position by 
his superior classical attainments. He 
afterwards entered the office of a couo- 
sellor-at-law, and pursued for some 
years the practice of the law. He 
early became known as a poet, by the 
publication in verse of some political 
satires. Giving up the profession of the 
law, he, in conjunction with a friend, 
founded the "New York Review," and 
with two others an annual named 

"The Talisman,*' in which many of 
his poems appeared. Eventually, how- 
ever, Mr. Bryant became editor of the 
" New York Evening Post," and to this 
journal he has devoted his chief atten- 
tion for many years. The genuine 
feeling and quiet gracefulness of style 
displayed in almost all his j>octic effu- 
sions have rendered them peculLaily 
popular, no leas in England than in 
America. After Longfellow, William 
Cullen Bryant is perhaps the American 
poet best known in Britain. In additi( >n 
to his poetical works, Mr. Bryant hiis 
published several tales and sketches, 
which have attained considerable ]K)pu- 
larity in America, but which have not 
been reproduced in England. 

Walter Francis Montague Douglas 
Scott, fifth Duke of Buccleuch, was born 
in 1806. After studying at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, he, on arriving at 
majority, in 1828 took his seat in the 
House of Lords. In 1842 he was Li>nl 
Privy Seal under Sir Roljert Peel, and 
in 1846 President of the Council. In 
1842 he was nominated a Colonel of the 
Edinburgh militia, and in 1857 appointed 
one of Her Majesty's aides-de-camp. 
The Duke is a moderate conservative in 
politics, and takes considerable interest 
in agricultural and social improvements, 
and the amelioration of the condition of 
the Scottish peasantiy. 

BUCHANAN, James, ex-President of 
the United Stateo, was bom 23rd April, 




1791, in the county of Franklin, Penn- 
s^faniA. HiB father was a native of 
Donegal, in Ireland. Mr. Buchanan 
rtndited Iaw, but had a strong bias for 
politica. In 1814, and again in 1815, he 
was elected a member of the Legislature 
oC PennsylTania, but he found the 
liboim harassing, and retired after two 
jeara' aerritnde. In 1821 he first took 
his seat in Congress, and again retired 
into private life ; but in 1831 he pro- 
oeedcid on iK>litieal affairs to Russia, 
remaining at St. Petersburg for about 
two years. On his return to America he 
elected to the Senate, and in 1845 
appointed Secretary of State to 
President Polk. In 1853 he was sent by 
General Pierce as Ambassador to the 
Court of St. James^ resigning that post 
in 18*56, when his friends had secured 
his election as President. Mr. Buchanan 
has been a successful politician, belong- 
ing to what is called the Democratic — in 
opposition to the Bepublican — ^party ; he 
of necessity supports the Southern or 
pro-slavery cause, but the pith of his 
policy lies in his principles of annexation, 
and his desire to wrest from Great Britain 
every inch of territory capable of ab- 
sorption into the Union. His term of 
ofBce expired in 1860. 

BUCKLE, Henry Thomas, an Eng- 
lish thinker and historian, was bom at 
Lee, in Kent, on the 24th Noveml>er, 
1822. His father was a well-known 
merchant in Mark-lane ; his mother a 
Miss Middleton, of the Yorkshire family 
of that name. For a short time he at- 
tended Dr. Holloway^s school at Kentish 
Town, but his health, when a boy, being 
delicate, he was not subjected to what 
is called a regular education. Dr. Birk- 
beck, whose advice had been taken, 
having recommended that he should not 
be tormented with task-work, or con- 
fined to the close atmosphere of a school- 
room, he was allowed to pursue his own 
course undisturbed ; and that he did not 
mis-spend his time is abundantly appa- 

rent in every page he has written. Mr. 
Buckle is the author of two papers 
published in ** Frazer's Magazine ;" one 
* * A l/ccture on the Influence of Women, " 
the other ** An Essay on Liberty," being 
a review of Mr. J. S. Mills' work on the 
same subject. But his most remarkable 
production is the first volume of liis 
"History of Civilization in England,'* 
published in 1857. It is merely the first 
part of a great work, which is to embrace 
the whole history of English civilization, 
and which, if carried out with the range 
of learning, the ability and the capacity 
to arrange and systematize materials 
drawn from the most varied sources, 
displayed in every chapter of this intro- 
ductory volume, will place Mr. Buckle's 
name among the foremost of those 
writers who have treated of the philo- 
sophy of history. It is not, however, 
as an original thinker on the transcen- 
dental questions of sociology that Mr. 
Buckle's claims to distinction rest. His 
histories of the English intellect from 
the middle of the sixteenth to the eigh- 
teenth century, and that of the French 
intellect during the same [>eriod, forming 
part of this volume, are warmly admired 
by some of those who denounce most 
strongly his philosophical ideas, and 
even by them placed among the most 
important recent contributions to our 
historical literature. The remainder of 
the introduction is yet unpublished, and 
will be devoted to the investigation of 
the civilization of Germany, America, 
Scotland, and Spain — and the study of 
their differences. Its a])pearance is 
looked forward to with great interest. 

BUCKSTONE, John Baldwin, a 
comedian and prolific dramatic author, 
was bom at Hoxton, Middlesex, Septem- 
ber 18th, 1802. His connexions were 
highly respectable, being descended from 
the Derbyshire Buckstones, members of 
which are now amongst the principal 
landed gentry of that county. When 
(but a boy he was a great favourite 





because of his qnickness of repartee and 
aptitude for study. Educated at Wal- 
worth Grammar School, when but eleven 
years of age he was placed on board a 
man-of-war ; but, after a cruise, his 
grandfather objected to the little fellow's 
going to sea, and had him brought home 
and sent back toschooL His family then 
intended him for the law, but he did not 
follow that profession. He was a very 
discursive reader, though a quick learner ; 
the stage had its attractions for him. 
He contracted his first engagement in 
the provinces. He then came to Lon- 
don and a{>|)eared at the Surrey Theatre, 
then at the Cobui^ then at the Adelphi, 
then at the Haymarket, then at Drury 
Lane. In 1853 he became manager of 
the Haymarket, on the retirement of 
Mr. Benjamin Webster. In this theatre 
he, for several years, has accomplished 
the remarkable feat of keeping the house 
open every lawful night throughout the 
year, and always commanding full au- 
diences. As an author, Mr. Buckstone 
has produced more comedies, dramas, 
and farces than any man of the age, and 
all have been without exception success- 
ful. His style as a performer is removed 
from that of aU others in the same line. 
It is quaint, easy, and highly comic 
Being a great favourite with her Majesty, 
he has on many occasions received the 
honour of ap^Miaring at Court dramatic 
representations at Windsor Castle. Mr. 
Buckstone is treasurer and master of the 
Koyal Greneral Theatrical Fund ; joint- 
treasurer of the Royal Dramatic College, 
and a member of the Dramatic Authors* 
Society and of the Garriok Club. 

BULWER, h-HE Right Hon. Sir 
Henry Lytton, a diplomatist and au- 
thor, was bom in 1804 He is the elder 
brother of the novelist, Bulwer Lytton. 
In 1830, he was sent on a special service 
to Brussels ; and, on his return, became 
member for Wilton. He represented 
Coventry in 1831 and 1832, and Mary- 
lebone from 1834 to 1837. In 1835 he 

was Charg^ d*Affaires at Brussels, and 
in 1837 Secretary of the Embassy at 
Constantinople, filling a similar post at 
Paris in 1839. At the Court of Madrid 
he was the British representative for 
several years, and, subsequently, pro- 
ceeded in the same cai)acity to Wash- 
ington. In 1848 he married the 
youngest daughter of Lord Cowley. 
From 1852 to 1855 he was Envoy 
Extraordinary to Tuscany. In 1856 
he was appointed a Commissioner for the 
Danubian principalities, and tliereafter 
successor to Lord Stratford do Rodcliffe, 
as ambassador to Turkey, where he still 
remains. He is an author as well as a 
diplomatist, having published *' An Au- 
tumn in Greece, " ** The Lords, the 
Government, and the Country, " " France, 
Social and Literary," and the '* Mo- 
narchy of the Middle Classes." 

B U N S E N, Christian Charles 
JosAiAS, Chevalier von, a German 
scholar, philosopher, and statesman, 
was bom at Korback, within the prin- 
cipality of Waldeck, but not far from 
the frontiers of Rhemsh Prussia, on the 
25th of August, 1791. In 1808 he 
became a student at Marburg ; whence, 
in 1809, he proceeded to Giittingen. In 
1811 he obtained a professorship, and 
not long afterwards published a work, 
entitled **De Jure Atheniensium Hse- 
reditario," which at once established his 
position as a scholar. He devoted his 
attention chiefly to philological and phi- 
losophical studies, although his works 
everywhere display an intimate ac- 
quaintance with the great results of the 
physical sciences, and more especiaUy of 
those which have a bearing on philo- 
logical researches. To complete his 
studies he visited various parts of the 
Continent. His first journey was to 
Holland ; thence he repaired to Copen- 
hagen, where he studied the Norse 
language and literatiure under Mag- 
nussen. In 1816 he proceeded to Paris, 
and there he devoted hii attention to 




Anhie. FtanBan, and Samcrit, under 
the grtirt Frendk Orientalists. From 
Vmm lie went to Rome. There he had 
the good fortune to secure the friendship 
and confidence of Niebohr, whom he 
W flODie yean before kno¥m at Berlin. 
This distinfrnighed historian and critic 
ft once appreciated the high abilities of 
Bonaen ; and, in 1818, secured for him 
the appointment of Secretary to the 
PhuaiaJi Legation, he himself being at 
that time Ambasnador to the Papal See. 
In 1822 King Frederick William visited 
Italy, and made the acquaintance of 
Bonaen, whose religious views were much 
akin to thoae entertained by the monarch, 
then intent upon the innovations after- 
warda introduced into the Prussian 
Chorch. After the departure of Nie- 
bnhr, Bonsen was appointed Prussian 
Ambassador in his stead. During the 
whole period of his stay in Italy, Bunsen 
continued his laborious researches in 
philology, not confining himself to mere 
grammatical studies, but carrying his 
investigations into the history of the 
philosophical literature and political 
institutions of antiquity, ecclesiastical 
and liturgical history, arcbieology, and 
eveiy department of human knowledge 
which throws light upon the history of 
civilization. The visit of the younger 
Champollion to Rome, in 1826, directed 
his attention to the new field of re- 
search opened by the clue discovered 
to the interpretation of the hierogly- 
phics. It was he who induced Lejisius 
to turn his attention to this subject. 
Bunsen took the deepest interest in the 
foundation, in 1829, of the Archaeological 
Institute of Rome, for which he erected 
a hall near his own house upon the 
CapitoL His duties, as Minister and 
Charge d*A£Paire8 at Rome, threw ui)on 
him some very delicate negociations 
between the Pope and the Prussian 
Government, more especially those relat- 
ing to mixed marriages, or marriages 
between Catholics and Protestants ; 

which, although arranged to the satis- 
faction of the Court of Rome, could not 
be settled to the contentment of the 
zealous Roman Catholics of Rhenish 
Prussia. After the disturbances on the 
Rhine, and the apprehension of the 
Bishop of Cologne, Chevalier Bunsen 
found his position at the Papal Court 
disagreeable, and was recalled at his 
own request In 1839 he was ap- 
pointed Minister at Berne to the Swiss 
Republic, and in 1841 AmlMUsador to 
this country. In 1844, on the occasion 
of one of those frequent visits he made 
to Berlin to give the Prussian Govern- 
ment the benefit of his advice, he is 
understood to have recommended to 
King Frederick "William IV. a liberal 
]>olicy, and an assimilation of the legis- 
lative system to that of England. He 
supported the German policy in Schles- 
wig-Holstein. On this question he 
published, in April, 1848, a work, ad- 
dresHcd to Lord Palmerston, entitled ** A 
Memoir on the Constitutional Rights 
of the Duchies of Schleswig and Hol- 
stcin." Having a strong bias in favour 
of constitutional government, he resigned 
his embassy in 1854, when he found 
that the Prussian Court had determined 
to lean towards Russia. His absence 
from this country, where he had been 
looked upon as an adopted citizen, was 
generally felt as a public loss. He now 
resides in the neighbourhood of Heidel- 
berg. In the midst of his labours as a 
statesman and diplomatist, Chevalier 
Bunsen has never discontinued his 
philological and philosophical researches, 
by which he is so well known in this 
country. In 1845 he published his 
'* Church of the Future;" in 1847, 
" Ignatius of Antioch, and his Times ;" 
in 1848, ** Egypt's Place in Universal 
History;" and in 1851, "Hipjwlytus 
and lus Age;" followed, in 1854, by 
the '* Outlines of the Philo80]»hy of 
Universal History, a])plied to Language 
and Religion." The last is perhaps 





one of the most important books 
which our generation has produced, 
and may be said to stand towards 
philology and the cognate sciences 
in the relation which Humboldt's 
** Cosmos" bears to those departments 
of knowledge which have for their 
object the study of the material uni- 
verse. The work is written in an Eng- 
lish style, remarkable for elegance and 

BUN SEN, Robert William, a 
German chemist, was bom at CrDttingen, 
where his father was Prof essor of Litera- 
ture. He studied at the University of 
that city, evidencing a decided taste for 
experimental science, and completed his 
education at Paris. He afterwards suc- 
ceeded W5hler, as Professor of Chemis- 
try at the Polytechnic Institute at'CasseL 
In 1841 he was titular professor at the 
University of Marburg, and subsequently 
director of the Chemical Institute. In 
1851 he held an appointment at the Uni- 
versity of Breslau. Mr. Bunsen is 
chiefly known to scientific circles through 
his extensive researches in chemistry, 
but more especially by his invention of 
the carbon voltaic battery, which is now 
80 extensively used by electricians. He 
has been a large contributor to the 
•* Annales deChimie," and has also pub- 
lished works which chiefly relate to his 
discoveries in inorganic chemistry. 

BUOL, Shauenstkin Charles Fer- 
dinand, Count, a German statesman 
and diplomatist, and Austrian minister, 
was l)om at Hamburg on the 17th May, 
1797. He is a son of the celebrated 
Count Buol, who as Plenipotentiary of 
Austria presided for many years over 
the Frankfort Diet In 1816 he was at- 
tached to the Legation at Florence, and 
was sent as Secretary to the Embassy at 
Paris in 1822, and to London in the same 
capacity in 1824. He afterwards held 
various diplomatic appointments, and 
was Plenipotentiary at Turin when the 
Revolution of 1848 broke out In 1848 

he went as Ambassador to St Peters- 
burg, returning in 1850 to Dresden, to 
act as second imperial Pleni]>otentiary 
in the settlement of the Holstein ques- 
tion. After acting for some time as 
Ambassador to England, he returned to 
Vienna to become Minister of Foreign 
Affairs in place of Prince Schwartzen1>erg, 
who had just died. He appeared with 
Baron HUbner, at the Congress of Paris, 
as imperial Plenipotentiary, and signed 
the Treaty of 30th March, 1856. Count 
Buol has not confined his attention to 
mere matters of diplomacy, but has en- 
deavoured on all occasions to further the 
progress of internal improvements in 
Austria. The position of neutrality 
which Austria held during the war was 
in a great measure to be ascribed to his 
exertions ; he having sought throughout 
his whole career to emancipate Austria 
from Russian controL In 1859 he re- 
tired from office. 

BUREN, Van, Martin, ex-President 
of the United States of America, was 
bom at Kinderhook, in the State of New 
York, December 6th, 1782. Although 
receiving a limited education when 
young, he turned his attention success- 
fully to politics and law, and was 
appointed Attorney-General of the State, 
and sent as a senator to the Legislative 
Assembly of New York in 1812. He 
was one of the most ardent supporters 
of the war against Britain. In 1817 
he led the opposition against Clinton, 
elected Governor of New York, and 
was deprived of offices which he held ; 
but after a long struggle, he was ap- 
pointed Senator of the United States* 
Congress, in which he served eight years. 
He was an active partisan of General 
Jackson's presidency, and on that gentle- 
man's election he was appointed Secre- 
tary of State of the United States, and 
nominated Ambassador to London, but 
the Senate afterwards refused to ratify the 
appointment He gained popularity by 
that opposition, and was elected Vice- 




ftmdeat. WhenOen. Jackion'stennof 
cCee ezptrad. Van Buren wai noinimrted 

1842; Bonneister tilled the aoologicftl 
chair in his stead, and between then and 

mlam nafcvial ncoeaaor; and though he 1 1848 produced several scientific works 
Ud to contend with Clay, Calhoun, of high merit, which added to the fame 
Webster, and Harrison, he was elected, : he had previdusiy acquired both as an 
holding office til! 1840i, when his chums author and an entomologist. In 1840, 
lor re-dectioii were rejected. haWng been already well known fur his 

BUROOTNE, Sib Johk Fox, an h)>eralism, and his facility of expressing 
Pn g Keh genenU, was bom in Ireland in l his jwlitical opinions, Burmeister was 
1782. Am one of the corps of Royal , chosen representative for Halle to the 
Eogineen^ he commenced his military .' National Assembly ; but his health, 
eueer August 1798, and served in Malta, , broken down by incessant work, com- 
Egypt, Sicily, and Sweden, in the early ' )ielle<l him to seek a warmer climate, 
ptzt of the present century. In 1809 he | and he went to Brazil. On his return 
joined the army under Sir Arthur Wei- 1 to Euroiie, after two years* absence, he 
Issley, and remained in Spain till the end ; resumed his fimctious in the UniverHity 
of the Peninsular war in 1814 He con- , of Halle. He has publislied numen>us 
ducted the sieges of Burgos and Saint scientitic works, among which may 1)e 
Sebastian, and recei%-ed the Gold Cross enumerated, **A Manual of Entomo- 
aad one clasp for Badajoe, Salamanca, . lo^s *' and a work on the animals of 
Vittoria, San Sebastian, and Nive ; and Brazil. He also wrote two pr»}iular 
the ailver medal and three clas]is for treatises, **The HiHt«>ry of C'reation,'' 
Boaaco, CSodad Rodrigo, and NiveUe. i and *' Sketches of Natural History," 
After passing through the various inter- r which have l>cen very successful with 
mediate military grades he attained the ■ tlie general i)ublic. 
rank of Lientenant-Oeneral in 1852, and | BURNET, John, a painter, engraver, 
was then created a Knight of the Grand ' ami art-critic, was bom at Fislier-row, 
Cross of the Bath. In 1854 he was sent ! D<?ar Edinburgh, in 1784. Appreuticed 
to Turkey, and as chief of the Engineer- ' to Robert Scott, the engraver, he studied 
ing Department of the British army, | assiduously, devoting his little leisure to 
took part in the events of the Crimea • the cidtivation of dialling under John 
till his recall in 1855. He was present Graham, at the classes of the Scottiph 
at the battles of the Alma, Balaklava, Aca^lemy. Here he was the fellow- 
and Inkermann. For his services he pupil of Sir William Allan and Sir 
was raised to the rank of General, and ■ l^aWd Wilkie, his engravings from the 
created a Baronet Sir John was thirteen works of tlie latter artist first <lirecting 

years Chairman of Public Works in 
Ireland, and since 1845 has held the 
appointment of Inspector-General of 
BURMEISTER, Hermann, was bom 

attention Ut his abiliticH. Wilkie re- 
moved to London in 1804^ and }»roduced 
such a sensation by his ]iieture of the 
** Village l»olitician8 " that Mr. Burnet 
rcsolveil also to attom])t sucoess in the 

in 1807, in Stralsund, in Prussia, where : English capital He arrived in London 

his father was a Custom-house officer. 
He studied medicine for four years in 
the Universities of Greifswald and 
Halle. Professor Nitzch, with whom he 
was on terms of friendship, cultivated 
his taste for zoology and entomology. 
On the death of Nitzch, at Halle, in 

in 1806, and calleil on Wilkie, who re- 
ceived him cordially, and assisted to 
obtain him employment in )x)ok engrav- 
ing; but aspiring to a higher walk in 
art, he requested liberty to engrave 
"The Jew's Harp." Wilkie granted 
permission, and in 1809 he published 






the work, which was very meritorioos. 
He afterwards, by his plate from ** The 
Blind Fiddler," became established in 
public opinion as an artist of unsurpassed 
ix)wer. " Reading the Will," "Chelsea 
Pensioners Reading the Gazette," **The 
Rabbit on the Wall," and other works, 
were successively engraved by him with 
equal firmness and delicacy. All these 
are now familiar to the world, and it 
has been asserted that Wilkie*s present 
fame rests nearly as much on the hand 
of Burnet as on his own productions. 
He has engraved his own pictures,, as, 
for example, " The Greenwich Pension- 
ers.** Ho has also engraved several of 
Rembrandt's and RaphaePs pictures^ 
and has published some works, the 
value of which to the art-student can 
scarcely be over-rated ; among these 
are, *' Practical Hints on Painting,*' 
published in 181 2 ; * * Landscape Painting 
in Oil ; *' and "Hints on Portrait Paint- 
ing.** These and other writings of a 
similar class are illustrated by himself. 

BURRITT, Elihu, known as the 
"learned blacksmith,** was bom in Con- 
necticut in 1811. His early education 
was by no means extensive, but by per- 
severance and industry he acquired a 
knowledge of many languages and dia- 
lects, and he is a proficient in mathema- 
tics. Mr. Burritt has made himself well 
known in this country and in France by 
his untiring exertions to form and con- 
solidate the league of Universal Brother- 
hood. He IB also a strenuous advocate 
for the ocean penny postage. In the 
prosecution of these philanthropic ob- 
jects, Mr. Burritt has had a principal 
share in convening congresses of repre- 
sentatives of peace societies in London, 
Brussels, Paris, and Frankfort He was 
the first to put forth the idea of an elec- 
tric telegraph around the globe vid Beh- 
ring's Straits, connecting St. Petersburg 
and San Francisco. He hi now engaged 
in urging upon the people of the United 
States the i>eacef ul extinction of slavery 

by compensating the Southern States 
out of the national treasury for the 
emancipation of their slaves. ** The 
Bond of Brotherhood,** a monthly organ 
for the promulgation of peace principles, 
is understood to be chiefly the production 
of the ' * learned blacksmith. ** * * Sparks 
from the Anvil,** **A Voice from the 
Forge,** and ** Peace Papers for the 
People,** are his chief independent con- 
tributions to literature. 

BURTON, John Hill, an author and 
historian, was bom 22nd of August, 
1809, at Aberdeen. His father was an 
officer in the 94th Regiment, who dying, 
left his family but slenderly provided 
for. Mr. Burton, after studying at 
Marischal College, Aberdeen, in 1831 
was called to the Edinburgh bar. At 
first he had to contend with the \'icis8i- 
tudes attached to the career of a young 
advocate without independent means, 
but he struggled through with a maiuy 
spirit, writing for the Westminster and 
Edinburgh Reviews, when briefs were 
scanty. As an author he is sound and 
practical, and every work he has written 
bears evidence of the care and research 
bestowed on its preparation. His " Life 
and Correspondence of David Hume," 
" Lives of Simon Lord Lovat, and 
Duncan Forbes, of Culloden,** and the 
" Narratives from Criminal Trials in 
Scotland,** are all excellent " The 
Scot Abroad,** a very interesting series 
of papers, which appeared in ** Black- 
wood's Magazine ** some short time ago, 
is the production of Mr. Burton. His 
" Manual of the Law of Scotland," and 
"Treatise on the Law of Bankruptcy,** 
are clear and well digested. He wrote 
the articles "Parliament" and "Prison 
Discipline ** for the " Encyclopaedia 
Britannioa,** and a great part of the 
articles on law subjects for the "Penny 
Cyclopaedia.** His chief work, however, 
is " The Histoiy of Scotiand, from the 
Revolution of 1688 to the Extinction ol 
the Jacobite Insurrection of 1745.** He 




kiJbeld nnoe 1854 the office of Secre- 
tsy to the General Prison Board of 

BCSTAMENTE, Don Carlos Maria 
H, a Mexican archaH>logi8t, was bom in 
Mexico, about the dose of the last cen- 
tay. He has devoted himself chiefly 
to the study of the antiquities of Mexico. 
His first production was a '* Topogra- 
phical Memoir of the Country of Ouxuca" 
{1S21), 'vrhich was followed by a disser- 
ittion *' On the Republic of Tluxucola.'* 
His writings, though not very numerous, 
hare appeared at intervals from this 
period to 1842; they are distinguished 
for original information and accuracy. 

BUTT, George Medd, Q.C., anEng- 
lish statesman and lawyer, was bom in 
1797. He is the son of the late Mr. 
John Butt, of Sherborne. In early life 
he (iractised for some years as a 8i>ecial 
pleader, and in 1839, being then in his 
thirty-third year, he was called to the 
bar by the Hon. Society of the looer 
Temple, and went on the Western Oir- 
aat, where he soon rose into reputation, 
and acquired an extensive practice. In 
1845, during the Chancellorahip of Lord 
Lyndhurst, Mr. Butt was made a Queen's 
Counael, and shortly afterwards was 
elected a Bencher of the Inner Templa 
At the general election in July, 1847, 
Mr. Butt offered his services to the 
electors of Weymouth, but was defeated, 
losing his election, however, by only 
three votes. In July, 1852, he again 
stood for Weymouth, and this time with 
more success, as he was returned at the 
head of the poll, the other candidates 
being Colonel W. L. Freestun and Mr. 
Oswald. Mr. Butt was a professed 
adherent of the Conservative party, but 
differed from that body in many impor- 
tant i>olitical points. 

CABALLERO, Firmin Aoosto, a 
Spanish journalist and statesman, was 
bom in 1800, atBarajas de Melo. Hav- 
ing received a good education, ho turned 
his attention to the study of geography, 

and in a series of essa3rs exposed the 
shortcomings of Minano's ** Dictionary, ** 
which brought him at once into 
notice. In 18.^ Caballero established 
the "Boletin de Comercio,*' and on 
its suppression he published the *' Eco 
del Comercio, " a pai)er which, mainly 
from the vigour of its original writing, 
speedily rose in popular favour. In 
1843, Caballero became a memljer of the 
Cabinet, but did not long continue in 
office. His published works are mostly 
on geography, and one of the best of 
these is his ** Manual Geogra])hico ad- 
minlstrativo de la monan^uia Espanola.'* 
CARET, Etienne, leader of the 
French Communists or Icariens, was 
born at Dijon on the 2nd of January, 
1788. Afti^r completing his education 
he entered the bar as an advocate, and 
brought himself into public notice by his 
spirited defence of some conspirators in 
1816. He then proceede<l to Paris, but, 
owing to the violence of his political 
opinions, was prosecuted, and at length 
took refuge in England, where he re- 
mained for some years. On his return 
to France in 1839 he published a history 
of the Revolutiou of 1789, and became 
the advocate of Socialist opinions. In 
1842 he brought out his " Voyage en 
Icarie," in which he sets forth the bless- 
ings of an imaginary State where all 
things were held in conmion for the 
public good, and whose government 
should simply exercise a paternal control 
over the masses. To put these ideas 
into practice he procured a grant of a 
tract of country in Texas, and a {wrtion 
of his followers set out from France to 
found a social republic in the New 
World. Subsequently Cabet followed 
his disciples. In his journey through 
the United States he heard of the expul- 
sion of the Mormons from Nauvoo, and 
in May 1850, Cabet with his followers 
took possession of that city. He even- 
tually returned to Paris, and pleaded his 
own cause against a sentence of imprison- 




meot which had been paaaed mgainst 
him. Besides the namerous statements 
he published for his defence, M. Cabet 
prodaced a dechutition in his favour 
which had been given him at Nauvoo, 
entirely absolving him from many of the 
charges which had been brought against 
him. He fearlessly pleaded his own 
cause, and eventually gained an acquit- 
tal. After the coup ^Hal he found that 
all hopes of political advancement were 
lost, and he accordingly determined to 
return to Nauvoa He eventually had 
to take severe steps with his followers, 
and becoming unpopular thereby, he fled 
to Saint Louis in Missouri. 

CABRERA, Don Ramon, Count of 
Morella, a Cariist general, was bom at 
Tortosa, in Catalonia, in August 1810. 
His early life was spent in a very 
irregular manner, but taking advantage 
of an insurrection, in 1838, he joined 
Don Carlos, under whom he soon dis- 
tinguished himself by the boldness and 
ferocity of his disposition. The Carlists 
believed themselves, for a short time, 
masters of Spain, and Cabrera prepared 
to remove Isabella from the throne by 
a decisive stroke ; but the defection of 
Maroto changed the face of affairs ; and 
the Carlists, from being victois, were 
compelled to act on the defensive. On the 
fall of Don Carlos, being more attached 
to the cause than to the person of the 
Pretender, Cabrera made war on his own 
account, and established himself in a 
strong position amid the mountains of 
Catalonia and Arragon ; but in 1840, 
his forces having been totally routed by 
Espartero, he was compelled to flee to 
France, where, not being looked upon 
in the light of a political refugee, he was 
confined in the fortress of Ham, whence 
he went to London in 1848. In 1848 he 
endeavoured to rekindle the civil war, and 
proceeded to S^tain, where, however, he 

afterwards went to Italy ; but, having 
interfered in Italian affiurs, he was 
expelled from Naples, and has since 
retired from public life. 

CAILLIAUD, Fb^d^ric, a French 
traveller, was bom at Nantes, on the 
nthof March, 1787. Having completed 
his education at Pans, he travelled 
throo^ the southern parts of Europe, 
and in 1815 proceeded from Constanti- 
nople to £<gypt, remaining a number of 
years in the East, and rendering by his 
investigations, considerable service to its 
histoiy. On his return to France in Feb- 
ruary, 1819, he brought with him a valu- 
able collection of minerals and antiqui- 
ties, and plans and copies of inscriptions, 
which were purchased of him by the 
French Minister of the Interior. He is 
the author of various works, the chief of 
which are, " Travels to Meroe, to the 
White Nile, beyond Fazoyl, to the south 
of Sennaar, to Syonah, and to five other 
Oases, between 1819 and 1822;" and 
** Researches in the Arts and Trades, 
the Usages of Civil and Domestic Life 
among the Ancient Races of Nubia and 
Ethiopia," followed by '* Details on the 
Manners and Customs of the Modem 
Inhabitants of the same Countries." 

CAIRD, James, M.P., an eminent 
agricultural writer, was bom at Stran- 
raer, in Wigtonshire, in 1816, and re- 
ceived his education at Edinburgh. Mr. 
Caird, who is a proprietor in Wigton- 
shire» originally devoted himself to the 
practical pursuits of agriculture ; and 
was first brought into public notice by 
contributing letters on the agriculture of 
England to the *' Times," and by the 
publication of various works on farming. 
In 1853 he stood for the Wigton Burghs, 
and lost his seat by a majority of one 
vote against him ; but at the general 
election of 1857 he stood for Dartmouth, 

was returned, and immediately became 
was defeated. On returning to'England | an authority in the House of Commons, 
he gave up his warlike propensities, and ' He has lately travelled over a consider- 
married an English lady, with whom he ' able portion of the United States and 




Guada ; noting earefnlly, m he went, 
^ modcfl of cnltiYation followed in the 
Xew Worid ; and, on his return, pub- 
Inking a little Yolume on '^ Prairie 
Finning." On agricultural queetiona, 
his obaervmtions are always shrewd, in- 
telligent, and practical. In 1859, Mr. 
Curd stood for the Stirling and Dum- 
fennline Burghs in the liberal interest, 
and wma retnmed unopposed. His bettt 
known works are his '* English Agricul- 
tore,** a fifth edition of which was pub- 
Bahed in 1852; his "PUntation Scheme'' 
(1850), of which several editions have 
been published; his "High Fanning 
under Liberal Covenants the best Sub- 
stitate for Protection ; " and his *' High 
Fanning Vindicated." 

CAIBD, Rey. John, D.D., a popular 
preacher of the Church of Scotland, was 
bom at Greenock in 1823. After com- 
pleting }aM studies at the University of 
Glasgow, he was appointed minister of 
Newton-on-Ayr, and subsequently offi- 
ciated in Lady Yester's church in Edin- 
burgh. In 1850 he removed to Errol, 
and in 1858 from this country parish to 
Glasgow, where a magnificent church 
has been erected for hiuL Mr. Caird's 
pulpit appearances are marked by sim- 
plicity, earnestness, and fervour. A 
disoonne preached before the Queen, in 
the parish church of CVathie, published 
by request of her Majesty, has attained 
an unprecedented popularity, and a 
collected volume of his sermons has 
recently won almost equal admiration. 

CAIRNS, Sir Hugh M*Calmont, 
ez-Solicitor-General for England, second 
son of the late William Cairns, Esq., of 
Calton, was bom in 1819, near Belfast, 
in the county Down. He was educated 
at Trinity College, DuliUn, where he 
was first class in classics, and obtained 
other honours. He was called to the 
bar in 1844, and rose to considerable 
practice in the Court of Chancery, where 
he was soon considered a leading man. 
He was elected member for Belfast in 

1852 by one of the largest majorities 
ever known in that borough; in 1856 
he was made Queen's Counsel ; and in 
1858, under Lord Derby, Solicitor-Gene- 
ral, with the honour of knighthood. He 
ia considered one of the most effective 
orators on the Conservative benches, 
where he still represents his first consti- 
tuency. His speech on the Paper Du- 
ties, and the Interi>retation of the Com- 
mercial Treaty with France, delivered 
in the House of Commons in August, 
1860, displays all the best characteristics 
of his eloquence. 

CAMBRIDGE, H. R. H. George 
William Frederick Charles, Duke 
OF, is the son of Adolphus Frederick, 
first Duke, and is grandson of George 
IIL, and cousin to her Majesty. His 
Royal Highness was bom at Hanover, 
on March 29th, 1819, and on the death 
of his father, in 1850, succeeded to the 
dukedom. In 1837 he became Colonel 
in the army; in 1845 Major-General ; 
in 1854 Lieutcnant-Generid. He was 
appointed to command the Highlanders 
and Guards, which formed the first divi- 
sion of the army sent to the Crimea to 
supjiort the interests of Turkey. At the 
battle of the Alma his Royal Highness 
displayed both ability and valour as a 
commander, leatling his troo|i8 into ac- 
tion in a manner that gained the confi- 
dence of the men and the esteem of the 
officers. At Inkermanu he had a horse 
shot under him, and displayed the same 
vigour and courage. On the retirement 
of Lord Hardinge, the Duke was ap- 
pointed Commander-in-Chief of the Bri- 
tish army, with whom he is as great a 
favourite as was his uncle the Duke of 
York. During his administration of 
this office he has introduced many valu- 
able reforms, and has proved himself an 
untiring friend of the common soldier. 

CAMPBELL, John, Lord, Lord 
Chancellor of England, was born at 
Springfield, near Cupar, Fife, in 1779; 
his father being the x*«u^i^ minister. 




He studied at the University of St. An- 
drews. On entering the legal profession, 
he went to London, and kept his terms 
at Lincoln's Inn. Called to the bar in 
1806, he became King's Counsel in 1827. 
In 1830 he entered the House of Com- 
mons for the borough of Stafford, as an 
anient reformer. In 1832 he became 
Solicitor-General; in 1834 Attomey- 
Ceneral and member for Edinburgh, 
and in 1841 he was appointed Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland. The fall of the 
Melbourne cabinet in that year left him 
at more leisure to prosecute literary 
pursuits, and he presented the world 
with the ** Lives of the Lord Chancel- 
lors and Keepers of the Great Seal, 
from the earliest Times to the Reign of 
George IV.," and the '* Lives of the 
Chief Justices of England, from the 
Norman Conquest to the death of Lord 
Mansfield." When Lord John Russell 

came into office, Lord Campbell was 
appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of 
Lancaster, and in 1850 became Lord 
Chief Justice of England, in which 
capacity he has presided at some very 
remarkable trials, displaying unabated 
vigour, power of attention and sagacity. 
He remained Lord Chief Justice until 
the fall of the Derby Government in 
1859, when Lord Palmerston removed 
him from the Queen's Bench to the 
Woolsack. He is now Lord Chancellor, 
and discharges the functions of his 
office with an ability scarcely to have 
been expected in a judge much more 
accustomed to common law than to 
equity procedure. As a constitutional 
lawyer Lord Campbell has no superior, 
and very few equals ; as a judge his de- 
cisions have invariably been character- 
ised by sound legal knowledge and 
acute discrimination. He married, in 
1821, a daughter of Lord Abinger, who 
was created a peeress in her own right, 
with the title of Baroness Stratheden, 
and has seven children, of whom the 
eldest^ William Frederick, bom in 1824, | 

was for some time M.P. for Harwich, 
but since his mother's death, in 1860, 
has taken his seat in the House of Lords 
as Lord Stratheden. Lord Campbell's 
speeches at the bar and in the House of 
Commons were published in 1842. 

CAMPBELL, Rev. John, D.D., a 
divine and journalist, was born in For- 
farshire, at the close of the last century. 
Between the years 1819 and 1823 he 
passed through a regular course of 
literary education at the Universities of 
St. Andrews and Glasgow, after which 
he studied theology in the Hall of the 
Independent Denomination in Glasgow, 
under the presidency of the late Dr. 
Ralph Wardlaw and the Rev. Greville 
Ewing. He became pastor of the Inde- 
pendent church in Kilmarnock in 1827 ; 
and from the notice he soon attracted 
as a preacher, he was in 1828 invited 
to the pastorate of the church assem- 
bling in the Tabernacle, Mooriielda, 
London, erected by the celebrated Whit- 
field, one of the largest congregations 
in the metropolis. Here Dr. Campbell 
laboured with undiminished popularity 
for upwards of twenty years, till his 
health failed. Under these circum- 
stances he was led to comply with the 
invitations of a body of Chnstiau gen- 
tlemen to commence a popular religious 
newspaper, *'The British Banner," 
which met with unexampled success. 
This journal he conducted fur nine years, 
when he relinquished it, and on his 
own account established the ** British 
Standard," to which two years after- 
wards he added the ''British EInsign." 
In 1844, by the public vote of the As- 
sembly of the Congregational Union of 
EngUmd and Wales, he was invited to 
undertake the editorship of a popular 
religious magazine, the ** Christian 
Witness,*' which realized a monthly cir- 
culation of 30,000 copies. To this, two 
years afterwards, he added the ** Chris- 
tian Penny Magazine," which obtained 
a monthly issue of 100,000 copies. Dr. 




flmpbell !■ » Yoluminous aathor. 
bis laiger works may be men- 
bii "Maritime Discoveiy and 
Ckrialuui MunoDB ; ** ** Jethro,** a hun- 
tod-gninea prize eaeay; the ** Martyr 
cl EnromAiiga ; " the '* Life of Naamith, 
the Founder of City Mianons;" "Popery 
1^ Poaeyism ; " and "John Angell 
JaiiMa ; a Review of his Character, 
Efequence* and Writings." Dr. Camp- 
bell has entered largely into the eccle- 
■■fit'***^ controrersies of the day. In 
1839 he issued a volume of Letters, re- 
printed from the "Patriot** newspaper, 
A^i-nmt the Bible printing monopoly, 
which contributed to a great reduction 
in the price of Bibles, and to greater 
aocaracy in the correction of subsequent 

OANDLISH, THX Rky. Robert,|D.D., 
a Scottish clergyman, and leader of the 
Free Church. Dr. Candlish is distin- 
gniahed by great subtlety and acuteness 
as a debater, and as an ecclesiastical 
leader has attained a distinguished poei- 
tion in Scotland. Excessive devotion to 
Free Church interests has left him little 
leisure to achieve that excellence as an 
aathor which his undoubted native 
powers might warrant us to anticipate. 
His works on "Genesis,** on "Scrip- 
tore Characters,** on the "Atonement,** 
on the "Resurrection,** and on "Mau- 
rice's Theological Essays,** all display 
great acuteness, although perhaps some- 
times wanting in that fulness of informa- 
tion and carefulness of finish which 
greater leisure would bestow. 

CANNING, Charles John, Visoount, 
Governor-General of India, was bom in 
1812, at Gloucester Lodge, Brompton. 
He is the son of the late Right Hon. 
George Canning, by a daughter of Major- 
General Scott, of Balcomie, Fifeahire. 
He was educated at Christ Church, Ox- 
ford. In 1835, he married a daughter 
of Lord Stuart de Rothesay, a lady who, 
as Maid of Honour to Queen Adelaide, 
was in high favour at Court. In 1836 

he was returned to the House of Com- 
mons as member for Warwickshire ; but 
on his mother*s death, in 1837, he suc- 
ceeded to the title of Viscount, and took 
his seat in the House of Lords, where 
he acquired a reputation for good sense 
and intelligence as a speaker. For some 
time his political opinions were unde- 
cided, but eventually he adhered to 
the Conservative party. In 1841 he 
took office under Sir Rol>ert Peel as 
Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Af- 
fairs, a post which he held until about 
the beginning of 1846, when a few 
months previous to the resignation of 
Sir Robert Peel he became Chief Com- 
missioner of Woods and Forests. In 
1853 he accepted office in the adminis- 
tration of Lord Aberdeen, and as Post- 
master-General introduced great im- 
provements into that institution, retain- 
ing the office under the ministry of Lord 
Palmerston. In 1855, on the resignation 
of the Marquis of Dalhousie, Lord Can- 
ning became Governor-General of India, 
a position which he has since held, 
through good and bad report, during a 
period the most critical in the history of 
our Indian empire. It is probable, that 
after the mists of prejudice have cleared 
away, and the heats of passion, together 
with the prepossessions of party, have 
subsided, it will be acknowledged by aU 
parties that India never had a fairer 
or more honourable British chief. The 
severest trial Lord Canning had to 
undergo in his Indian government was 
when Lord Derby's Ministry was formed 
in 1858. Lord Ellenborough was ap- 
pointed President of the Board of Con- 
trol, and in that capacity forwarded a 
despatch to the Governor-General which 
conveyed heavy censure in not the most 
moderate language. Lord Canning's 
vindication of himself was triumphant, 
and Lord Ellenborough was obliged, by 
the voice of the country, and the demon- 
strations of Parliamentary hostility, to 
resign his seat in the ministry. 





CANROBERT, Fban^ib Ckhtaih, 
a French commaDder, mm bom in 
1809. After receiving his military 
education at the school of St. Cjrr, he 
in 1828 joined the army as a snb-lieute* 
nant in the 47th Regiment of the line ; 
and in 1835, having been previously 
made lieutenant, he went to Africa. 
Having distinguished himself in 1842, he 
was made a chief of battalion, in 1846 
lieutenant-colonel, and in 1847 coloneL 
In 1848 he was entrusted with the com- 
mand of im expedition against the 
Arabs, in which he acquitted himself 
with great success and bravery. He 
then took command of the Zouaves, 
and, marching against the Kabyles, was 
again victorious Promoted to be ge- 
neral of brigade, in 1850 he led an ex- 
pedition against Narah, one of the most 
powerful strongholds of the Arabs ; but 
such was the ability of his attack, that 
after a few hours* determined fighting, the 
place was reduced. In 1852 Louis Napo- 
leon made him one of his aides-de-camp, 
and in 1853 general of division. On the 
death of St. Amaud he succeeded to 
the conmiand of the French army in 
the Crimea, but, probably owing to the 
difficulties of his position, did not much 
distinguish himself in that capacity. It 
has been suggested that he permitted 
Napoleon, whose nominee he was, to 
dictate from Paris the tactics of the 
army, a procedure which P61issier on his 
appointment at once repudiated. How- 
ever, on his return from the East, the 
Emperor treated him with marked dis- 
tinction, created him a Marshal of 
France, and despatched him on diplo- 
matic service to the courts of Denmark 
and Sweden. In 1855 he received the 
Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour. 

CANTERBURY, John Bird Sum- 
ner, D.D., Archbishop of, was bom in 
1780, at Kenilworth, in Warwickshire, 
of which his father was vicar. He was 
educated at Eton and King's College, 
gaining honours as Browne's Medallist^ 

and Hulse's Prixeman. After publish- 
ing, in 1815, his principal work, entitled 
"Apostolical Preachinfl^'* he wrote his 
''Records of Creation," which gained 
the second Burnett Prize of £400 in 
the following year. In 1820, Dr. Sum- 
ner was a canon of Durham; in 1828, 
he was consecrated Bishop of Chester ; 
and in 1848, translated to the Arch- 
bishopric of Canterbury. His patro- 
nage as Primate is large, and it is ad- 
ministered with discrimination, the in- 

tercourse of the Primate with subordi- 
nates being marked by uniform urbanity. 
He has been called on, by innovations 
introduced into the services of the 
Church of England, to express his de- 
cided hostility thereto, but he has 
always exhibited a conciliatory feeling, 
even in the rebukes he has administeretL 
The Archbishop, who is a Uberal in 
politics, ia r^arded as the head of the 
Low-Church party in the Church of 
England. Besides the works above 
mentioned. Dr. Sumner has published 
many others on theological subjects, 
together with several volumes of sermons. 
CANTU, Cesar, an Italian historian, 
was bom at Brescia in 1805. He was 
educated at Sondio, in the Yaltelline, 
where, at eighteen years of ago, he was 
ap])ointed Professor of Literature in the 
college of that city. He afterwards 
resided at Como, Milan, and Piedmont. 
Owing to the expression of his political 
views in his ** Reflections on the History 
of Lombardy in the 17th Century,*' 
Cantu was condemned to a year's im- 
prisonment at the instance of the Aus- 
trian Government. Cantu*8 chief work 
is his **Storia Universale," a produc- 
tion which is considered as one of the 
most valuable contributions to the 
literature of Italy. His ** Reformation 
in Europe*' has been translated into 
English by F. Prandi Besides the works 
alluded to^ M. Cantu has produced many 
others, chiefly relating to historical 




CAPEFIGUi; Jban Baftiste Ho- 
VOKS Ratmohd^ a French historian and 
periodical writer, was bom at Marseilles 
in 1802L He reoeired his early educa- 
lion in his native place^ afterwards be- 
^sn the study of the law, and to complete 
his legal training went to Paris in 1821. 
In Paria he became connected with po- 
litical affairs as editor of the* *' Quoti- 
cbenne," and afterwards wrote articles 
for nuany of the Parisian journals. He 
was engaged pireparing, in the mean- 
time, hia '* Operations of the French 
Army in Spain." He obtained a post 
in the Foieign Office, which, however, 
he resigned in 1848, and subsequently 
devoted himself to historical studies, 
availing himself of the varied informa- 
tion which his official position placed 
at lus disposal The revolution, how- 
ever, closed against him the archives of 
foreign affJBurs. He was one of the first 
who cfppoeed the Bepublic in the Na- 
tional Assembly, and for two years his 
letters, dated from London, Vienna, and 
Berlin, guided the policy of the coun- 
ter revolution. Among his principal 
woHls are the '*£s8ai surles Invasions,^ 
'^Histoire de Philipi)e Auguste,^ the 
" Histoire de la R6forme, de la Ligue, 
et du R^gne de Henri Quatre," ** Riche- 
lieu, Mazarin, et la Fronde,*' ** Louis 
XIV.," *' L'£urope pendant le Consulat 
et riinpire de Napoleon/' ** L'Europe 
depuis Tav^nement de Louis Philippe," 
lus latest work of note being '*Avant 
1789, Royaut^ Droit, Libert6." 

CARDIGAN, James Thomas Bru- 
DENZLL, Earl of, was bom in 1797. 
His father was sixth Earl of Cardigan. 
He entered the army on 8th May, 1824, 
and in December, 1830, attained the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. Under the 
title of Lord Brudenell he sat in Parlia- 
ment for Marlborough and Northamp- 
ton. In 1837 he was called to the House 
of Lords, on the death of lus father. 
The great fortune to which he became 
heir he employed in improving the con- 

dition of his regiment. He acquired a 
good deal of notoriety in connexion with 
the ** black bottle'' and other mess 
squabbles, terminating in a duel with 
Captain Tuckett, and his celebrated 
trial before the House of Lords, which 
bn>ke down chiefly on technical grounds. 
After this period Lord Cardigan devoted 
himself to his military duties, and ac- 
quired great commendation for his ser- 
vices in this respect from the highent 
authorities in the army. In 1854 he 
was appointed Major-General, and took 
the command of Uie Light Cavalry in 
the Crimean War. His heroic charge at 
the battle of Balaklava will long be re- 
membered as one of the most memorable 
incidents in the campaign. It invested 
his lordship for a time with well -merited 
iwpularity, which, however, was some- 
what diminished, owing to the charges, 
well or ill-founded, brought against him 
by the Crimean Conmiissioners, although 
these in no respect affect lus character 
as a gallant officer. In 18.55 he was a])- 
l>ointed Commander of the Batli, and 
in 1856 Commander of the Legion of 

CARD WELL, Right Hon. Edward, 
a politician and member of Parliament, 
was bom at Liverpool in 1813, and is the 
son of a merchant of that town. He 
studied at Oxford, and was called to the 
bar in 1838. Afterwards he entered on 
a political career, and was returned as 
member of Parliament for Clitheroe in 
1842. He sat for Liverpool from 1847 
till 1852, when he was defeated at the 
general election; and for Oxford from 
1853 to 1857, when he was again de- 
feated but afterwards returned, on adopt- 
ing the views of the Peelite jMuty. He 
was Secretary of the Treasury from Fe- 
bruary 1845 to July 1846, and President 
of the Board of Trade, under Lord John 
Russell, from 1852 to 1855, and is now 
Chief Secretary for Ireland. Since 1852 
he has been a member of the Privy 





CAREY, Hknry C, an American 
political economist, was bom in Phila- 
delphia, the 15th December, 1793, where 
his father, Matthew Carey, a cUstin- 
guiflhed writer, had established a large 
publishing business. In I82I Mr. Carey 
succeeded his father, and three years 
afterwards established the system of 
(Kjriodical trade-sdles which are now 
the ordinary channels of exchange be- 
tween American booksellers. He pub- 
lished an ** Essay on the Rate of Wages, 
with an Examination of the Causes of 
the Difference in the Condition of the 
Labouring Population throughout the 
World,** in IS36; and a woric on the 
''Credit System of France, England, 
and the United States," in 1838. These 
treatises were reproduced and expanded 
into his " Principles of Political Econo- 
my** (1837-40). He has since published 
"Past, Present, and Future** (1848); 
"The Harmony of Interest, Agricul- 
tural, Manufacturing, and Commercial.** 
(1850); and "The Slave Trade, Do- 
mestic and Foreign : why it exists, and 
how it may bo extinguished*' (1853). 
In 1858-9 he gave to the world the 
digested and methodized results of his 
studies and discoveries, under the title 
of " Principles of Social Science,** in 3 
vols. 8vo. His separate publications 
extend in the aggregate to something 
like four thousand pages, and his con- 
tributions to newspapers and periodicals 
to as many more. He has written 
various pamphlets, among which are 
" Answers to the Questions, What con- 
stitutes Currency? What are the Causes 
of its Unsteadiness? and what is the 
Remedy?** (1840); "Letters on Inter- 
national Copyright** (1853); "Letters 
to the President of the United States ** 
(1858). In his essay upon the "Rate of 
Wages,** Mr. Carey took his first step 
in opi>osition to the Ricardo-Malthnsian 
system, affirming that profits and wages 
tlo not vaiy inversely, but that high 
wages are the index of prosperity to 

both capitalist and labourer. In the 
"Principles of Political Economy** he 
advanced to the position now universally 
known as his theory of labour-value^ 
and generally accepted by economists as 
an exposition of rent and tfolue, which 
places in the clearest light the errors of 
Ricardo and his schooL In "The Past, 
Present, and Future,'* Mr. Carey over- 
turned the assumptions of preceding 
economists in respect to the law which 
rules the occupation of the earth, and 
its capacity to support its ever-growing 
population. In his latest work, "Tlie 
Principles of Social Science,** all the 
doctrines of his completed system are 
arrayed in the form of a " Vindication 
of the provisions of Providence for man, 
in idl his terrestial surroundingH.** 
The author denies the alleged antago- 
nism between Nature and human labour 
and capital, population, and subsistence. 
His princii>al works have been translated 
into Italian and Swedish; and within 
the current year, his last and largest 
work will be published in French and 

CARLEN, MadambEmilib, orSicrrH, 
a Swedish novelist, was bom at Stock- 
holm in 1810. She is the wife of Mr. 
J. G. Carlen, a lawyer in Stockholm, 
who has acquired a reputation in Sweden 
by the publication of a hand-book uf 
Swedish Jurisprudence, and various 
poems and tales. Mrs. Carlen has 
written a great number of works, among 
which maybe enumerated: — "Walde- 
mar Klein" (1838); "The Representa- 
tive" (1839); "GustovuB Lindorm*' 
(1839) ; "The Foster Brothers'* (1840) ; 
"The Church of Hammarby** (1840-41) ; 
"The Postboy*' (1841); "The Rose of 
TistelcBn,"and "Paul Voeming" (1844); 
"The Hermit of John's Rock," and 
" One Year of Married Life** (1846) ; 
"A Night on Lake Bullar" (1847) ; <*The 
Maiden's Tower" (1848); and "The 
Heroine of the Novel" (1849); "A 
Name," "The Tutor,- "In Six Months," 

CAB ^ 

other roinuioe& Madame 
after Miaa Bremer, the most 
jwflar novelirt of Sweden. She pos- 
lemarkable fertility of invention, 
powers of description. She is 
a keen obeenrer, and in her best works 
the mterert is well sustained. Many of 
her woiks have been translated into 

CA&LETON, William, a writer of 
fiction, was bom at Clogher, Tyrone, in 
1796. The son of a respectable and 
wealiliy fanner, he was anxious to obtain 
» daiwical education ; and as there was 
no proper school within twenty miles, 
he luged his friends to send him to 
Ifanster. This they did with a purse 
of twenty pounds in his pocket ; but he 
never went further than the town of 
Granait], from whence, overcome by his 
affection for his mother, he returned 
home the next day. Mr. Carlcton^s pas- 
son for adventure was produced by his 
perusal of Gil Bias, whereby he was 
tempted to seek the Irish metropolis, 
which he entered with only two and 
nine-pence in his pocket, to begin a hard 
life, sach as Savage and Chatterton had 
known in London. In Dublin he pro- 
duced his first two volumes of the ' * Traits 
and Stories of the Irish Peasantry. " Al- 
though published anonymously, they at 
once met with public favour, because 
of their pathos, humour, and truth. 
Thenceforward — 1830 — he lived by his 
writings, and could afford to publish 
them in small portions, and to bestow 
great pains on their prei)aration. Some 
of his works have been objected to, in 
consequence of their political bias ; but 
his characters are always sharply defined, 
and his incidents have an amount of local 
colouring which never fails to give them 
a great chann. His Traits and Stories 
were translated into German so far back 
as 1825, and several of his subsequent 
productions into French and Italian. 
Air. Carleton has been a voluminous 
writer, having published about forty- 


five volumes. Although in his sixty- 
fifth year, he is still fresh and vigorous, 
and will, doubtless, for years to come 
be able to give to the public many other 
such works as those which have gained 
him such a high and universal popularity, 
and caused his fellow-countrymen to 
bestow upon him the honourable title of 
the "Father of Irish literature." His 
latest production is ** The Evil Eye; or, 
the Black Sjiectre." 

CARLISLE, George Wiluam Fre- 
derick Howard, Earl of, K.G., long 
well known as Lord Morpeth, was born 
in April, 1802. As Viscount Morpeth 
he pursued his studies with great success 
at Oxford, and entered public life as 
Member for the Borough of Morpeth. 
In 1841,. after being elected for York- 
shire, he became Chief Secretary for 
Ireland. Party feeling at that period 
ran immoderately high in the sister 
island, and Lord Mor|>eth was as much 
esteemed by one section of the people as 
he was condemned by another. He 
was, on the whole, a favourite of Mr. 
O'Connell, a fact indicative of his poli- 
tical bias. On the dissolution of Parlia- 
ment which preceded the retirement of 
Lord Melboume*s administration in 1841, 
he stood again for the West Riding of 
Yorkshire, and was defeated. After- 
wards he visited the United States, 
where unusual honours awaited him. 
On his return he was api>ointed Chief 
Commissioner of Woods and Forests, 
and subsequently Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster. As Lord- Lieutenant 
of Ireland under Lord Palmerston's 
administration, he was extremely popidar. 
He was appointed to that high post in 
1855, but when the ministry gave way 
he was removed, the Earl of Eglinton 
being his successor. In 1859 Lord 
Eglinton was recalled, and Lord Carlisle 
was once more placed at the head of the 
Irish Government, where he stiU con- 
tinues. It may not be uninteresting to 
state that Lord Carlisle is as amiable 


. I 

C A R 



and benevolent in prirate life as in public 
affairs he is just and impartial. The 
Earl has acquired a reputation altogether 
distinct from his political career as a 
public lecturer ; his discourses delivered 
at Mechanics* Institutes on America, and 
the ' * Life and Writings of Pope, " having 
merits of a high order as literary pro- 
ductions, and claims to notice altogether 
indcjKindent of the fact of their having 

his first work being a translation of 
"Legendre's Geometry," to which he 
prefixed an ** Essay on Proportion." In 
1825 he published a translation of 
Goethe's "Wilhelm Meister," a work 
which directed his mind into a new 
current of thought. Once among the 
Germans, he went boldly to work on a 
" Life of Schiller," which was published 
from month to month in the "London 

been read by a lord to mechanics. Lord : Magazine. " In 1825 Mr. Carlyle married 

Carlisle is the author of "A Diary in 
Greek and Turkish Waters." 

CARLYLE, Thomas, an essayist 
and historian, was bom on 5th December, 
1795, at Ecclefechan, in Dumfriesshire. 
Educated at Annan, at the age of four- 
teen he removed to the University of 
Edinburgh, where he devoted himself 

Miss Veitch, a lady of cultivated tastes 
and much Uterary ability, and he shortly 
afterwards proceeded to Craigenputtock, 
a small farm in the moors of Dumfries- 
shire, where he kept up a correspondence 
with Goethe, and prosecuted the study 
of German literature. Here he wrote 
various articles for the * * Edinburgh Ency- 

chiefly to the study of mathematics and cloiwedia" and the "Edinburgh Review,'* 
natural philosophy under Leslie and to the former contributing the Lives of 

Play fair. His private studies were, 
however, at this jieriod of more impor- 
tance in his futiu*e career than the tasks 
of the classes. In the College library 
he read works in every department of 
literature, while he assiduously studied 
the modem languages of Europe, and 
esixjcially German, which was then little 
cultivated in Scotland. He remained at 
the University for about seven years, 
with the view of entering the Church ; 
but he changed his intention, and in 
182() became a teacher of mathematics at 
Kirkcaldy, in Fifeshire, where Edward 
Irving, who had been for some years his 
intimate friend, had settled in a similar 
cajMicity. After remaining two years in 
this situation, he resolved to enter on a 
new field of activity. He held the doc- 
trine that the Press was the only true 
priestlKHxl and governing power of the 
world, that Uterature was the best 
church, and that writers are the best 
preachers of modern times for all kinds 

Montesquieu, Montaigne, Nelson, and t lie 
two Pitts, and to the latter his remark- 
able Essays on "Jean Paul,** " German 
Literature,*' and "Bums." While living 
at this place he also wrote " Sartor Re- 
sartus," a history of the life and opi- 
nions of Herr Teufelsdrockh, an imagi- 
nary German professor, in which he set 
fortii a whole philosophy of life and 
society. The mixture of subtle sjKJCula- 
tion, true poetry, and grotesque humour 
which characterised this work had their 
effect heightened by the use of a novel 
and peculiar phraseology, to some extent 
the imitation of a German literary alang, 
but to a greater extent still the product 
of Mr. Carlyle's invention. It enabled 
him to compress within a small compass 
a great variety of ideas, which coidd not 
have been expressed within the same 
space under the ordinary forms of piu*e, 
precise, and measured English prose ; and 
it seems to have been found so 8er>'ice- 
able and effective in this resi)ect that it 

of [>eople and in all places. He steadily has been adhered to by the author in all 

adhered to this principle on removing to 
Eilinburgh in 1822, where he enthusias- 
tically devoted himself to authorship ; 

his sulwequent writings. In 1834 Mr. 
Carlyle removed to London, and has 
since resided in a house at Chelsea, ex- 




•dug a strong personal inflnenoe on 
the nbMt eminent litenuy men of the 
■HtropoluL During the firtt year of his 
readenoe in London ** Sartor Reaartus" 
pabliahed in a separate form. It 
not till 1837 that he published the 
" French Revolution," which placed him 
in the first rank of liying writers. This 
work produced a profound impression 
OD tlie public mind, abounding as it did 
IB Tiridly graphic and picturesque de- 
Kriptionf and intensity of feeling. 
"Chnrtiam'' appeared in 1839. In 1840 
Mr. Carlyle delivered a series of lectures 
on '* Heroes and Hero Worship," which 
were publuihed in 1841. "Past and 
PreMnt*' appeared in 1843, and in 1850 
the ** Latter Day Pamphlets," in which 
the aothor declaims vigorously against 
the revolutionary events of 1848 ; his 
'* Life of John SterUng "* (1851) ; and the 
'* Letters and Speeches of Oliver Crom- 
we]l'*(1847). Thelatterholdsahighplace 
as shedding new light on a character of 
the highest mark m British history. His 
latest work, '* The Life of Frederick the 
Great,'* partakes at once of his failings 
and his genius, but is still as intei-esting 
as, and more instructive than, a romance. 
Few authors have been better abused, 
and more admiringly U2>held, than 
Carlyle, but his influence over contem- 
porary literature continues i>owerf uL A 
uniform and handsome edition of his 
works, comprising sixteen volumes, has 
lately been published. 

CARNOT, Lazare Hippoutk, a 
French political writer and Minister of 
Public Instruction under the Kei)ublic 
of 1848, was bom at St Omer in 1801. 
He is a son of the celebrated republican 
general ; and was originally intended 
for the I'olytechnic School, but the 
events of 1815 compelled his family to 
seek an asylum in Germany, where he 
continued his studies, devoting his atten- 
tion specially to philosophy and political 
economy. On his return to France he 
became a zealous adherent of the St. 

Simonians, in the spirit of whose doc- 
trines he conducted the ** Revue Ency- 
clop6dique." On this becoming a reli- 
gious sect, however, he withdrew from 
the body. As President of the Central 
Committee for the Paris Elections of 
1839 he was chosen a Deputy for the 
metro2)oli8, and again in 1842 and 1846. 
He sat for nine years on the benches of 
the Opposition, taking an active jiart in 
the delKites on foreign affairs, the refor- 
mation of prisons, colonial slavery, and 
juvenile lalK>ur in factories. Ajipoiuted 
Minister of Public Instruction after the 
Revolution of February, he exerted him- 
self successfully in improving the condi- 
tion of schoolmasters; pro}»osed a law 
making elementary instruction gratui- 
tous and obligatory on all ; opened classes 
for the working people, evening lectures 
for those engaged during the day, houses 
of refuge, and a great school for admi- 
nistrative instruction, which was subse- 
quently suppressed by AL de Falloux, 
one of Louis Napoleon's Ministers. He 
defended the Republic to the last, and 
when it was overthrown he left France 
of his own accord. However, the elec- 
tors of the capital remained faithful to 
him, and re-elected him as a member of 
the legislative body. He retiu*ned, but 
refuse<l to accept of the distinction con- 
ferred upon him, and, instead, ex2)lained 
in a published letter his reasons for 
declining to take an oath of allegiance 
to the Napoleonic Empire. In 1856 
M. Camot was elected for the seventh 
tune, but he still persisted in his refusal, 
and has live<l since in retirement at 
Paris, engaged in studious pursuits. He 
has written several books on politics, 
modem history, and German literature, 
and he is now on the eve of publishing 
** Memoirs of his Father's Life," which 
is certain to prove an important and 
attractive book. 

CARPENTER, William Benjamin, 
M.D., a physiologist, is the son of the 
late eminent Unitarian minister, Dr. 




Lant Carpenter, of Bristol, and was 
bom in 1813. Circumstances having 
induced him to devote his attention to 
medical science, he pursued the study of 
his profession for some years at home, 
afterwards in London, and finally in 
Edinburgh, where he graduated as M.D. 
in 1839. Whilst residing in Bristol, he 
was appointed Lecturer on Medical 
Jurisprudence in the medical school of 
that city. Here it was that Dr. Car- 
penter wrote his ** Principles of General 
and Comparative Physiology,*' and his 
"Principles of Human Physiology," 
which by competent critics is said to be 
the best work on the subject yet pub- 
lished. During the same period he com- 
menced an elementary series of treatises 
on various departments of science, under 
the title of the "Popular Cyclopedia.'* 
Having determined to devote himself 
rather to the literary and scientific than 
to the practical department of his pro- 
fession, and having been elected a Fellow 
of the Royal Society, Dr. Carpenter 
removed to London in 1844, on being 
appointed Fullerian Professor of Physi- 
ology in the Royal Institution. He soon 
afterwards undertook the editorship of 
the "British and Foreign Medico-Chi- 
rurgical Review,** which he held for 
some years. Subsequently he became 
Professor of Medical Jurisprudence in 
University College, and Examiner in 
Physiology in the University of London. 
The latter of these appointments, how- 
ever, he resigned on being appointed to 
the office of Registrar of tiie University ; 
and in consequence of the recent increase 
of his duties in that capacity he has now 
withdrawn from every other public occu- 
pation. His larger treatises on ' ' Physi- 
ology,** as well as a smaller manual on 
that science, and a manual on the 
" Microscope,*' have gone through seve- 
ral editions. The latter is a most valu- 
able work on microscopic science, being 
replete with instruction as to the con- 
struction and uses of microscopes of 

every kind. Lq 1849 Dr. Carpenter 
gained a prize of 100 guineas ofiered for 
the best essay upon the use and abuse 
of alcoholic liquors, of which a people's 
edition, published by Bohn, has obtained 
great popularity. He has also been an 
occasional contributor to the leading 
reviews, as well as to the * * Philosophical 
Transactions,'* and the "Cyclopaedia of 
Anatomy and Physiology.*' 

CARY, Miss Alice, an American 
poetess, was bom in Hamilton County, 
in the North American State of Ohio, 
in April, 1820. On her father's side she 
is of Huguenot descent. Up to 1850 
Miss Cary resided at Clovemook, in her 
native county, where, although the ordi- 
nary means of a sound education were 
not within her reach, she seems to have 
acquired varied accomplishments by 
means of self-cidture. When eighteen, 
she published her first volume of poems 
at Cincinnati, which met with a favour- 
able reception from the public. She 
was warmly encouraged by many of the 
most eminent literary men in America. 
In 1850 she removed to New York, and 
since then she and her sister Phoebe 
have become regular contributors to the 
leading magazines and journals of Ame- 
rica. In 1851 Miss Alice Cary wrote 
the first of her Clovemook Papers, a 
work which at once gave her a position 
as a prose writer. In 1852 she pro<luced 
" Hagar, a Story of To-day ; " and in 
1853, a second series of Clovemook 
Papers, which, having been republished 
in this country, has met with great 
success. Her * ' Lyra, and other Poems, '* 
is a work placing her in the first rank 
among the American female writers of 
verse. In the following year she pub- 
lished the "Clovemook Children Pa- 
pers,*' a little volume prei>ared especially 
for the young. A complete edition of 
Miss Cary's poems was issued in 1855, 
containing also a poem of a more elabo- 
rate, if not more ambitious, character 
than any that had preceded it, called 




*«TheMudeiiofTlMcal«.'* Ithasbeen 
M one of the best namtive 
yet produced in America. It is 
iwnarkaMe lor purity of language, 
beauty of imagery, and energy and 
power in depicting paasion. The but of 
the beat known publicationB of Miss Gary 
was *' Married not Mated," which was, 
ID America, contrasted with some of Mr. 
Dickena'a happiest efforts; and '* Pic- 
tures of Countiy Life," published in 
1859, and republished in the same year 
in London. 

CoCNT OF, a French senator, son of a 
Coffvican general, and grandson of the 
Coont of Casabianca, a Senator of the 
Fint Empire, was bom at Nice, on 27th 
Jane, 1796, and studied at the Lyc6c 
Napol6on, where he took the prize in 
pbiloeophy, and afterwards passed 
through the usual course of a legal edu- 
cation. He was called to the bar in 
1818, but a considerable time elapsed 
before he obtained the success to which 
his talents entitled him. He was a 
liberal in politics, and at the same time 
an earnest supporter of the cause of the 
exiled Bonaparte family. After the 
Berolntion of 1848 he was returned to 
the Constituent Assembly as represen- 
tative of Corsica, and when, by the elec- 
tions of December, Louis Napoleon be- 
came President of the Republic, M. 
Casabianca supported the [xilicy of the 
Prince with energy and zeaL Towards 
the close of 1851 the President called 
him to his councils, first as Minister of 
Commerce and Agriculture, and next as 
Minister of Finance. When the coup 
dMai changed the aspect of public 
affairs in France, M. Casabianca was 
appointed to organize a new Ministry, 
which he did in January, 1852; but 
soon afterwards he gave up his various 
important offices to enter the Senate, 
where he still continues an able and 
sagacious adviser of the Emperor. 
CASS, General Lewis, LL-D., an 

American statesman of the democratic 
party, and of notorious pro-slavery pre- 
dilections, was bom at Exeter, New 
Hampshire, October 9, 1782. He was 
called to the bar in 1802, and elected 
to the Ohio Legislature in 1806. Not 
being very successful in the legal pro- 
fession, he entered the army of the 
United States, and was opi>oeed to the 
English in 1812-14. He held the post 
of Governor of Michigan until 1831, 
when he became War Secretary under 
General Jaekson^s Presidency. He was 
api>ointed ^linister to France in 1836, 
retaining that (xxsition till 1842. Two 
years afterwards he was a candidate for 
the chief magistracy of the Union, but 
was defeated ; and in 1857 was appointed 
Secretary of State under Mr. Buchanan. 
He {Xjssedses considerable influence in the 
American Senate, of which he is a mem- 
ber. As a i>olitician he seems to enter- 
tain an inveterate animosity towards 
Great Britain. Had affairs been at his 
dis^wsal, he woidd have plunged America 
into a war with this country even while 
the Oregon dispute was in course of ar- 
rangement. He is the author of a work 
entitled '* France : its King, Court, and 
Government. "* His life has l>een written 
by Mr. T. Yoimg and W. L. G. Smith. 
CATTERMOLE, George, a jiainter, 
was bom at Dickleburgh, near Diss, in 
Norfolk, in 1800. When young he was 
an admirable architectural draughtsman. 
He contributed to the Annuals, but 
afterwonls devoted himself to water- 
colour painting, and for more than 
twenty years his works adorned the 
Water-colour Exhibition. For the last 
five or six years, however, he has ceased 
to send his pictures there, and has de- 
voted himself to oil-painting. He was 
one of the five English painters who re- 
ceived the first-class medal at the Paris 
Exhibition in 1855. In 1856 he was, 
by special diploma, elected a Member of 
the Koyal Academy of Amsterdam, and 
also Honorary Member of the Belgian 





Society of Paioters in Water Colonrs. 
His pictures embrace a comprehensive 
range of subjects, historical and poetical 
The Bible, Scott, and Shaksjiere have 
furnished him with ample materials on 
which to exercise his peculiar powers. 
His pictures invariably display great 
imaginative power, deep poetic feeling, 
delicate conception, and exqiiisite mas- 
tery of execution. 

CAUSSIDlfeRE, Marc, a French 
politician, was bom at Lyons in 1809, of 
a family of artisans. Up to 1834 he was 
little more than an obscure workman, 
employed in the manufactories of Lyons 
and St. Etienne. In the sanguinary revo- 
lutionary affrays of these cities, in 1834, 
he was at once a resolute leader and 
hardy combatant in the ranks of the in- 
surrectionists. Condemned to imprison- 
ment for his connexion with these pro- 
ceedings, he was restored to liberty by 
the amnesty of 1837. His imprisonment 
appears only to have strengthened the 
ardour of his convictions, and soon after 
his release from incarceration he became 
recognised as one of the leaders of the 
advanced Reform party. At the Revolu- 
tion of February 1848, Caussidi^re, who 
was constantly found at the barricades 
up to the moment of the victory of his 
party, was installed Prefect of Police. 
Possessing a refined mind under a rough 
and unpolished exterior, he was a man 
of action in contact with the people, and 
surrounded by a militia ready for any- 
thing. During the brief reign of the 
Provisional Government, his energy con- 
tributed to restrain the imprudence of 
those Polish and Italian refugees with 
whom Paris swarmed, and who sought 
early to compromise the Republic by 
involving it in wars of aggression in the 
interest of foreign factions. His efforts 
to maintain onler during several disturb- 
ances in Paris were of such a nature as 
to achieve this end, and at the same time 
render him popular with the people, fie 
was elected to the Constituent Assembly 

for the department of the Seine ; but 
being accused of supineness, he defended 
himself in the tribune, and resigned his 
office. In August the Assembly re- 
turned to the charge, and ultimately 
Caussidi^re felt fli^t essential to his 
safety, and he took refuge in London, 
where, giving up political life, he entered 
into business as a wine-merchant. Caus- 
sidi^re in his exile has published a me- 
moir of the revolution, which has per- 
haps not received the attention its im- 
portance deserves. 

CAVOUR, Cou?rr Camille dk, an 
Italian orator and statesman. President 
of the Council of Ministers, and chief 
adviser of the King of Sardinia, was 
bom at Turin in 1809. He is the second 
son of the late Marquis de Cavour, who 
belonged to one of the most ancient 
and distinguished families of Piedmont. 
When the reform movement began in 
1847, he, with Count Balbo, founded 
the constitutional journal, *' II Risorgi- 
mento. '' After the fall of the democratic 
party, he entered, in 1849, the Cliamber 
of Deputies, and subsequently succeeded 
Santa Rosa as Minister of Commerce 
and Agriculture. In 1851 he was also 
entrusted with the Ministry of Finance, 
when he endeavoured to repair the in- 
juiy caused by an unhappy war, and to 
restore the equilibrium of revenue and 
expenditure. In 1852, disagreeing with 
his colleagues, he retired for a brief 
space from the ministry, but was re- 
called in November of the same year, and 
succeeded M. d'Azeglio as President of 
the Council During this period of his 
administration he introduced the prin- 
ciples of Free-trade into the commercial 
code of the kingdom of Sardinia, greatly 
reduced the tarifESi, and by commercial 
treaties with several powers, among 
others with England, extended the com- 
merce of Sardinia with foreign countries. 
In the beginning of 1855, through his 
exertions and advice. Piedmont joined 
the Anglo-French alliance, and des- 




piAdied SArdinian troops to share in the 
Oineaii ezpeditioii. At the peace he 
ttxil: mn active part in the Congress of 
Pahs, and there, for the first time, called 
the attention of the representatives of 
dK great powers of Enrope to the cause 
of Italy. He concluded the alliance, in 
1S59, between France and Sardinia for 
the deliverance of the Peninsula from 
the domination of Austria, resigning lus 
office at the end of July, 1859, in conse- 
quence of the sudden termination of the 
campaign a^nst Austria by the French 
Emperor. In January of the present 
year (1860) Count Cavour again assumed 
the Presidency of the Council, and was 
placed at the head of the department of 
Foreign Affairs, as well as of the Interior. 
He has since shown great political 
sagacity in the present crisis of Italian 
affairai, resulting from the successes of 
(Garibaldi in Sicily and Naples, and at 
last has had the satisfaction of witnessing 
the annexation of both countries to the 
kingdom of Sardinia. Victor Emmanuel 
entered Naples on November 7, 1860. 
Combining the higheHt qualities of a 
statesman and orator, Cavour is the firm 
friend of representative government. 
Under his administration Sardinia has 
taken a more conspicuous place in the 
European political system than she has 
ever formerly occupied ; and the almost 
certain formation of a united Italy is 
destined to bring him more prominently 
under the notice of the English public, 
as a judicious and wise, yet lil)cra], 
statesman, well able to gui<lc his 
countrjTncn when they have attained 
that independence and influence to which 
they a«i»ire. 

CAY LEY, Arthur, a mathematician, 
was bom on the 16th August, 1821, at 
Richmond, in Surrey. He entered at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
tr>ok his B.A. degree, and was in 1842 
senior wrangler, and fiist Smith's prize- 
man, and a Fellow of the College. 
Afterwards he studied for the law; 

was called to the bar in 1849; and 
has since been in practice as a convey- 
ancer. He was elected a Fellow of the 
Hoyal Society in 1852, and of the Royal 
Astronomical Society in 1857. Mr. 
Cayley is the author of various memoirs 
relating chiefly to pure mathematics, 
which have been published in the 
** Philosophical Transactions," the 
** (Cambridge Philosoi»hical Transac- 
tions," the "Memoirs of the Royal 
Astronomical Society," the ** Cim- 
briilge, and Cambridge and Dublin, 
and the Quarterly Mathematical J«nir- 
nals," anil the "Journals of CreUe and 

CELESTE, Ci^.LESTE Elliot, better 
known as Madame, an actress, and in 
the early part of her career, a favourite 
dariMtrwify was bom at Paris, in August 
1815, of French parents, whose particular 
I>osition in the world is not clearly known. 
She early received instruction in dancing 
at the Royal Academy of Music, and 
when fifteen accei»ted an engagement for 
the United States, w^here, at the early 
age of sixteen, she married a Mr. Elliot, 
who died some time afterwards. She 
then returned to this country, and de- 
voted her attention to such pantomimic 
parts as that of "Fenella" in "Masa- 
niello." After having appeared in all 
the principal cities and towns of the 
United Kingdom, she performed as a 
daiuffiUJte in London, and her unique 
style met with unlxmnded applause. 
In 1834 she returned to the United 
States. Wherever she went she met 
with an enthusiastic reception ; and 
spent three years in a sort of daily 
ovation. In 1837 she reapiwared on 
the boards of Drury-lane Theatre, no 
longer, however, in the capacity of a 
dancer, but as an actress ; thence she 
proceeded to the Haymarket, after- 
wards accompanying Mr. Webster to 
the Adelphi, as directress of that 
theatre. Having remained in con- 
nexion with that establishment for 




several jeurs, Madame Ctieste dis- 
solved the partnership, and at present 
manages the Lyceum on her own ac- 

CHADWICK, Edwik, C.B., a legis- 
lative uid administrative reformer and 
social economist, was bom near Man- 
chester, in 1800. Educated for the 
legal profession, he was called to the 
bar in 1830, and entered the public 
service in 1832. In 1828 he wrote an 
article in the " London Review," on the 
administration of public charity, which, 
with other papers on public questions, 
subsequently published, led to his being 
applied to and appointed first an Assis- 
tant-Commissioner, and afterwards one 
of the Commissioners of Inquiry into 
the means of improving the administra- 
tion of the Poor Laws. Mr. Chadwick's 
cardinal principle of administrative con- 
solidation was in great part adopted, 
and the results were the Poor-law Unions 
in England and Ireland, and local Boards 
of Health, with their staff of paid officers. 
Lord John Russell stated that so far as 
Mr. ChadwickV measures had been ap- 
plied they had saved the country from 
great social evils, if not absolutely from 
social revolution. In 1828 he contri- 
buted an article to the ** Westminster 
Review," on "Life Assurance," which 
set forth some of the first principles of 
sanitary science. In 1829 he wrote a 
paper in the "London Review," on 
"Preventive Police," which induced a 
friendship with Jeremy Bentham, that 
only ceased with the death of that great 
thinker in 1832, when he bequeathed to 
Mr. Chadwick his library of Jurispru- 
dence. In 1834, when the permanent 
Poor-law Commission was established, 
he was ap]x>intod Secretary to the 
Board. As one of the Commissioners 
of Inquiry into the labour of young 
persons in factories, he was charged 
with the preparation of the bill by 
which the short time system of labour, 
and the half -school time system of in- 

struction, now in the course of exten- 
sion, were introduced under Govern- 
ment inspection. While Secretary to 
the Poor-law Board, he was associated 
with Dr. Amott, Dr. Southwood Smith, 
and Dr. Kay, in an inquiry as to how far 
the physical causes of fever in London 
might be removed by sanitary agencies. 
He was also selected to investigate the 
constitution of the Constabulary in 
England and Wales, his labours leading 
to the appointment of county police 
forces. His report on sanitary questions, 
completed in 1842, is a model of conden- 
sation and suggestive analysis. The 
water supply and drainage of towns did 
not escape his attention ; he prepared 
separate reports on these questions, in 
which the measures he proposed are, for 
the most part, in course of adoption, 
under the superintendence of numerous 
local Boards of Health. Upon the re- 
port of a Conmiittee of Inquiry, the con- 
stitution of the new Poor-law Board 
having been changed, he was appointed 
to the Sanitaiy Commission in 1847, 
and in that and the following years pre- 
pared reports which led to large altera- 
tions. The establishment of the General 
Board of Health led to the origination 
by Mr. Chadwick of many of those sani- 
tary measures which have so materially 
altered the health of towns for the 
better; but the administration of the 
Public Health Act being placed in charge 
of a member of the House of Commons 
in 1854^ he retired with a pension. 
He was one of the earliest advocates of 
the repeal of taxes on knowledge, on 
which he wrote an article in the "West- 
minster Re view, "in 1831. Whenthewar 

with Russia ensued, he pointed out the 
disastrous effects certain to occur from 
want of proper sanitary arrangements in 
the army, and chiefly on his representa- 
tion a commission was appointed to in- 
vestigate the measures requisite for the 
protection of the army in India. His 
published papers and reports occupy 




flHHi|r TolmiiM. Hii meMOTM liaye been 
■DnifaMl to in tevend royal speeclies. 
Loid John Roaell, Lord Brougham, and 
Lotd ShafteBbaiy, have epoken highly 
rf his laboun, and continental states- 
am hftve consulted him frequently on 
the rabjects to which he has devoted 

CHAMBERS, Mohtaqit, an English 
kvyer and politician, was born in 1800. 
Ha was st first intended for the army, 
md for some time studied at Sandhurst, 
oUaining a lieutenancy in the Grenadier 
Giuurds. He, however, resigned the 
pfoffesaion of arms for that of the law, 
was called to the bar in 1828, and 
qwedily became distinguished as an 
advocate. In 1845 he was made Queen's 
CofonaeL He was elected Meml>er for 
Greenwich in 1852, and as a politician 
baa always advocated Liberal measures. 
As a pleader he has been engaged for 
many years past in some of the most 
ransrkable cases on the Home Circuit. 

CHAMBERS, Wiluam and Robert, 
authors and publishers, were bom in 
Peebles, William in 1800, Robert in 
1802. Both brothers received a good 
education in their native town, Robert 
piaiing throu^ a complete classical 
ooone, as preparatory to his adopting a 
learned professioiL Through the misfor- 
tunes of their father, a cotton manufac- 
turer on a scale of some extent, they at 
as early age were left dependent on their 

ditions of Edinburgh** (1824), and '* Pic- 
ture of Scotiand*' (1828), and contri- 
buted seven historical volumes to 
*' Constable's Miscellany," including a 
very popular work, "The History 
of the Rebellion of 1745-6." Messrs. 
Chambers arc, without doubt, the pio- 
neers of cheap literature. The esta- 
blishment of the "Journal," and its 
success, demonstrated that a respectable 
miscellany of original literature could 
be produced at a cost placing it within 
the reach of the masses. Now their 
printing and publishing house in High- 
street is one of the most remarkable 
and extensive in Scotkind. Among the 
more important works they have pub- 
lished ore their "Information for the 
People," the "Cyclopwdia of English 
Literature," "Instructive and Entertain- 
ing Library and Tracts," " Educational 
Course," and "A Cyclopedia for the 
People." Mr. Robert Chambers has 
devoted great attention to literature and 
science. His chief works, besides those 
mentioned, are '* Popular Rh3rmes of 
Scothind," the "Life and Works of 
Bums" (by far the best Life of Bums 
yet published), and the " Domestic An- 
nals of Scotland." His "Ancient Sea 
Margins" is an important contribution 
to geological science. "The Book of 
Scotland," and " Things as they are in 
America," are Mr. William Chambers's 
chief works. In the early part of 1860 

own exertions, by which their natursT a splendid institution erected at Peebles, 

energy and self-reliance were called into 
play. The family having removed from 
Peebles to Edinburgh, William and 
Robert conducted separate establish- 
ments as booksellers until 1832, when 
they united in establishing their well- 
known "Journal" Since that time 
their course has been steadily upwards. 
Many anecdotes are told of their early 
■trag^es, their incessant labour, their 
nigenuity, and, above all, of their self • 
dsniaL At an early 3>eriod of life, Mr. 

at the cost of Mr. William Chambers, 
was opened. It includes a museum and 
library, &e., and is a judicious applica- 
tion of the wealth which that gentleman 
has so worthily acquired during his past 
successful career. 
CHAMBORD, Henri Charles Fer- 


head of the eldest branch of the House 
of Bourbon, was bom at Paris, on the 
29th September, 1820. The posthumous 
son of the Due de Berri, assassinated in 

Robert Chambers published his " Tra- j Febmaiy of the same year, he was 




brought up in the principles of the 
ancient monarchy. At the Revolution 
of 1830 Charles X. made a futile efifort 
to have him recognised as King, under 
the title of Henry V. ; and the Count of 
Chambord, following the destinies of his 
family, went into exUe. He resided by 
turns at Holyrood, Prague, and Groritz, 
and then travelled over most of Europe, 
in order to complete his education. In 
all the countries which he visited he 
was treated with the respect due to his 
misfortunes ; and in many with the ob- 
servances due to his pretensions. In 
1846 he married Maria Theresa, daugh- 
ter of the Duke of Modena. After the 
Revolution of 1848, and the flight of 
Louis Philippe, the Legitimists cherished 
hopes that the tide of events would 
establish the Count on the throne of 
France ; but the revival of the Empire 
in 1852, if it did not dissipate every 
lingering renmant of expectation, ad- 
journed its realization. The Duke of 
Bordeaux has no family by his wife, and 
it is assumed that the elder branch of 
the Bourbons will become extinct at his 
decease, and the family of Orleans be 
left in undisputed possession of all the 
privileges, real or imaginary, that may 
pertain to their legitimacy, and to the 
** divine right,*' which they will then be 
enabled to insist upon. 

CHANGAKNIER, Nicolas Amfe 
Theodule, a French-African general, 
was bom at Autun, in April 1793. 
Leaving St Cyr in 1816, with the rank 
of a sub-lieutenant, he entered, as a 
simple guardsman, one of the privileged 
companies of the Gardes-du-Corps of 
Louis XVIII. , from which he passed as 
lieutenant to the Line. In Algeria he 
rose from the lowest position, as an 
officer in the French army, to his pre- 
sent rank. Throughout the whole of 
his career in Algiers he was noted for 
his bravery and success. As chief of 
a battalion he distinguished himself 
by coolness in the r^^^gn against 

Achmet Bey. For these services he 
was made lieutenant-coloneL At tlic 
termination of the Cheliff exi)edition he 
was made camp-marshal. In 1847 he 
received from the Due d'Aumale the 
conmiand of the Algerian division of the 
army. He was made Governor of Al- 
giers in 1848, but, returning to Paris, he 
became connected with the events of 
June of that year, assuming the sole 
military command in that city. After 
being some time in the confidence of 
Louis Napoleon, who was then Presi- 
dent, his command was taken from him. 
On the evening of the coup cCStat he was 
arrested and conveyed to Mazas ; since 
then he has been an exile. Lately per* 
mission to return to France was given 
him, in common with the other exiled 
generals, but was rejected, and he is now 
living in retirement in Belgium. 

CHARLES XV. (Louis Euoenk), 
King of Sweden and Norway, and of 
the Goths and Vandals, was born oq 
the 3rd of May, 1826. He is grandson 
of the celebrated General Beruadotte, 
who was the son of an innkeeper in 
France, and the only one of the soldiers 
of fortune elevated to royal dignity by 
the Emperor Napoleon I. who was able 
to pi-eserve his throne after the fall of 
that conqueror. Charles XV. succeeded 
on the death of his father, Oscar I., on 
the 8th of July, 1859. He was married 
in 1850 to the Princess Wilhelmina, 
daughter of Prince Frederick of the 
Netherlands, by whom he has issue one 
daughter, the Princess Louisa Josephine 
Eugenie, bom in 1851. The aged grand- 
mother of his Majesty, the widow of 
Bemadotte, still survives (1860), in the 
79th year of her age. 

CHEEVER, Geobgk Burritt, D.D., 
an American theological writer, was 
born at Hallowell, Maine, in 1807. He 
studied in the seminary of Audover, 
graduated at Bowdoin College in 1825, 
and was ordained pastor of Salem 
Church in 1832^ and of Allen-street 




Ctanh^ ISewYork city, in 1839. In 
1812 lie Tinted Europe, and remained 
tihcre two years and a half. In 1835 
hb pobliohed a vigoroaa temperance 
pampUeC^ entitled ** Inquire at Amos 
GUtm^B I>irtillery," which brought him 
into prominent notice, but which also 
fnntainni aoch matter as gave rise to law 
p r oca wli n gi, and a subsequent sentence 
of imprisonment. He has contributed 
cxte&aively to religious periodicals in 
and is the author of ** Lec- 
on the POgrim^s Progress,'' **Wan- 
^^inngm ai a Pilgrim in the Shadow of 
Mont BUuic" and other popular works. 
CHEL.MSFORD, Lord, better known 
by the world as Sir Frederick Thesiger, 
aad late Lord Chancellor of England, 
waa bom in London in 1794, and entered 
the nAvy in 1807. He subsequently left 
the navy, and entering the legal profes- 
non, was caUed to the bar at Gray's Inn 
in 1818. He almost at once succeeded, 
was for many years recognised as the 
leader of the Home Circuit, and in 1834 
became a King's CounseL He entered 
Parliament as member for Abingdon, in 
1844 ; was appointed Solicitor-General 
under the government of Sir Robert 
Peel, and in 1845 succeeded the late Sir 
William W. FoUett as Attorney General 
When Sir Robert Peel retired, he also 
resigned office, but continued to sit for 
Abingdon until 1852, when Lord Derby's 
Ministry being formed, he was re-ap- 
pointed Attorney-General, having a seat 
in Parliament for Stamford, which he 
continued to represent until his admission 
to tiie peerage. On the second accession 
of Lord Derby to power, in 1858, Sir 
Frederick Thesiger was created Lord 
Chelmsford, on his elevation to the 
woolsack. The resignation of Govern- 
ment deprived him of office. His chief 
characteristics as a pleader were dignity 
and energy, accuracy and acutenesa, 
perfect self-possession and persuasive 
eloquence. An unprecedented incident 
occurred in his professional life. Pre- 

viously to his being raised to the Upper 
House, he had been counsel in a cause 
which involved a large proi^erty; but 
considering the suit more one for extra- 
judicial settlement than litigation, he 
compromised it without directly con- 
sulting his client. Lord Chelmsford 
was but a few days Lord Chancellor 
when this client sued him for damages. 
The case has been heard and re-heard 
since ; and judgment has been given in 
his lordship's favour. During the session 
of 1860 Lord Chelmsford has brought in 
several measures in the House of Lords. 
CHESNEY, Francis Rawdon, 
D.C.L., Major-General in the Royal 
Artillery, was bom at Ballyrea, in the 
county of Down, Ireland, in 1789. He 
was educated at the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich. In 1804 he 
received his first commission in the 
Royal Artillery. In 1815 he obtained the 
rank of second captain; and in 1821 was 
ordered to Gibraltar. In 1829 he pro- 
ceeded to Constantinople, expecting by 
means of Congreve rockets and steamers 
to give efifectmd assistance to Turkey in 
her struggle with Russia. The war 
having terminated soon after his arrival, 
he visited the contending armies and 
their various fortresses and jK)8ition8, 
and prejiared a report uiwn them for 
Sir K (rordon, the British ambassador 
at Constantinople. His inquiries led to 
the consideration of an overland route 
to India. Proceeding to examine the 
mouths of the Nile, the shores of the 
Me<literranean, and the Isthmus of 
Suez, he sailed down the Red Sea, exa- 
mined the lower course of the Nile, and 
arrived at the conviction that a voyage 
to India from Egypt by means of steam 
vessels could be performed in the course 
of about three weeks. He also urged 
the opening of a sea canal from Suez to 
the Mediterranean, through Lake Men- 
zaleh. From Egypt he proceeded to 
Syria, to explore the route between the 
Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf. 




He crossed Northern SjtU» earned a 
raft to be oonstaracted on the Upper 
Euphrates, and sorveyed the Great 
River down to the Persian Gull He 
retomed through Persia and Asia Minor 
to the Upper Euphrates, explored other 
parts of Western Asia, and coming home 
to England in 1833, published an ac- 
count of the relative advantages of both 
routes to India. He urged the further 
exploration of the Syrian route, and at 
last was enabled by a vote of the House 
of Commons to undertake an expedition 
to the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. 
Appointed Colonel on this service, he 
proceeded to the coast of Syria in 1835, 
with a staff of naval and scientific 
officers. He met with many difficulties 
in his progress, but finally put together 
and floated two steamers on tiie Eu- 
phrates. Four hundred miles of the 
survey had been completed, when a 
fearful hurricane sent the Tigris steamer 
to the bottom with twenty of her crew. 
Colonel Chcsney and ei^t others were 
saved, and with the remaining steamer 
he descended and surveyed 1,200 miles 
of river ; thus solving the problem of the 
overland route through the Plains of 
Mesopotamia. The results of this expe- 
dition have an importance which can 
scarcely be exaggerated. Should the 
Eu]>hrate8 route ever become frequented 
to an extent in any degree conesponding 
to that of the Suez line — and political 
events may any day have this effect, — it 
will bring Western civiHjEation into inti- 
mate contact with the very heart of the 
Mahomedan east ; with regions iHiich, 
previous to the dawn of European his- 
tory, were peopled by vast and rich 
communities which recovered their fer- 
tility and importance in the first ages of 
Arab civilization, and which may again, 
under the influence of European example 
and precept be re-incoiporated with the 
civilized world. He returned to Eng- 
land in 1837, and continued absent from 
military duties untU 1842. In 1843 be 

went to China, as Brigadier, commanding 
the Royal and East India Artillery, and 
remained there until 1847. He has 
been at the head of the Royal Artil- 
lery in the Cork district from that period 
until 1852. In 1851 he published his 
large work and maps on the Expedition 
to the Euphrates and Tigris, and in the 
same year received the degree of D. C. L. 
at Oxford. He has since published 
" Observations on the Past and Present 
State of Fire-arms,*' in which he discusses 
thefiffects of the new musket in warfare. 
CHEVALIER, Michel, State Coun- 
cillor of France, and Member of the 
Institute, was bom at Limoges, on 13th 
Januaiy, 1806. He is the son of a small 
merchant, and was at the age of eighteen 
admitted to the Polytechnic School, from 
which he passed to the Mining School 
Sh<vtly before the Revolution of 1830 he 
was attached as engineer to the Depart- 
ment of the Nord. He then embrace<l 
Saint Simoniau doctrines, and became 
director of the "Globe** newspaper, 
which supported the views of this sect. 
He exerted himself so strenuously in the 
advocacy of the "New Church,'* that 
he was prosecuted for outrages on public 
morals, and condenmed to a year's im- 
prisonment. After the expiration of his 
sentence, he did not hesitate to retract 
all he had written against Christianity ; 
and he afterwards obtained from M. 
Thiers a special mission to the United 
States, witii the view of studying the 
American system of communication by 
water and railway. In 1836 he pub- 
lished his " Letters on North America,** 
a brilliant work, which was highly 
praised by Humboldt After visiting 
England, in 1836, he published a work 
on " The Material Interests of France,*' 
a fnt)gramme of industrial ameliorations 
which mig^t be advantageously carried 
out by the State. He filled several high 
offices, and was appointed by Louis Napo- 
leon to be /n^^^iMeicr-oi-di^of France. He 




dedaetkms on the example of England, 
and lie enjoyi a high repatation as a 
writer on all subjects connected with 
industry and finance in his native 
cottntry. He is at present engaged in 
working oat the details of the Com- 
mcrciBl Treaty between France and 

CHEVREUL, Michel Eugene, a 
French chemist, was bom at Angers, on 

herself, now Dr. Convers Francis, Pro- 
fessor in Harvard University. In 1828 
she married David Lee Child, a lawyer 
and editor in Boston. She and her hus- 
band united with W. L. Crarrison, at the 
very outset of his labours for the Anti- 
SLivery cause, in which their zeal re- 
mains nnabated. This circmnstaiice has 
rendered her books un]K»])ular with the 
Pro-iSlavery chuises in America. Wliile 

the 3l8t August, 1786. The son of a dis- j Miss Francis, slie wrote '* Hobomok," 
tingaiflhed physician, he studied in the ' an Indian story, and ** The Rel)els, a 

Central School of his native place. Ho 
went to Paris and became chemical 

Tale of the Kevolution." After her 
marriage she edited "The Juvenile 

assistant to Vauquelin, who soon recog- j Miscellany " for eight years, and wrote 
nised in his young pupil such aptitude I "Tlie Girl's Own R^jok " (1831), re- 
and sagacity that he gave him the ' publiiihcd iu England; "The Mother's 
direction of his lalwratory. He pro- 1 B<M>k '' (1831), which was republished 
greased rapidly. In 1826 he took, in the , in England and Germany ; "An Appeal 
Chemical Section of the Academy of 'in Wholf of that ClasH of Americans 
Sciences, the place which the death of!calle<l Africans '* (18:«), "Tlie Oasi.-*, 
Pr^'Oflt had left vacant; and in 1829, j an Anti-Slavery Anniuil" (18;i3), "Hia- 
sncceeded his old master, Vauquelin, in ; t«»ry of Women" (183^), " Philothoii, a 
the chemical chair appropriatetl to the I Grecian Romance" (18iW), "Letters 
Museum of Natural Histf»ry. He has f n>ni New York" (1843-4), "Fact and 

been Commander of the Legion of Honour 
since September 1844, and was a memlK'r 
of the Juries in the Great Ex^vositions 
of London and Paris. He has published 
a number of works, chiefly relating to 
Animal Chemistry, and to colours and 
their contrasts, which record many 
original researches. He has also con- 
^buted extensively to scientific periodi- 

CHILD, Miw. Lydta Maria, an 
eminent American e<lucational writer, 
before marriage Miss Francis, was 
bom in Me<lfonl, Massachusetts, on 
the nth February, 1802. Her father 

Fiction," a collection of stories (1845), 
" lowers for Children " (from 1845 to 
1856), "Progress of Keligioua Ideas" 
(1855), and "Autumnal Leaves," a col- 
lection of stories (1857) ; she editcii 
"The Anti-Slavery Standanl " during 
1841 and 1842. 

CHINA, Emperor of. (*SV« " Hiex 

CHISHOLM, Mrs. Carolinf, enu- 
nent for her efforts t<:> improve the con- 
dition of emigrants, was liom at North- 
am]>ton about the year 1810. She 
received from her mother an excellent 
education, which develojietl all her gene- 

was a baker, much res^tected for his i rous and charitable instincts. In her 

integrity and native good sense, who 
made imi^rovements in the manufacture 
of bread. She enjoyeil merely the edu- 
cational advantages common to all chil- 
dren in New England; but her early 
fondness for literature Wcos much stimu- 
lated by the active mind and studious 
habits of a brother, somewhat older than 

twentieth year she marrieil Captain 
Arcliil»ald Chisholm, <»f the Madras 
army. She i)rocee<letl with her hu^dmnd 
to Madras, and there commenced a work 
of benevolence by establishing an In- 
dustrial Home for the l>enefit of soldierh* 
daughters, who were thus removed from 
tem])tation, and instructed in ditfereut 





branches of useful knowledge. In 1838, 
owing to the faQure of Captain Chis- 
holm^s health, they went to Sydney. 
Remaining there with her three children 
during her husband^s return to India, 
she established **The Female Immi- 
grants' Home,'* and its branches in 
neighbouring districts, whose objects 
were to provide for, and to protect, 
friendless young women who were con- 
tinually arriving from Europe. In 
1846, Major Chisholm having rejoined 
his family, Mrs. Chisholm proceeded to 
England, taking with her a mass of ad- 
dresses and facts concerning emigrants 
and their relations, collected laboriously 
in the interior of the colony, by going 
from farm to farm, in order to effect the 
reunion of families. Her first business 
on her arrival in this country was to 
send out shiploads of poor children who 
had been left behind by their parents 
when they themselves emigrated, for 
want of means to pay the charges de- 
manded for children l)eyond a certain 
number. By her exertions the Emigra- 
tion Commissioners were induced to ship 
them, as well as the wives and children 
of prisoners who were emancipated and 
well to do. In 1850 she instituted the 
Family Colonization Loan Society, in 
onler to encourage a more general system 
of emigration, with the view of carrying 
out which Major Cliisholm volunteered 
to j>rocee<l alone to Victoria, in 1851, 
while his wife remained in England. 
Ho [iroceeded to South Australia and 
Victoria, and forming there committees 
of the most influentiid gentlemen in the 
coU)ny to co-operate with the committee 
of the society in London, remitted in 
less than two years upwards of £10,000, 
|)aid into his office at Melbourne by re- 
latives for the emigration of their kin- 
dred at home. Mrs. Chisholm joined 
her husband in Victoria with her six 
children in 1854, and immediately after 
her arrival proceeded to the "Diggings," 
where she discovered that much evil 

arose from the want of proper accommo- 
dation for travellers. At her solicita- 
tion the Colonial Government was in- 
duced to erect sheds, placed un<ler the 
care of respectable couples, fifteen miles 
from each other, between Melbourne and 
the "Diggings," and by tliis means 
wives and children were enable<l to re- 
join their families by short stages, and 
at small expense. On account of serious 
and dangerous illness, Mrs. Cliisholm 
went to Sydney in June 1858, where 
she has since remained, unf(»rtunately in 
rather indifferent health. Her untiring 
exertions in behalf of those who are 
compelled to leave their native homes 
for other lands, arc universally held in 
high esteem. 

CHRISTISON, Robert, a physician, 
and Professor of Materia l^ledica in the 
University of Edinburgh, son of the 
late Alexander Christison, Professor of 
Humanity in the same University, was 
bom in the Scottish capital, July IS, 1707. 
He became a student of Arts in the 
University in 1811, graduated in 1819, 
and afterwards studied in Loudon and 
Paris. While in Paris, in 1820-21, he 
was a pupil of Robiquet, and bent the 
powers of his intellect to the study <jf 
the department of science in which hi.s 
name has become so eminent. After his 
return to Edinburgh in 1823, he was 
appointed Professor of Me4iical Jiiris- 
prudence, and nine years afterguards, in 
1832, was elected to the chair of Materia 
Medica, his reputation both as a pro- 
fessor and physician ranking deservedly 
among the highest in the kingdom. His 
"Treatise on Poisons," 1829, has run 
through several editions, and is a stand- 
ard work with the faculty. 

CLARE, John, the peasant poet of 
Northamptonshire, was bom at Help- 
stone, 13th July, 1793. His father was 
an agricultural labourer, yet he managed 
to obtain some little knowledge of read- 
ing and writing from his scanty means. 
Obtaining a copy of Thomson's "Sea- 




loofl,^ he ^vras incited to attempt com- 

fMisg, and eventually produced a 

Tr^oine of poems, which met with suc- 

ec94, and. by the kind patronage of the 

Man|aia of Exeter and Lord Milton, 

ke was placed in comparatively ea8y 

drvuznstancea. He was residing iu 

£atUnd, and married in 1820. His 

occupottion being that of a fjarm-servant, 

doubtless affected the burden of his 

»img, 'which was always descriptive of 

nval life and scenery. But when the 

vr/oder of a fann-servant being a iK)et 

kad fallen away, his aristocratic frieud^ 

tfiok less interest in him. The anxieties 

cf a family and the maintenance of Iiis 

bfirm father and mother preyed on his 

mind, and the result was that he droppeil 

intii a state of harmless lunacy. He 

ent^rtaina the hallucination that he is 

the author of the chrfa-d^otuvre of Byr«.>n, 

Wordsworth, and Campbell, and affoitls 

a melancholy spectacle of a man of 

genius, whose mind is imequal to struggle 

with the realities of life. 

CLARENDON, George William 
Frederick Villiers, Earl of, ex- 
iSecretary of State for Foreign Affairs 
nnfler Lord Palmerston's administration, 
was bom 12th January, 1800. After 
studying at Cambridge, he entered tlie 
diplomatic service in 1820, as Attach^ to 
the Embassy in Russia, and continuofl in 
that office for about three years, after 
which he was a Commissioner of Customs. 
In 1831 he negotiated a treaty of com- 
merce with France, but his first promi- 
nent pabUc appointment was that of 
Plenipotentiary to Madrid in 1833. On 
his accession to the earldom in 1838, he 
returned to England. In 1840 Lord 
Clarendon was appointed Lord Privy 
SeaL In 1846 he became President of 
the Board of Trade, under Lord John 
Rosaell, and in the subsequent year was 
nominated Lord- Lieutenant of IrelantL 
The drcomstances under which Lord 
Clarendon commenced his duties were 
of the miott porj^exing nature. Disease 

and famine were prevalent throughout 
Ireland, and XK)Iitiual affairs were wurces 
of diHtur1>ance in every part of the 
coimtry. It waH al>out this pcricnl that 
the ReiR'al Associati^tn was uning its 
most active endeavours to j)rt^luce 
universal discontent. The energy and 
pnidonco with which Lord Clarend(»n 
conducted himself <Uiring the crisis of 
1848 adde<l much to his rq>utation for 
sagacity by all classics of nuMleratc 
Ii1>orals ; and there is little doubt that he 
is destined to take a more conspicuous 
position tliau he has yet filled, in the 
lM)litical events of the future. Lord 
(Jlarendon held liis office until the resig- 
nation of the Russell ministry iu 1852. 
Under Lortl Almrdeen he was ai»i)ointe<l 
to the Foreign Office, a jiosition which 
he likewise tilled under the (Government 
of Lord Palmerston. He had, dimng 
1855, t(} take a leading jiosition iu the 
affairs relating to the Russian war, 
Lord Al)ertleen having resigned, on 
account of the censure which had l)een 
cast on him by a vote of the House of 
C'ommons. Lord Clarendon also took 
imrt in the Congress at Paris, at which 
peace was concluded in 185G. When 
the ministry of his party was overtlirowu 
in 1858, Lord Clarendon, of coui*se, 
changed to the opi>osition side of the 
House of Lords ; but when a liK^ral 
Crovemnient was again formed in 1859, 
under Lonl Palmerston, he was, at his 
own request, left out of the Cabinet. 
There is no statesman of the present 
day who is looked up to with higher 
re8i)ect than Lord Clarendon. He 
married in 1831) a sister of the i)resent 
Elarl of Verulam, by whom he has a 
family. He was created a G.C.B. in 
1838, and in 1849 received the knight- 
htXKl of the Garter. 

CLARK, Sir James, Bart., M.D., 
Physician to the Queen, was bom in 
1788, at CHdlen, in Banffshire. He 
went to school at Fordyce, took his 
degree of M. A. at Aberdeen, studied 

CLA 100 

medicine in the University of Edin-j 
burgh, passed as physician there, and as ! 
surgeon in London, and afterwards 
travelled through several continental i 
countries. He settled as a physician at \ 
Eome, remaining there for some years, | 
also viititing the principal medical schools ' 
of Italy, France, and Germany. In 1820 < 
Dr. Clark published a work entitled i 
' ' Meilioal Notes on the Climate, Diseases, | 
Hospitals, and Medical Schools in France, ; 
Italy, and Switzerland." He returned 
to England in 1826, settling in London, 
where he was api)ointed Physician to| 
8t George*s Infirmary. In 1829 he! 
published his work '*0n the Sanative 
Induence of Climate;*' the first accu- 
rate and philosophical book on the sub- 
ject of which it treats. He wxks elected 
in 18:^2 a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
and in 1835 Physician to the Duchess 
of Kent and the Princess Victoria, be- 
coming, on the accession of the latter to 
the throne, Physician in Ordinary. He 
published, in 1835, '*A Treatise on 
Pulmonary Consumption and Scrofulous 
Diseases,'' which proiwunding new 
views of these complaints, has had a 
remarkable efiect in the mode of treating 
them, and has served to establish the 
reputation of the author xks a medical 
adviser in affections of the chest. In 
1838 Sir James Clark was created a 
Baronet, and since then he has received 
various other distinctions, been several 
times on the Council of the Koyal 
Society, exerted himself in the cause of 
sanitary reform, and risen to the very 
highest distinction as a medical practi- 
tioner in the English metrr>polis. 

CLARKE, Miw. Maby Cowdex, au- 
thoress of the " Complete Concordance 
to Shakspeare," was bom in June, 
1809 ; she is the daughter of the eminent 
musician Mr. Vincent NoveUo, and sister 
to the celebrated singer Madame Clara 
Novello. She was married in 1828 to 
Mr. Cliarles Cowden CUrke. In 1829 
fdoie commenced to analyse the works of 


Shakspeare, powibly impelled to the 
task by the incomplete indices of 
Ayscough and Twias. It apparently 
occurred to her that a ** Concordance to 
Shakspeare " would be invaluable to the 
literary world; and towards accom- 
plishing her grand purpose Mrs. Clarke 
devoted sixteen years of lalx>rious toil 
The work was brought out in 1846 ; it 
contains 2,578 columns, and about 
309,000 Hues, and so faithfully has it 
been prepared that the table of errata 
contains only thirteen Unes, consisting 
exclusively of simple omissions, there 
not having been an ** error," as yet, de- 
tected by the keenest critic. Mrs. 
Clarke has written other works, amcmg 
which are "The Iron Cousin, a Novel." 
" Kit Bam, the Modem Sinbad," ** The 
Girlhood of Shakspeare's Heroines," 
" World-noted Women ;" and "Many 
Happy Returns of the Day, a Birthday 
Book,*^ lately published. She has also 
oontribated to magazines, but her name 
is embalmed in the pages of the Con- 
cordance, which has conferred on her 
the distingoished honour of 1)eing the 
first female editor of Shaks]>eare. 

CLAUSEN, Hkkri Nicolas, a 
Danish politician and theologian, was 
bom at Maribo, in the island of Laland, 
in April 1793, and is the son of an emi- 
nent clergyman. He studied at Copen- 
hagen, and from 1818 to 1820 \nsited Ger- 
many, Italy, and France. On his retiu-n 
he was named Professor of Theology at 
Copenhagen, though his tendencies were 
rationalistic. He published some works 
embodying his opinions ; and though he 
met with numerous adversaries he gainetl 
the affections of the ]KK>ple and the 
esteem of the King. In 1836, when he 
had published *' Popular Discourses on 
the Ilefonnation," he became Rector of 
the University. Politically, he is an 
avowed partisan of Danish nationality, 
of civil liberty, of the Uberty of the 
press, and a defender of all hberal and 
patriotic ideaa He has ceased to take 




an actlTe part in public affairs, confin- ' was wounded at San Sebastian, where 
iag hiznaelf to his rectorial duties. HiH he led the storming-party. He subsc- 
Toika, though not numerous, are highly quently proceeded to the United Statics. 
oteezned in Denmark. I In 1842 he waH a]>poiutcd Colonel <if the 

CLOSB2, THE Very Rev. Francis, ; 98th regiment, and served in tlie exiK?- 
D.D., late scholar of St. John's College, ■ dition t«) China. In the Punjaub h<^ was 
Cambritlge, Dean of Carlisle, is an ' a General of Brigade, ami as comninnder, 
eminent preacher of the "Evangelical" | he defeated the Sikhs at Ramnugjumr, 
KhociL He held for thirty years the ', 22nd Novemljer, 1848 ; rendering! also 
Perpetual Curacy of Cheltenham, where ' eminent service at the passage of the 
he was extremely popular with the re- Chenab early in the following December, 
ligioua or evangelical section of the com- In 18ol and 1852 he commanded the 
Kimity. When Dr. Tait was elevato<l IVshawiir District, and in all liis en- 
to the See of London, Mr. Close Wcame ' gagements was successful over the 
bean of Carlisle, and in the border city ' enemy. In 1854 Sir Colin was appointed 
ka8 displayed the same eloquence which to the command of the Highland Bri- 
characterised him at Cheltenham : re- ! gade. At the Alma his c<)olno«s and 
twining his iK)pularity as a preacher, and intreindity contributed in a singularly 
ad'ording in his sermons a faithful expv I marked manner to the di3tingiii>»hod 
sition of the doctrines of the Evangelical , success of the British arms. At Bala- 
K-hool in the CTiurch of England In . klava he held the jwst of honour. Tlie 
1S26 he published ** Discourses on Ge- *'thin red line'' has become a thing of 
Deris;** in 1840 ** Miscellaneous Ser- ' history. In 1854 he was promoted to 
mons;" "Fifty-two Sketches of Ser- the rank of Major-fjeneral, and subse- 
mona." He has since published a volume j quently he became Lieutcnant-Ceneral, 
**0n Cliurch Architecture," which has receiving at the same time the (Jrand 
liocome popular. His first work has Cross of the Bath, the Cross of the 
L'one through a great numlier of wlitions. Legion of Honoiu*, and the Sardinian 
Dr. Close has lately taken a very active Onler of Maurice and St. Lazare, the 
I»art in advocating S(»cial reform, more j freedom of the cities of London and 
especially in resjHJct to the alwlition of j( Glasgow, and the honorary degree of 
s<»me ciiatoma, such as the use of to-'D.C. L. at OxfonL He was f<^r s<>me 
bacco, &c, and the evil tendency of | time after the Peace of Paris, Ins|R*ctor- 
variotts kinds of amusements. Both in fieneral of Infantrj', and without being 
the pulpit and by the pen, he has proved ' a martinet effected various iini>rove- 
himself a formidable opponent to all ' ments in the Line. So conspicuous had 
who hold contrary oj)inionB to those he been Sir Colin's sen^ices in the (^limea, 
maintains, and who have ventured into that when the revolt of the sepoys 
the lists against him. broke out. he was at once a])p<anted to 

CLYDE, Colin Campbell, Lord, the command of the army in tin.' East 
Lieutenant-General, K.C.B., late Com- j "When will you Ikj ready to start?" 
mander-in-Chief of the Indian Army, was 8ai(l Lord Palmerston. * * To-morrow, ** 
bom at Glasgow in 1702. In 1808 he said the veteran; **all I want can bo 
joined the army as Elnsign in the 0th ! got in Calcutta as weU as here." AVliat 
Foot. In 1800 he was Lieutenant ; in | HavekKjk and Outram so gloriously 

1813 Captain; in 1825 Major; in 1832 
Lieutenant-Colonel. He serve<l in Por- 
tugal and Walcheren, and also under Sir 
John Moore in the renin8ul& He 

Ijegan, Campbell has no less gloriously 
tenninatecL These three share the 
honour of having cnished the Indian 
mutiny, and avenged our slaughtered 




countrymeiL His relief of Lucknow 
in, perhi4)8, one of the most brilliant 
examples of strategy any age or country 
bos on record ; and his after-military 
career in India has been one of con- 
tiimcfl xHctory, without a reverse — 
no check whatever, indeed, ha\'ing 
cau8o<l a x>ause from the hour he en- 
tered the field. As a reward for these 
hwt ser\'ices he has been raised to the 
poem^o as Lord Clyde, and has taken 
Ills »vi\t in the House of Lords. He 
htm bi>en heartily welcomed on his re- 
turn homo, and it is to be hoped that he 
may long live to enjoy his well-merited 

COBDEX, KiCHARD, wasbomatMid- 
hin-Ht, Sufwox, in 18()4. His father, who 
was a Huiall farmer, sent him from home 
At an early ago, to till a sitimtiou in 
London, whore lie soon gained a thorough 
kiiitw lodge of business. He afterwards 
made a tour of the Unit^jd States and a 
|M»rtiou «»f Kun>iK\ He was energetic 
and auxiouM to rise, and seeing a good 
]iroM|>t»rt iH'fon* him, he entereil into 
busiiuHs on luH own account, in Lan- 
oa-jhiio, and stwn l>oeame a pro8i>erous 
man. A pamphlet fix^m his hand, en- 
tit 1«hI "Knghind, lixdand. and America," 
and an«)tlior i»n ** Russia," tlrew atten- 
tion t^» hi^ literary ipuditicationa. He 
ontiToil l)oldly on the ipiostion of Free 
'I'nido, and wjw one of the originators 
of the Anti-(.'<»rn-La\v League — one of 
the moht formida)>Io ]H)litioal organiza- 
tions ovor known. Mr. Colxlen was 
rotunied to the House t>f Conmions in 
1841, as memlKT for 8t«>ck|>i>rt He 
**to(»k" with the House, and Sir Kol)ert 
!\*ol aoknowlotlgod that his measmre of 
lS4d, which ])i-actioally admitted the 
jiLstiro of Mr. Cobdon's principles, was 
olicitod by tlie **unatlornetl ehnjuence" 
of till" cotton printer. The Com Laws 
n'iH»ah-d, Mr. Colnlen was presentetl 
with a toHtimonial of i;70,(HH) for his 
stTvioos to Free Trade. He "was re- 
turuetl for the West Hiding of York- 

shire in 1847, which he represent eil for 
some years, and then retired, under the 
impression that his re-election woultl not 
be secure. In 1857, after oppt^siu;; Lord 
Palmerston'a Chinese policy, and driv- 
ing that ministry to a dissolution, he 
was started for Hudderslield and de- 
feated — a surprise to himself and hi.s 
friends, but he was immediately after 
elected for Rochdale. In 1859 he tra- 
velled over a large portion of the United 
States ; and, diuing his absence, Lord 
Derby's ministry having been over- 
thrown. Lord Palmerston proi>ose<l that 
he should accept office, but he refused. 
Mr. Cobden, we need scarcely aild, is a 
Radical Reformer, and a member of the 
Peace Society. He is now in Paris, 
busily occupied as British Commis&^ioner 
in arranging the details of the Commer- 
cial Treaty, which owes its origin in a 
great measure to himself. In this Mr. 
Cobden has been so far successful ;\s to 
have acquired the esteem of the Freneli 
manufacturers. The commerce luitween 
the two countries has much benetited 
by the fiscal changes which have alre^idy 
been effected, and it is not too much to 
expect 'that his exertions will tend to 
draw together the sympathies of the twr> 
nations, now engaged in the peaceful 
pursuits of commercial rivalry. 

COCKERELL, Charles Robert, 
R.A., D.C.L., an architect, was born 
in London, on the 27th day of April, 
1788, His early life was sjK'nt among the 
architectural remains of class^ic lands, 
in a laborious study of the details of 
Creek and Roman architectiu-e. He 
uudertook many extensive excavations, 
and brought to this country several frag- 
ments of sculpture, now in the British 
Museum. An admirable draughtsman, 
in 1829 he was elected Associate of the 
Academy; in 1836 R.A.; and in 1840 
Professor of Architecture in the Roj-al 
Academy, an appointment which he 
held during sixteen years. In 1848 he 
received the first Gold Medal of the 




fiffitiah Architectural Institate, of which 
he became President in 1860. He was 
electefl in 1841 Foreign Member of the 
Lutitnte of France ; in 1843 a Member 
of Merit in the Academy of St Luke, 
at Rome ; in 1845 the honour of D.C.L. 
of Oxford was conferred on him ; and 
in 18^ he became a member of the 
DilettaDti S«X!iety. He was appointal ar- 
diitect tot lie new Public Library at Cam- 
bridj^ after a very long comjKJtition, 
and architect of the Taylor BuUding!) at 
Oxford, also after a com|>ctition ; as 
well as standing architect to the Bank 
of England, and architect to the Cathe- 
dral of .St. Paul'i*. He was the archi- 
tect of the National Monument of Scot- 
land, on the Calton Hill at Edinburgh, 
which has been only ])artly erected, and 
of various other buildings in EngLind, 
WaleA, and Ireland ; amongst which 
are the "Sun" and "Westminster'' 
Fire Olfices, London, and the St. George's 
HalL &c., in LiveqKX>l. Mr. Cockerell 
is the author of a valuaV»le work en- 
titled the "Arcliitectural Life of WU- 
liam of Wykeham." He has of late 
years devoted much attention to the 
stndy of Gothic architecture, and has 
imblixhefl illustrations of the West Front 
of Wells Cathedral, and of the Sculp- 
tures of Lincoln Cathedral His lec- 
tures, which he delivered regularly dur- 
ing his ap^iointment as Professor of Ar- 
chitecture, contain much original and 
imjiortant information regarding the 
history and thcf»ry of architecture. 

CODRLNGTOX, Sir William John, 
K.C.B., an English general, was bom 
in 1800. He is the eldest surviving sou 
of Admiral Sir Edwanl Codrington. In 
1821 he entered the anny ; and in 18.% 
tjecame Lieutenant-Colonel of the Cold- 
stream Guards. In 184G he attained the 
rank of Col(»iiel, and in 18o4 that of 
Major-General. He was always bx)ked 
up to as a steady officer, attacheil to the 
ranks, and very accessible. When the 
British army went out to Turkey, Sir 

William accompanied it as a spectator. 
Being at Varna, imme<liately l>efore the 
sailing of the expedition to the Crimea, 
I»rd Raglan, requiring at the moment 
a Brigadier-General, and C^nlrington 
being at hand, he was a]>iK>inte4l to 
the command of the first Briga^le of the 
Liglit Division, vacant by the ap|N)int- 
ment of (general Airey to the Adjutant- 
Generalship of the Army of the East. 
Sir William led this brigade 'with great 
steadiness and gallantry at the l>attle of 
the Alma. His bravery at lukermann 
was highly spoken of by the ("ommander- 
in -Chief ; and when Sir George Brown 
retired "wouniled to Malta, (Jeneral 
C^nlrington was apjKiinted to the com- 
mand of the Light Division. On the 
death (»f Lcjnl Raglan, and the resigna- 
tion o( General Simpson, he was ap- 
lK)inte<i Commander-in-Chief of the 
British army in the Crimea. He has 
since Ix'cn made a Knight (commander 
of the Bath, and on his return to Eng- 
lantl, after the iH?ace, he was elected 
Member i.»f Parliament for Greenwich. 
In 1859 he was apjwinted Governor of 

COLE, Henry, C.B., civil adminis- 
trator, art critic, and editor of the 
"Jounial of Design," was lK>m at Bath, 
in 1808. He entered the public service 
in 1822, and became an Assistant- 
Keeper of tlie Public Records. During 
this period he pulilished "Henry the 
Eighth's Scheme of Bishopricks ; " a 
volume of " Mi8cellane<ms Recorils of the 
Exchequer;" and many ]»amphlets on 
record reform, which led to the establish- 
ment of a general record ofiice, an<l the 
present system. He contributed to the 
Westminster and British and Foreign 
Reviews, and obtained one of the four 
prizes of i; 100 offered by the Treasury 
for suggestions for carrying out the 
I)enny-iK)stage plan of Rowland Hill ; — 
a measure which, as secretary of the 
mercantile committee on ]X)stage, ho 
had heli)ed to bring into public notice. 




lender tht» notn de plume of Felix Sum- 
lucrloy* he published several guide-books 
t4> the National Gallery, Hampton Court, 
&o.f and several editions of children's 
Ixioks, illustrated by royal academicians 
and other eminent artists. He originated 
the series of '*Art Manufactures,'' de- 
signed to associate the fine arts with the 
fabrication of objects of utility, and 
organized the exhibitions of the Society 
of Arts, which he pro^ioeed should cul- 
minate every fifth year in a national 
exhibition of arts and manufactures. 
The first of the series was intended to 
be held in 1851. The scheme adopted 
by Prince All)ert was expanded by him 
into the great international exhibition 
of that year, which was carried out so 
successfully. Mr. Cole was one of the 
executive committee of management, 
and at the termination of his labours 
was made a Comjianion of the Bath. 
Subseciuently ho was invited to imder- 
take the su|>erinteudence and reform of 
the Schools of Design, and his efforts 
led to the establishment of the Govern- 
ment Dejiartment of Science and Art, 
of which he was Senior Secretary and 
afterwards In8pi>ctor-GeneraL He filled 
the offi(>e of British Commissioner for 
the Universal Exhibition at Paris in 
1855, and accomi»liHbed the work effec- 
tively, whilrit economizing £10,000 
on the original parhamentary estimate. 
Since that time he has organized with 
unex])ected success the South Kensing- 
ton Museum, which is the first national 
institution lighted at night for exhibi- 
tion. He is now Superintendent of 
this institution, as well as Secretary 
of the Science and Art Department 
under the Committee of Council on 

COLERIDGE, the Rkv. Dbrwknt, 
youngest son of Samuel Taylor Cole- 
ridge, was l)om at Keswick, on Sep- 
tember 14th, 1800. He was educated 
at Ambleside, and subsequently at St. 
John's College, Cambridge. His earliest 

contributions to literature were made to 
''Knight's Quarterly Magazine," under 
the signature of Davenant Cecil His 
admirable memoir of his brother Hartley, 
whose ''Poems" and "Biographies of 
Northern Worthies" he edited, is well 
known. Since the death of his sister 
Sarah, the Rev. Derwent Coleridge has 
edited his father's works. He is now 
Principal of St. Mark's College, Chelsea, 
and Prebendary of St. Paul's Cathedral 
COLLIER, John Payne, a philolo- 
gist and critic, was bom in London, 
January 11th, 1789. His father was 
originally a Spanish merchant, but 
turned his mind to books early in life, 
and became editor of the "Monthly 
Register," and of the "Critical Re- 
view." About 1814 the subject of this 
notice entered the Inner Temple, as a 
law student, and was called to the bar, 
having previously been engaged in the 
arduous duties of parliamentary re]>orter 
for the " Morning Chronicle," a journal 
which at that period held the highest 
position in London. He hod not been 
long on the "Morning Chronicle," when 
he became a law reporter to the * ' Times, " 
occasionally lending his assistance in 
Parliament. In 1816 he married a lady 
who brought him a considerable fortune, 
and he subsequently devoted his leisure 
to the study of the earlier English poets, 
on whose works he has since written so 
many able criticisms and commentaries. 
His taste for the dramatic i>oets of the 
Elizabethan era was not a matter of a 
day's creation. It was manifested when 
he was a boy, and it strengthened with 
his years. Among his first works calcu- 
lated to attract the notice of the judicious, 
was " The Poetical Decameron," con- 
sisting of dialogues on our early poets, 
and containing a fund of information 
unknown to general readers. As a sup- 
plement to a new edition of " Dodsley's 
Old Plays," he rejirinted a number of 
dramas, all of them being of Shaksi>eare'B 
day, and works, too, of great merit, 




<>«wgfc^ of ooone, inferior to'^those of 
thorwoadnNU prototype. Still Btndying 
' Bthe aaine directioii, he prodaced, in 
1S31, his ** Hiatoiy of English Dramatic 
PoetEy," which increased his reputation 
as an original writer, and as an accurate 
eoQector of for^gotten but interesting 
beta. In eveiy respect he was careful 
and conacientious. Many new sources 
of information were placed at his dis- 
posal ; and it was in his varied researches 
in public and private libraries that he 
picked up the manuscripts or documents 
from irliich he wrote, in 1835, that 
dehgfatfiil book, " Kew Facts reganiing 
ShakBX)eare,*' a work which he suii]>le- 
mentcd by *' New Particulars" and 
" Further Particulars,'* — ^the latter in 
1839. For many years he was engagetl 
in preparing a life of Shakspearc, which 
he published with the great poet's works 
in 1844^ a task in which difBoulties met 
him at every step of his progress, all, 
ultimately, being surmounted. A second 
edition of the whole undertaking has 
mnoe been demanded. In 1850 he was 
appointed Vice-President of the Society 
of Antiquaries, in place of the late Mr. 
flallam. He enjoys a pension of £100 
a year from the Crown, in acknowleilg- 
ment of his services to literature. His 
Book of Roxburgh Ballads, " and 
Memoirs of the Principal Actors in 
the Plajrs of Shak8i>earc," are or ought 
to be in every good English library ; the 
latter was one of his contri1)utions to the 
Shakspeare Society, of which for ten 
years he was a director. Mr. Collier, 
some years since, purchased an edition 
of Shak8|)eare in folio, published in 
1632, with marginal notes, which has 
proved very useful in correcting spurious 
readings, and in sux^plying many new 
ones of indisputable value, all of which 
made their appearance in a volume pub- 
lished in 1852, entitled *' Notes and 
Emendations to the Text of Shaksi)eare'M 
Plays." With respect to the cmenda- 
tions^ there can be no doubt that Mr. 



Collier has acted with wisdom in claim- 
ing for many of them a place in every 
future reprint of Shakspeare's dramatic 
works, and that in point of fact they 
do, in the majority of cases, very much 
improve the old text. 

otherwise Jacques Collin Danton, a 
French writer, was Ix^ni at Plancy, near 
D'Arcis-siir-Aube, on the 28th of Janu- 
ary, 1793. He is nephew of the famous 
Danton, and at the conmicncement of 
tlie Restoration changed the dangerous 
name of his relative to that he now 
1)ears. In 1812 he went to Paris, wrote 
for the iKwksellers, and became a lx)ok- 
seller and ]mbliBher. His commercial 
])08ition being compromised in 18'iO, he 
t<K>k refuge in Belgium, where he cul- 
tivated the good will of the Belgians 
by advocating their nationality. He 
returned to France, after some years* 
alMenee, alKiut 1837, and founded a sort 
of universal wwiety, or SociMS Phalnns- 
tSrienney which has since, by a complete 
transformation, become the Society of 
Saint Victor. His writings are clasely 
associated with the events of his life 
From 1812 to 1815 the very titles of his 
])ublivations were vehement against the 
|K)ntificate ; but since 1837 he has made 
the amende ftonoraUe to Rome. To 
the first period belong his " Infernal 
Dictionary," his " Memoirs of a Villain 
of the Fourteenth Century," "ThcHc- 
turcsque Biography of tlie Jesuits," and 
" The Devil Painted by Himself." To 
the second perioti belong his ** Legends 
of the Holy Virgin," " Legends of the 
Seven Capital Crimes," and ** The 
Cliristian Book of Songs" (Le Chan- 
sounier du Chretien), which contains 
much abuse of the philosophers put in 

COLLINS, WiLKiE, an English 
biographer and novelist, was born in 
Ix>ndon in 1824 A son of the cele- 
brated painter, the late William Collins, 
R.A., he was educated at a private 




school, and passed a considerable time 
in Italy. His biography of his father 
is remarkably interesting ; not more as 
a life of the man than as a history of 
English art. * * Antonina, or the Fall of 
Rome," his first novel, became popular 
at once. His other works are ** Rambles 
beyond Railways, " " Basil," " Mr. 
Wray's Cash-box," "Hide and Seek," 
" After Dark," and " The Dead Secret " 
Although roughly handled by many cri- 
tics, those who have studied the works 
of Mr. Collins will bear testimony to 
their merits, as regards plot and variety 
of incident, and their clearness and 
simphcity of style. His earlier works 
were, no doubt, tinged with exaggera- 
tion ; but with time came mellowness, 
and when ho does write now, he writes 
well and vigorously. One of his dra- 
matic productions is that of " The 
Frozen Deep," which was played before 
the Queen. His latest work of fiction 
is " The Woman in White," which ap- 
peai'ed in weekly parts, in the columns 
of ** All the Year Round," and has 
since been reprinted. He is also the 
author of a drama called '* The Light- 
house," which has been played under 
the care of Mr. Dickons. 

COMBERMERE, Stapleton Cotton, 
Viscount, G. C. R, an English field- 
mai*ahal, was bom in 1773. He is the 
eldest suTA-iving son of the late Sir 
R. S. Cotton, M.P. for Cheshire. At 
eighteen years of age he entered the 
army, serving in the Flemish campaign 
of 1793-W. In 1796 he obtained the 
command of the 2oth Light Dragoons. 
With them he i)roceeded to India, and 
took part in the war of 1798 and 1799 
against TipjMJO Sultan. After his return 
to Europe he accompanietl Wellington 
to Spain, where he distinguished himself 
as a cavalry officer — and gained promo- 
tion after Talavera to the rank of Lieute- 
nant-GeneraL A t the battle of Salamanca 
he was second in command. When the 
war was over, he was appointed, in 1817» 

Governor of Barbadoes and Commander 
of the forces in the British West Indies ; 
in 1822 Commander of the forces in Ire- 
land ; and in 1825 Commander of the 
army in India, where he distinguished 
himself very much, more esi)ecially at 
the siege of Bhurtpore in 1825-6. For 
his Indian services he received the title 
of Viscount. After the Duke of Wellin^r- 
ton's death he was appointed Constable 
of the Tower of London, and subse- 
quently a Field-MarshaL 

CONINGHAM, William, member of 
Parliament for Brighton, was born at 
Penzance, Cornwall, in 181 o. He is 
son of the Rev. Robert Coningham of 
Londonderry. After the usual course of 
study he entered the military ser>'ice in 
1834, as an officer in the 1st Royal 
Dragoons. He afterwards sold out, mar- 
ried in 1840, and in 1847 contested tlie 
representation of Brighton, l)ut was 
defeated. At the general election of 
1852 he stood for Westminster, but 
again without success. In 1857, how- 
ever, he stood again for Brighton and was 
returned, and took his place among the 
liberals. He advocates the Ballot, a 
gradual extension of the suffrage, re- 
trenchment, and Free- trade; and opposes 
the Maynooth endo^^ment and church- 
rates. In a general sense, however, he 
supports the policy of Lord Palmerston. 
He is not a politician of extreme 
opinions, but his views, taken as a whole, 
are enlarged and UberaL He does not 
often address the House, ])ut when he 
rises he is listened to with res])ect and 

CONSCIENCE, Henri, a Flemish 
novelist, was bom at Antwer]), in Bel- 
gium, on the 3rd of Deceml>er, 1812. 
His father was a Frenchman, settled in 
Flanders as a ship-broker. In his boy- 
hood. Conscience was })assionately fond 
of books, and, as a means of gratifying 
his literary taste, became a teacher. In 
1830, the Belgian Revolution broke off 
his studies, and he entered the mihtary 

CON 107 COO 

■ervice a« a volunteer. He soon became I been translated into most modem 
the poet of the army, and wrote songs tongues. 

fnll of artlour and jxnnt, which l>ecame 
vory pofHilar. Discharged in 183C, after 

coiid sou of the kite £mx>eror Nicholas, 

hariD); obtained the rank of Sergeant- 1 Grand Duke of Kussia, brother of the 
Mrijor, be was obliged, on account of ' i»re8ent Czar, and Grand Admiral of the 
bickerings with his stepmother, to break ; Imjterial Fleet, was boni in 1827. He 
with his family, and, poor and lonely, j was declared Admiral of the Fleet by 
to pick up as he be^t could the means, his father in 1831, when he was four 
of a precarious existence. By turns ' years oUL His chief naval instructor 
an aA^istant-ganlencr, an emjdof/6 in a was Admiral Lutke, cclebrate<l by his 
govern ineut office at Antweq>, and clerk , voyage from Cn)n8ta4lt to Kamtscrliatka 
to an academy of arts, he at last, in ^ and Iwuk in 182G-27. Constantine, in 
184>>, receiveil the title of A<fr^f/S from . his Ixiyish studies, displayed a marked 
the University of Ghent. After obtain- 1 pretlilection for everything RuHsian. 
ing this distinction he turned his atten- ! His general reputation for talent earned 
tion to the revival of the Flemish national ' him a wide ]N)])ularity in Russia, more 
literature. His enthusLasm for the resto- ' esiKJcially with the old Russian i)arty. 
ration of the Flemish idiom has led him In 1847 he \'iijitcd England, and went to 
to protect incessantly against the intro- 1 all the public establishments, leaving a 
duL-tiou of the French language. He is . favourable imjtression upon all with 
now a 0)mmis8aire d'Arroudissement, ' whom he came in ccmtact. In tlie Lite 
at Courtrai, but his official duties do n<.)t ' war he was entrusted with the control 
interfere with his literary piu^uits, and ,' of tlie defensive ii|)erations in the Baltic. 
every year he publishes two or three | The high exi>ectations entertained re- 
vohunes illustrative of Flemish hfe. His \ spectiug his spirit and abUity were 
first production was "The Year of Mira- j scarcely realized during the contest. 
cleA, " which is less a romance than a series r He again \'isited England ( 1 859), iu- 
of brilliant dramatic pictures of an inter- ; H]iecting the dockyards and forts of the 
crKting peri<xi in Flemish luHtoiy. It M-as coimtry, and learning a due rt»ganl for 
followed, in 1837, by **Phantasia," a that nation in i>eace, which liis country- 
collection of legeuiis and Flemish poetry. \ men in the Crimea had learned to re- 
in 1838 he published tlie **Lion ofisjMict in war. Tlie Grand Duke is a 
Flanders ;" since that i>erio<l, quitting ' gooil English schr)lar, and is well ac- 
the Middle Ages, he has produced very . qiuiinteil with English literatiuv, ancient 
pleasant sketches of the manners of ; as well as mcKlem. He was married in 
modem Flanders, ** Hours of the ' 1848 to the Princess Alexandria Jo- 
Night," ** The Executioner's Child," ' scfowna, daughter of Joseph Duke of 
'*The New Niobe," ** The Conscript/" Saxe Alteuburg, by whom he has a 
and **Thc Poor Gentleman," — one of his ! family of four children- 
m*»st toucliiug works. In 184^5 he imb- 1 COOK, Eijza, a song writer, was 
li.she<l **The History of Belgium." He'ljom in 1817, at SoutliM'ark, where her 
has since written "Quintin Matsys," j father was a tradesman. When in her 
** Pages from the Bot)k of Nature," and . twentietli year, she gained considerable 
••Jacques D' Artevelde. " His most re- 1 reputation as a |K>etical contribut<ir to 
cent works are "The Curse of the Vil- ' several of the London i)eriodicals, and 
Lige," "Tlie War of the Peasants," ; especially to the "New Monthly Maga- 
**The Demon of Gold," and " b^imon | zine," and " Metroi)olitan and Literary 
Turchi at Batavia." His works have i Gazette." In 1840 a volume of her 




poexDB was published, numbers of them 
haWng been, and continuing to be, very 
po}Hilar. In 1849 *' Eliza Cook's Jour- 
nal" ai)peared ; but it has since ceased 
to exist. Miss Cook's most popular 
poems are the " Old Arm Chair," "The 
Old Farm Gate," "Home in the Heart," 
"The Last GoodBye," and "I Miss 
Thee, my Mother ;" but she is the writer 
of many more of equal merit, and all 
characterised by great freedom, ease, 
and heartiness of sentiment and expres- 
sion. "She makes you feel," says a dis- 
tinguished writer, * * that her whole heart 
is in all she writes ; that she gives full 
utterance to the depths of her soul — 
a soul that is in sympathy with all that 
is pure and true. " A complete collection 
of her poems has just been jtublished. 

COOKE, Edwakd William, A.RA., 
an English painter, was bom in London 
in 1 81 1. He seems to have acquired a taste 
for art from his father, who was an emi- 
nent engraver. His first productions were 
sketches of plants intended as illustra- 
tions for the "Botanic Cabinet," and 
"Loudon's Encyclopiedia." He subse- 
quently engaged in marine sketching, and 
in 1832 commenced painting in oiL His 
artistic education was com}i4eted in Italy 
and France. In 1851 he was elected an 
Associate of the Koyal Academy. The 
following of his productions are at pre- 
sent in the South Kensington Museum, 
• — namely, "Lolwter Pots," ** Mending 
the Bait Nets," "Brighton Sands," 
"The Antiquary's C^U," "Mont St 
Michel, Normandy," "A Mackerel," 
" Portsmouth Harbour, " "The Hulks, " 
"Hastings, from All Saints' Church," 
"Wimbuills, Blackheath," " Caq)," 
"Portsmouth Harbour," "The Victory," 
"Dutch Boats in a Cahn," and "The 
Boat House." 

COOPER, Thomas Sidney, A.ILA., 
a painter, was bom at Canterbury, on 
the 26th Sei>tember, 180.3. His ])arent8 
were in trade, but not in opulent cir- 
cumstances, and his father having, while 

the subject of this notice was a child, 
deserted his family, the boy was early 
thrown on his own resources. Having 
learned to draw, he succeeded in occa- 
sionally earning a few shillings by the 
sale of sketches of old buildings. He 
afterwards received instruction from Mr. 
Doyle, a scene painter, after whose death 
(which took place in the following year) 
he wxks employed in this capacity. In 
1827 he went to Belgium, obtaining his 
living by the way through the exercise 
of his artistic skilL He at last reached 
Brussels, where he studied the works of 
the old Flemish and Dutch masters, 
without however coj)ying their pictures, 
gained patrons, and ultimately settled 
and married. While resident in the 
Belgian capital, Mr. Coojwr also niaH- 
tered the methods of the li\'iug })aiuters 
of Flanders and Holland, esix^cially the 
style of the eminent animal painter, 
M. Verboeckhoven. In 1831 he re- 
turned to England — resolved to a<lopt 
animal painting as liis particular de- 
partment of art, and by the novelty of 
his manner at once caught attention, 
and attracted purchasers. His first pic- 
ture was exhibited at the Gallery of the 
Society of British Artists, and since 
that time his career has been one of con- 
tinued prosperity. For some years he 
has painted cattle for the landsca^ies of 
Lee, and the harmony of the ])r<Kluctious 
is unexceptionable, and the effect higlily 
admired by the best judges of art. His 
" Farm Yard— Milking Time," a study 
from a farm near Canter])iiry, and 
" Cattle— Early Mom on the Cunil)er- 
land Hills," are in the Vemon Collec- 
tion at the South Kensingt<:»n Museum. 
COPE, Charles We-st, R.A., an his- 
torical and domestic painter, was bom 
at Leeds, in 1811 ; his father being an 
artist, highly esteemed in his own 
neighbourhood. Having studied imdcr 
Mr. Sass, and at the Royal Aca<lemy, 
he painted a "Holy Family," which 
was purchased by the late Mr. Beckf ord. 




ffii fint picture for the Academy was 
oUbited in 1831, from which time he 
famted with great diligence and care, 
indnally adding laurela to his wreath, 
tntil 1843. when his cartoon, the '* First 
Trial by Jury/' obtained the £300 prize 
m tiw Westminster Hall competition. 
Thenceforward he met with great suc- 
cess, taldng a hi^ place among modem 
Btista. In 1843 he was elected Asso- 
ciate of the Academy, and in 1848 ele- 
TiXxd to the rank of Royal Academician. 
He has progressed surely, though not 
r^adly, still deservedly, for he has been 
a close stndent, and is a consciontioiis 
painter. Among his chief works are a 
*-Pa«t«rella,'* from Spenser; "L'AUe- 
gio" and *' H Penseroso," from Milton ; 
the " Last Days of Cardinal Wolsey" 
a84S); **Lear and Coidelia'' (1850); 
*' Laurence Saunders, the Second Marian 
Martyr, in Prison' (1851); <* Othello 
reUting his Adventures'* (1853) ; *' The 
Children of Charles L in Carisbrook 
Castle ^' ( 1855) ; and three frescoes 
for the New Houses of Parliament; 
namely, '*£dwanl III. conferring the 
Order of the Ciarter on Edward the 
Bhkck Prince," "Prince Henry's Sub- 
mission to the Law," and "Gri^elda's 
First Trial," which are universally ad- 
mitted to Ije among the most successful 
of recent attempts in this doi>artmeut of 
art The following of ^h•. Coj^e's ]>ro- 
dnctions are in the South Kensington 
Museum: "Palpitation," "The Young 
Mother," "The Hawthorn Bush," 
"Maiden Me^litation," "Beneficence," 
"Almsgiving," "L' Allegro," "II Pen- 
seroso," and " Mi.ther and CTiilrL" 

CORBAUX, Mi!« Favsy, a female 
artist, is daughter of a gentleman who 
was a well-known Fellow of the Royal 
Society. Miss Corbaux was l)om in 
1812, and when quite a child exhibited 
decided talent in drsiwing. She x)rac- 
tised at tirst for mere amusement, for 
she had no idea of ever turning her skill 
to other account. But misfortune over- 

took her father, who, reduced to poor 
circumstances, and old and feeble, was 
unable to help himself. Then came Miss 
Corbaux*s trial She was only fifteen, 
and her knowledge of art was but inci- 
pient. She scarcely knew the use of 
colours, and still less the art of mixing 
them ; but the cares of the family urged 
her on, and she resolved on l)ecoming 
the supjiort of her father. The heroism 
of this young lady is not outdime in the 
history of the struggles of artists. She 
bore up imder every trial, and at length 
had her rewanL Even while she was 
dnxijring and toilinc; she receivetl three 
high-art honoiu^ Miss Corbaux was then 
sixteen. She gained first, the large silver 
medal of tlie Society of Arts, for a por- 
trait in miniature ; secondly, the silver 
Isis medal, for a copy of fixtures, in 
water cob>urs; and, thirdly, the silver 
palette, for a copy of an engraving. 
Next year, 1828, she again receive<l the 
Ims meilal, for a figure-composition, in 
water colours ; and in 1830 she ob- 
taineil the gold medal, for a uuniature 
^Kirtroit. She had studie<l with a dili- 
gence unkno^Ti to all but herself, in the 
National Gallery and the British In- 
stitution. In tlie same year that she 
received the gold medal, she was ad- 
mitted an honorary member of the So- 
ciety of British Artists. Miss Corbaux 
has been chiefly occupie<l in portrait- 
l^iinting, and in this de^Kirtnient she has 
l>een highly and deservedly successful, 
her ]K)rtraits l)eing striking likenesses, 
her c<^lour pure, and her monijmlation 
firm. MiRS CorUaux has not limited her 
thoughts to art — she ])ermitte<l them to 
travel thn»ugh the realms of sacred lite- 
rature, and the result has l>een a series of 
investigiitions so acute and satisfactory 
tliat their conclusions have been a4.lopted 
by munbers of the most le-amcd of our 
time in Biblical history. 

CORBOULD, Edward Henry, an 
English water-colour painter, was bom 
in London on 5th December, 1815. 




His father and grandfather were well- 
known historic painters. He was edu- 
cated at Dr. May's school, at Entield, 
in a building which had been a ])alaee 
of Queen Elizabeth. Ho left this place 
in \8^2y and about a year afterwards he 
sent an original design, in water-colours, 
to the Society of Arts, ** Phaeton draw- 
ing the Chariot of the Sun;** obtained 
the gold Isis medal, which he had again 
the following year for a model of ** St 
George contending with the Dragon," 
from Si)enser's ** Faerie Queene ;" and 
afterwards he obtained the large gold 
mcilallion, for a model of a "Chariot 
Race," from Homer. In 1839 he pro- 
duced "The Egliuton Tournament," 
•*The Meeting of the Pilgrims at the 
Tabard Inn," from Chaucer ; and "The 
Woman taken in Adultery." In 1843 
he paintetl a cartoon, "The Plague 
of London," for which he received a 
prize of £100. His success in this in- 
stance induced him to devote his ener- 
gies to fresco-painting, and work after 
work proceeded from his hand until 
1847, when he seemed to have relin- 
quished frescoes for water-colours ex- 
cliLsively. His subjects are chiefly 
historical, and treated in a dramatic 
manner. He has drawn his inspiration 
from the days of chivalry, with their 
pageantry and picturesque shows. In 
art he revived the form and semblance 
of mediaeval times, as in literature Sir 
Walter Scott had given new life to the 
characters and sentiments of those who 
figured in the Middle Ages. His prin- 
cipal works, besides those already 
mentioned, are : " Fair Rosamond," 
"William of Eynesham reciting Valor- 
ous Deeds before a Chivalrous Court," 
"Destruction of the Idols at B&le," and a 
" Scene from the Opera of the Prophfete," 
painted by conmiand of Her Majesty, 
and which is said to be one of his best 
productions. He is a brilliant colourist, 
and possesses extraordinary knowledge 
of ancient architecture and costume. 

His whole manner and mode of thouL'ht, 
it is said, have been influenced by the 
I picturesque old palace in whicli he was 
'educated, and the pageantry of the 
Eglinton tournament, at whicli he was 
jiresent, before the production of his 
first great picture, in which he has em- 
balmed his impressions of that event. 

CORMENIN, Louis Marie i>e la 
Have, Vicomte de, a French |K>litical 
I ^TiterjWasbom at Paris, January 6, 1788. 
I He is a member of a distinguished family, 
I his grandfather being the Due de Pen- 
' thifevre. His early e<lucation was re- 
ceived at the school of M. Ix^pitre at 
Paris. He subsequently studied with 
great success in the legal scliOi>ls, and 
was chosen an advocate in 1808. Mean- 
while he had continued his literary stu- 
dies under MM. Laya and Villemain in 
Paris. He at the same time exhibited 
a taste for poetry, and some of his 
early verses appeared in the " Mit- 
cure de France," and the "Abna- 
nach des Muses." At the early age 
of twenty-two he was appointed by 
Napoleon First Secretary of the Coimtil 
of State, and while in that office was 
charged with drawing up some of its most 
elaborate reports. In 1828 C'Ormenin 
was elected Deputy, and continueil to 
be re-elected diuing eighteen yeara. 
His intimate and comprehensive know- 
ledge of jurisprudence, his logical me- 
thod, whether of S])eaking or writing, 
gave him great jwwer. In 1830 M. 
Cormenin protested strongly against the 
elevation of the Orleans dynasty to the 
throne of France. He resigneil his posi- 
tion in the Council of State, and refused 
the highest offices. He also gave up his 
Deputyship. Repenting the latter step, 
he offered himself to the electors of Loiret 
but was not elected. He was, however, 
sent to the Chaml)er by the Dei)artment 
of Ain in October, 1830, and sat on the 
extreme left. In 1831 he commenced his 
famous "Lettres sur la Liste Civile," 
during the discussion on the budget. 




iter tlie Sevolution of 1848 he dili- 
ptady set to work to remodel the 
Coaititatioii, being President of the 
Civmiisaion xsame<l for that jmrpose. 
i.iQ the roup (Titat taking place, ho 
vu ajipointcil a member of the Council 
4 State, reconstructed by Napoleon IIL 
Aa adTOcate by pirofeasion, he has been 
ike op|M>iient of evcrjrthing that din- 
{jayed the semblance of abuses, never 
ztiaxing in bia exertions to promote the 
came of progress. M. de Cormenin is 
the aathor of a work on **Thc Par- 
lianentajry Orators of France," which 
vaspablished under the name of **Ti- 
iDiin." This book, containing a series 
lif articles on Berryer, Guizot, Tliiers, 
Impin, Lamartine, OdiloD Barrot, &c., 
fcc, bad an extraordinary success, and 
lias lieen so highly appreciated by its 
nomeroos readers in France as to 
liave passed through ujiwards of twenty 
«ilitk>n8. It has long been considered 
in France a model in the style to which 
it belongs, although the English trans- 
lation bas attracted no great attention 
in this country. 

CH>RXELIUS, Peter Von, a German 
painter, was bom at Dusseldorf, on the 
16tb September, 1787. In his youth he 
had severe struggles. At the age of 
sixteen he lost his father, and was about 
to give np art for s(^)me other means 
of supporting the family, but his 
mother perceive<l his genius, and made 
many sacrifices for his advancement. 
At the age of nineteen he jiainted the 
en[iola of the Old Church at Neuss, 
and in 1810 he executed designs for 
rioethe's " Faust," in which he tlid full 
justice to the ideas of the great German 
author. He proceeded to Home in 181 1, 
and in 1819 went to Munich. In 1825 he 
was ai>pointed Director of the Academy 
in that city. Whilst at Munich he exe- 
cuted his most famous works, and the 
frescoes which decorate the Glyptothek. 
He also ^tainted the walls of the Church 
of Saint Louis with frescoes entitled 

•*God the Father," "The Birth of 
Christ," "The Crucifixion," and "The 
Day».»f Judpiient." Heretiuiie<lti» Rome 
in ISa:^, and in 1841 visitiHl Berlin. His 
designs, frescoes, and other works arc 
very numerous, and exhibit the sterling 
qualitii^ which denote genius. 

COSTELLO, Miss LonsA Stiart, a 
]x»piUar writer of tlie day, was born in 
Ireland in 181 o. In 18.35 nhe published 
her "SjHKjimens of the early PiH'try of 
France," dedicated to Tlmnias M<>ore. In 
1840 her * * Summer amongst the B<»oa;4e8 
and the Vines," a jjlcosant Inxik de- 
scriptive of Normandy and Brittany, ap- 
pearetL She continued tc» write with taste 
and discrimination of Ikt continental 
wanderings, until in 1844 she produced 
" Memoirs of Celebrated English - 
M-fimeiL" Thenceforwanl Misf* Costello 
has 1>een an indefatigalile authoress and 
student of history ; while her contribu- 
tions to pericxlicals have been almost 
without a break. She is a jxHitess be- 
sides, although she rarely indulges in 
verse writing. Her brother, Dudley 
Costello, is a well-known contributor to 
peri<Mlical and light literature. 

COUSIN, Vktor, a French meta- 
])hysician, was boni in November, 1702, 
at Paris, where his father was a watch 
and clctckmaker. He gained various 
prizes at the Lyc6e Charlemagne ; and 
showed a bias for metaphysical pursuits. 
A translation of " Plato" into French, 
published in 1812, first gave Cousin cele- 
brity in the literary and pliilosophioal 
world. In 1815 he delivered lectures on 
the history of philosophy in the Univer- 
sity. He attached himself to the Eoyal 
cause, but after the fall of the Emjieror, 
the free<lom with which he uttered opi- 
nions against the restored monarchy, 
caused the Government to insist on his 
ceasing to lecture. In 1828 he resumed 
his lectures, and was ap])ointed Inspec- 
tor-General of Educaticm. In this ca])a- 
city he visited Germany in 1831, and in 
1832 published a report on the Prussian 




vvHtx'ui of iHlucation, whicli has given 
|H»iHiUr iastniction suclian impulse over 
t^4n>)K\ As a metaphysician. Cousin 
»howiHl, in this early part of his career, a 
greater bias towards the Scottish philo- 
sophy than to any other. Sir William 
Iluniilton^s celebrated paper on the 
** Philosophy of the Unconditioned,'* was 
mainly directed against the principles of 
Cousin, and is accepted by many of the 
profoundest and most cautious thinkers, 
as an effectual demolition of the theories 
of the brilliant Frenchman. He gave 
General Cavaignac, while in power, all 
the benefit of his experience and ad- 
vice ; but in 1849 he disappeared from 
pubhc life. His works are very nume- 
rous, and are characterised by a style 
which places him among the first of 
living philosophical writers, and entities 
him undoubtedly to the very first place 
among moiiem French philosophical 
authors. Mr. Cousin's chief works are, 
a ** Translation of the Works of Plato," 
in 13 volumes (1825-40) ; an edition of 
** Descartes* Works,** in 11 volumes; a 
* ' Course of Lectures on Moral Philosophy, 
delivortxl to the Facidt6 des Lettres, in 
1818, on the Foundation Ideas of the 
Absolute, the True, the Beautiful, and 
the Good ** (1836) ; •* Lectures on the 
History of Modem Philosophy, deli- 
vered in 1816-17 " (1841) ; *' Lectures on 
the History of Moral Philosophy in the 
Eighteenth Century, delivered for the 
FacultC des Lettres, from 1816 to 1820,*' 
published in five volumes, Oct. 1840-41 ; 
*' Lessons on the Philosophy of Kant" 
(1842) ; '* A Dissertation on the Pens<^ 
de Pascal " (1842) ; and a series of 
studies on the distinguished women of 
the seventeenth century, including Ma- 
dame de Longueville (1853), Madame 
de Salle (1854), Madame de Chevreuse 
and Madame de Hautefort (1856). M. 
Cousin, who has been a leading contri- 
butor to the ** Revue des Deux Mondes,** 
the ** Memoirs of the Academy of Moral 
and PoUtical Sciences, *' and the * 'Journal 

des Savana,** published in 1846-47 a col- 
lected edition of his works up to that 
period, in 22 volumes 18mo. 

COUTTS, MisB Angela Georgiaxa 
BuBDETT, was bom in 1814, and is the 
youngest daughter of the celelebrated 
Sir Francis Burdett, who wasimprisoned 
in the Tower for his advocacy of reform in 
1810. She is grand-daughter of the emi- 
nent banker whose name she bears, and 
to whose great wealth she has succeedeci 
MisBBurdett*8 enormous fortune came to 
her quite unexpectedly. Old Mr. Coutts 
had married the actress Harriet Mellon, 
and when he died bequeathed to her all 
his vast fortune. Mrs. Coutts afterwards 
married the Duke of St. Albans, and 
before her death conveyed to Miss 
Angela Burdett everything she i>osse88c>il, 
limited only by the condition that the 
heiress should adopt the name of Coutti?. 
There are few of the wealthy classes 
whose names are more identified with 
public and private benevolence than is 
that of Miss Coutts. Her hberality is 
on the largest scale, and her means aic 
expended in assisting every scheme 
which has for its object the moral or 
physical improvement of the masses. 
Amongst her numerous instances of be- 
nevolence, we may state that she has 
endowed a bishopric in Australia, and 
has built a handsome church iji the west 
end of London. 

COWLEY, Henry Eichard Wel- 
LESLEY, Lord, British Minister at Paris, 
was bom in London, 1804. He entered 
the diplomatic service when only twenty, 
having become an attachd to the Em- 
bassy at Vienna in 1824, afterwards 
Secretary of Legation at Stuttgart in 
1832, and Secretary of the Embassy at 
Constantinople in 1831. In 1848 he 
was Minister Plenipotentiary to Switzer- 
land, when delicate negociations called 
him to Frankfort. In 1851, during an 
anxious period for tiic German States, he 
was accredited to the Confederation, and 
in 1852 succeeded the Marquis of Nor- 




waahj am AmbMndor at tlie Court of 
the lUHerML In conjunction with Lord 
(SKcndon, he repfrewnted Great Britain 
Ik tibe Con^^reaa of Paris, when peace was 
ynehdmed ; and so hite as hwt year he 
pijuaulewl on a brief mission to Vienna, 
the object of which was to lay before the 
ft ap e rm of Austria England's views re- 
ipsetiiiig the state of affairs in Italy. 

filemy ^irriter, was bom in Fifeshire in 
1796L He ia the son of the Rev. William 
Qaik. At the University of St 
Andrew's be went through the usual 
coaxae of a divinity student for the 
Chnrcb of Scotland, but never entered 
Ibe ministry. Soon after the Society 
ior the DiAudon of Useful Knowledge 
was formed, Mr. Craik wrote for it 
the " Pnrsiiit of Knowledge imder Dif- 
ficulties," which was one of the works 
fonning part of the ** Library of Enter- 
taining Knowledge.*' Though appear- 
ing anon jmoualy, this work established 
its aatbor*8 reputation as a writer of 
extensive and varied acquirements. To 
tbe ••Penny Cyclopaedia" Mr. Craik con- 
tribnted some of the most valuable 
articles in history and biography. In 

clear and graceful language subjects of a 
recondite character, and a most anxious 
desire to aid as far as he can in im- 
proving the education and habits of his 
countrymen. Dr. Craik is at present 
Professor of History and English Litera- 
ture in the Queen's College, Belfast, 
and is engaged on an enlarged and 
corrected edition of his " History of 
English Literature." 

CRANWORTH, Robert Monsey 
RoLFE, Baron, late Lord Chancellor of 
England, was l>om in 17iK). Educated 
at Winchester and Cambridge, he was 
called to the 1)ar in 1816, and soon got 
into extensive practice. In 1834 he was 
apiwinted Solicitor-General, an office 
which he held, with a short interval, 
until 1839, when he was elevated to the 
Bench as a Baron of the Exchequer. He 
was apiwinted Vice-Chancellor in 1850, 
and in the same year raised to the peer- 
age. He was one of the Lonls Justices 
of Ap])eal in C^hancery in 1851, and 
Lord Clianccllor in 1852 ; continuing to 
hold this office during the Ministry of 
Lord Palmerston. He has since retired, 
taking no prominent part in the proceed- 
ings of the House of Lords, although lie 
1839 be became editor of the '* Pictorial ! is tirmly attached to the opinions of tbe 

History of England," writing himself all 
those parts of the work which relate to 
religion, laws, literature, and industry. 
His principal works, besides those re- 
ferred to, are — "Sketches of the History 
of Literature and Learning in England 

Whig party. 

CREASY, Sir Edward Shepiiehd, 
^LA., a lawyer and historian, and 
Chief Justice of Ceylon, was born in 
1812, at Bexley, in Kent He is tho 
son of Edward Hill Creasy, of Brighton, 

from the Norman Conquest," ''History who was at one time part proprietor of 
of British Conmierce from the Earhestjthe ** Brighton Gazette." The subject of 
Times," ** Spenser and hia Poetry, " I this notice was educated at Eton, and at 
•• Bacon : his Writings and his Philo- King's CoU^e, Cambridge, of which he 
aopby," •'Outlines of the History of I became a Fellow in 1834. In 1837 he 
the English Language," " The English passed as barrister, and has since prac- 
of Shakspere," and the "Romance of itised at the Common Law Bar, as a 
the Peerage," the last being one of the member of the Home Circuit In 1850 

most instructive and interesting l>ooks 
which have appeared during the present 
century. In all his writings Dr. C^ik 
exhibits the same laborious research, 
accuracy, and capacity to explain in 

he was appointed IVofessor of Histoiy in 
University College, London, and in the 
following year published "The Fifteen 
Decisive Battles of the World," a work 
now in its ninth edition. Professor 





Creasy has alM> written the **RiBe 
and Progren of the Kngliiih Confltita- 
tion," published in 1834^ which is now 
in its fourth edition, having been re- 
printed in America, and translated into 
several foreign languages. "The His- 
tory of the Ottoman Turks," published 
in 1856, the last work of the author, is 
about to be followed by a work on 
** International Law," which is now in 
the press. Mr. Creasy was knighted in 
1860, on the occasion of his being ap- 
pointed Chief Justice of Ceylon. 

CREMIEUX, Isaac Adolphb, a 
French legislator, and ex-Minister of 
Justice under the provisional govern- 
ment of France in 1848, was bom at 
Nismes, of Jewish parents, in 1796. 
After attending classes at the college of 
Louis-le-Grand, he studied law at Aix, 
and settled as an advocate at first at 
Nismes, and afterwards at Paris. His 
career was highly successful, until he 
received his first check by defending 
Guemon Ranville, one of Charles X.'s 
Ministers. In political pleadings in the 
courts, he was almost uniformly em- 
ployed in defending the Radical party 
when attacked by the prosecution of 
their organs of the press. Cremieux was 
long a member of the Chamber of Depu- 
ties, entering the Assembly first in 1842, 
and being re-electe<l in 1846. He ad- 
vocated Free Trade, and a law that no 
]>aid official should have a seat in the 
Chamber, with the exception of Ministers, 
always voting with the reform party 
against Guizot. When it was announced 
that the Government would put down 
the reform banquets, Cremieux ex- 
claimed, ** There is blood in this!" 
Meeting Louis-Philippe and his queen 
in the Place de la Concorde, on the 
Thursday of their departure, he urged 
the king to flee immediately, no hope for 
them being left. Ho subsequently urged 
in the Chamber of Deputies the for- 
mation of a Provisional Government. 
After the events of 1848, he^ though 

a democrat, showed but little favour 
to Cavaignac, upholding the candida- 
ture of Louis Napoleon for the Pre- 
sidency. However, after the election of 
December he became one of the most 
earnest orators of the Opposition. When 
the cowp ddcIL took place, he was ar- 
rested and taken to Mazas. Since then he 
has confined himself to the bar, where 
his talents and the independence of his 
character have acquired for him universal 
esteeuL He is an able lawyer, and is 
one of the authors of the "Odde des 
Codes" (1835). 

CRESWICK, Thomas, RA., a land- 
scape painter, was bom at Sheffield, 
Yorkshire, in 181 1. He was educated at 
Haselwood, near Birmingham, thence 
proceeding to London to study art. Mr. 
Creswiok became first known by pictures 
of Welsh streams, which, by their ex- 
quisite combinations of rock, foliage, 
and river, excited universal admiration. 
He was among the first oil painters to 
introduce the now conmion practice of 
painting in the open air direct from 
nature, and his pictures are often, even 
although this is not stated, faithfully 
transcribed from particular spots. In 
1842 he was elected an Associate of the 
Royal Academy, and in 1851 a Royal 
Academician. After this period be 
produced his greatest works, among 
which maybe ranked his *' England," 
'*The London Road a Hundred Years 
Ago, " and the • '.Weald of Kent. " In 1 848 
he produced his ''Home by the Sands," 
and "A Squally Day ;" and in 1850 his 
"Wind on Shore," and "Over the 
Sands." He has been extensively em- 
ployed in furnishing designs for various 
publications, which have been highly 

CROLY, Rev. George, LL.D., a 
literary writer and divine, was bom in 
Dublin, in 1780, and educated at Trinity 
College in that dty, where he obtained 
a scholarship, took the degrees of KA. 
and M.A., and was, some years after, 




▼olimtajrily with bis Doctoi's 
Ha was instituted in the year 
U34 to the benefice of Broadleigh, in 
Devon, by Lord Bronghsm, then Chan- 
fldlar; and in 1835 to the nnited benefices 
rf St Stephen's, Walbrook, and 8t Be- 
Mt'a, by Lord Chancellor Lyndhurst 
Dr. Cro^ has acquired great distinction 
m a palpit orator, and has written 
Tviooa works in theology; among 
QCheia, "The Three Cycles," (a Treatise 
on Divine Providence,) a new " rnter|)re- 
tation of the Apocalyi>se," a volume on 
Bspfeisni, Sennons pr^iched at St. Ste- 
phen'fly and Sermons on Public Events. 
He is also the author of *'A Political 
Life of the Right Hon. Edmund Burke," 
-A Political Life of George IV.," a 
Tolnme of Historical Essays, a work on 
Luther, and various ]K>etical works and 
works of fiction. 

CROSLAND, Mrs. Camilla, an 
■nth o r o BB known in the literary 
world by the name of Miss Toul- 
min, was bom in London on the 9tli 
Jane, 1812. She was early distin- 
jB[iiisbed for intellectual ability. When 
her faUier, and afterwards her brother, 
both solicitors, died. Miss Toulniin, 
having to depend on her own efforts, 
resolved to pursue literature, for which 
she was well qualified by her tastes 
and previous education. Her fir^t 
effort was a poem, which ap])cared in 
the **Book of Beauty" of 1838; from 
that time forward she has written 
assidnoosly for '* C^hambers's Journal," 
*' The People's Journal," and other peri- 
odicals; she edited for a time "The 
Ladies' Companion and Magazine." In 
1848 she married Mr. Newton Crosland, 
a London merchant. Mrs. Crosland has 
pabliahed separately "Lays and Le- 
gends illustrative of English Life,** 
"Partners for life," "A Christmas 
Story," "Stratagems, a Tale for Young 
People," "Toil and Trial, a Tale of 
London Life," "Lydia, a Woman's 
Book," "Stray Leaves from Shady 

,Phices," "Memorable Women," "Hil- 
|dred the Daughter," and a volume of 
poems. The principal aim in some of 
I Mrs. Crosland's writings is, by showing 
_ the trials and temptations of the poorer 
I and middle chwes, to inculcate the ad- 
vantages of political and social instruc- 
tion. In executing what appears to be 
her main design Mrs. Crosland has been 
successful, so far as she has l>cen instru- 
mental in arousing all ranks from a 
state of apathy, and in giving an impulse 
to the consideration of questions which 
but for her might have continued un- 
heeded by a large section of the com- 
munity. Her talent for treating more 
abstract and imaginative thcraeH has also 
l>ecn consiiicuously eWdoucecL Mrs. 
(.-rosland is a granddaughter of the emi- 
nent physician, Dr. William Toidmin. 

CROWE, Mrs. Catherine Ste- 
\Ti-vs, an English authoress, was bom 
at Borough-green, Kent, about 1803. 
Married in 1822 to Lieutenant-Colonel 
Crowe, she commenced her literary 
career in 1838 with "Aristodemus," 
a trageily of merit, though not appre- 
ciated. A novel, "Manorial Rights," 
followed; but "Susjin Hopley," shortly 
after, fixed her position among the 
female authors of the age. In 1847 
" Lillie Dawson " appeared, followed 
by some translations from the Oor- 
nian. In 1848 that curious work, 
"The Night Side of Nature," proceeded 
from her pen, and 8ul>8equently "Light 
and Darkness, or Mysteries of Life," 
with other lxK)k8, among which is an 
agreeabie little work for children, " Pip- 
jjie's Warning." Mrs. Cniwe's German 
reading seems to have drawn her fancy 
into mystic regions, but her works are 
yet forcibly written, and full of good 
sense and sagacity. 

CRUIKSHANK, George, an emi- 
nent artist and caricaturist^ was bom in 
London on the 27th September, 1792, of 
Scottish parents, his father l>eing from 
the Lowlands his mother, whose name 




wtLB MacNanghton, from the Highlands* 
Isaac Cruikshank, his father, was an 
artist of considerable ability as a water- 
colour draughtsman and etcher of cari- 
catures, cotemporary with Gilray and 
Bowlandson. Greorge had the advan- 
tage of seeing his father work, but be- 
yond this had little, or, indeed, no 
preparation for that profession which it 
was his fate, rather than his inclination, 
to follow. His aim was to be a sailor, 
but this desire, opposed strongly by his 
mother, was finally abandoned about 
the age of seventeen, upon the decease 
of his father. He then devoted his 
attention to drawing upon wood. His 
first etchings were frontisjiieces to cheap 
publications, such as song-books, dream- 
books, and jest-books, then political cari- 
catures, and, later in life, drawings on 
wood and etchings on copper and steel, 
as illustrations to works of much higher 
pretensions than those on which he had 
been at first engaged. To enumerate all 
his works would be almost impossible ; 
but he is justly considered as the origi- 
nator of the now prevalent style of book 
illustration. Many works, where his 
name appears only as the artist, are, 
nevertheless, his original ideas and sug- 
gestions. He illu8tratc<l most of Hone*B 
publications, "Life in London," "Oliver 
Twist," "Tower of London," "Comic 
Abnanac." "The Bottle" and "The 
Drunkard's Children " are pictorial his- 
tories of the evils of intemperance, where 
almost every figure tells its tale of misery 
and degradation. Upon this subject he 
seems from early life to have felt 
strongly, and his attacks upon gin- 
shops, and his depictions of the evils of 
drunkenness, may be traced backwards 
in some of his earliest productions. All 
his life he has (we believe) had a strong 
desire to attain to the higher branches 
of his prof eesion, but never had time or 
opportimity to study. The proverb, 
however, of "Never too late to learn," 
may be applied in this instance, for in 

spite of all difficulties and drawbacks he 
has for the last few years employed him- 
self principally in oil painting. His 
pictures at first betrayed the difficulty 
he felt in acquiring the use of the bruf<h, 
after working for so many years with 
the etching point ; but his later pictures 
show that he bids fair to take his place 
as an oil painter as well as an etcher 
among the most distinguished of our 
artists. A great critic, the late Samuel 
Phillips, has styled him the prince of 
living caricatuiists ; but his works have 
proved him something more than a cari- 
caturist, and we may add that a long life 
of integrity and honour has won for 
him the res])ect and regard of all classes 
who know Imn. 

CULLEN, Paul, D.D., the Roman 
Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, was 
bom in Ireland, in 1805. He left his 
native <;ouBtry at an early age, to study 
in the seminaries of Italy, took holy 
orders, and eventually settled at Rome, 
where he obtained employment in tlie 
offices of the Vatican, and where for 
fifteen years he administered the ec- 
clesiastical affairs of Ireland. On the 
death of the Roman Cathohc primate of 
that country in 1849, Dr. Cullen was 
chosen to fill his place, and was conse- 
crated in 1850. He subsequently lie- 
came Archbishop of Dublin. He is a 
decided foe to any mixed system of 
education, denouncing alike the national 
schools and the Queen's Colleges, which 
ai-e essentially secular, and he demands 
at the same time, a separate grant for 
such schools and colleges as may be 
established under Roman Catholic au- 
spices exclusively. In science he is lya- 
hind the age, as he has attempted to 
demonstrate that the earth is immovable, 
that the sun and all the planets move 
round us as round a common orbit, and 
i that noDA of the heavenly bodies are 
larger than they seem to the naked eye. 
CUMMING. Rkv. John, D.D., 
minister of the Scotch Church, Coveut 




Onden, Xicmdoii, and aathor of nu- 

devotional and controversial 

-was bom in Aberdeenshire, in 

November, 1810. Since 1833 Dr. Ciim- 

■OBg hjuB l>een a popalar preacher in the 

■etropolia, and may now be said to 

kare taken the place of Edward Irving, 

H the l^reat polpit orator of London. 

He is dSgtJTigiiiahed as an indomitable 

idvenary of the Papacy, having con- 

dncted on the Protestant side several 

diacaanons with followers of the Roman 

Catholic Church. The Apocalyptic mys- ! 

teries form his other great topic. His 

principai works are — ** Apocal3r]>tic 

Sketches^" scarcely noticed on its tirst 

appearance; "Daily Life," "Voices of 

the Night," "Voices of the Day," 

•' Sabbath Reatbngs " on the Old and 

New TestamentB, and " God in History. " 

I>r. Gumming preached before the Queen 

at Balmoral, and his sermon, entitleil 

^* Salvation," has been published. His 

latest work, "The Great Tribulation, 

or Things Coming on the Earth" (of 

which it is said 10,000 copies have l)eeu 

sold in leas than three montb»), has been 

severely criticised. 

CUNNINGHAM, Peter, an author 
and critic^ was born at Pimlico, in 
London, on the 7th April, 1816. He is 
son of Allan Cunningham, the poet, and 
inherits no small portion of his father's 
intellectual vigour. The late Sir Robert 
Peel, as a token of resitect for "Honest 
Allan's " memory, ap]M>inted the eon in 
1834 to a situation in the Audit Office, 
in which department of the jmblic service 
he rofie to be Cliief Clerk. Mr. Cun- 
ningham is the author of the "Hand- 
book of London," the "Life of Inigu 
Jones," the "Story of Nell G^ynne," 
the "Life of Drummond of Haw- 
thomdcn," &c. Besides editing numer- 
ous standard works for Mr. Murray, 
Mr. Cunningham was for many years 
a regular contributor to "The Atbcn- 
cnm," and now writes weekly in *' The 
niostrated London News." The last 

work edited by him was the collected 
edition of " Horace Waliwle's Letters" 
(1857). In 1842 Mr. Cunningham mar- 
ried the second daughter of John ^lartin, 
the distinguished painter of "Belshaz- 
zor's Feast," by whom he has three 
children. He retired from the Audit 
Office last year. 

CUiNNINGHAM, William, D.D., 
a Scottish divine and Princi]Nd of the 
New College, Edinburgli, was bom at 
Hamilton, in Lanarkshire, in October, 
ISOi), and educated at the Univorsity 
of £diu])urgh, where he greatly distin- 
guished himself. Almost immediately 
after receiving licence to preach, he was 
ordained assistant and successor to the 
Rev. Dr. Scott, of Greenock. His ac- 
quirements as a tlieologian, and his 
}K:)wera as a preacher, induced the Town 
(.Vmnoil of Glasgow to invite him to 
Wcome minister of one of the churches 
in tliat city, of which they were patrons. 
He declined the offer, but he was after- 
wanls translated to Trinity College 
Churcli, Edinburgh. His priuci]>le8 
were evangelical, and he contended 
strenuously against the intrusion of 
ministers on a congregation without 
their consent. When the stniggle Ikj- 
twceu the General Assembly and the 
civil i)owers took place, Dr. Cunningham 
was always found in the breach, main- 
taining his i>osition and defending his 
cause with all the eloquence of con- 
viction. But to sketch his life would 
be merely epitomizing a history of the 
ten years' conflict, with every passage 
in which he was closely associated. On 
the death of Dr. Chalmers, in 1847, 
Dr. Cunningham was appointed his 
successor, as Princi]»al of the New Col- 
lege, which had been opened at Edin- 
burgh in connexion with the Free 

CURTIS, Brnjamin R,, an eminent 
American lawyer, was bom in 1809, in 
Watertown, Massachusetts. He gra- 
duated at Han'ard University, in 1829, 




and studied law under Mr. Justice 
Story in the same institution. After 
practising in Boston he was api)ointed 
in 1851 Associate Judge of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, which office 
he resigned in 1857* when he returned 
to the bar. He Lb editor of ** Reports 
of Cases in the Circuit Courts of the 
United States;'' and of '* Reports of 
Decisions in the Supreme Court of the 
United States, with notes and a di- 

CURTIS, Georos William, an 
American author, was bom at Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, in 1824. In his 
youth he was on intimate terms with 
Longfellow and Hawthorne. In 1846 he 
came to Europe, and after a journey to 
the £a»t returned to the United States, 
where he published various works, among 
the meet prominent of which are — ** Nile 
Notes of a Howadji," '* Lotus Eating," 
*'The Howadji in Syria," and "The 
Potiphar Papers," **Prue and I," and 
a novel of American life, called 
** Trumps." For keen and elegant sa- 
tire Mr. Curtis is viewed as a sort of 
modem Persius and Juvenal combined. 

CUSHMAN, Miss Charlotte, an 
American tragic actress, was bom at 
Boston, about 1820. Of five children 
left fatherless she was the oldest By 
her mother she was encouraged to culti- 
vate her natural taste for music. After 
having sung in a concert with Miss 
Paton (Mrs. Wood), that lady induced 
her to make the lyrical stage her pro- 
fession. Miss Cushman's family were 
strenuously opposed to her adoption of 
that mode of life; but she was deter- 
mined to pursue it, and upon her dSbut 
in New York, met with astonishing 
success, as the Coimtess in the "Mar- 
riage of Figaro." Her voice was an 
admirable contralto ; but going to New 
Orleans after her triumph, the change 
of climate, and her efforts to strain her 
voice into a soprano, deprived her com- 
pletely of her vocal iMwers. Resolute 

in will, aha decided on becoming an 
actress, " pure and simple ; " and, having 
studied zealously, she appeared in the 
difficult character of "Lady Macbeth." 
She succeeded, and returned to New 
York with laurels. In 1845, conscious 
of ability, she came to England, was 
engaged in London, and performed Ro- 
meo to her sister Susan^s Juliet Romeo 
was so unlike anytiiing to be expected 
from a female performer, that it took 
the critics by storm; she was called 
"Macready womaned;" still she per- 
sisted, and in the end made her greatest 
impression in '*Meg Merrilies," about 
as picturesque a rejiresentation as has 
ever been witnessed. She has played 
many and diverse parts, in none offend- 
ing, and in many excellent Miss 
Cushman seems to have left the stage, 
as of late years her name seldom or 
never appears before the public. 

DAHLMANN, Frederick Chris- 
topher, a German historian and ]mb- 
licist, was bom at Wismar, in May, 1785. 
and studied with distinction at Hallo. 
In 1813 he was nominated professor at 
Kiel, where he delivered lectures, in 
Latin, on the Plays of Aristophanes. A 
quarrel with the Danish Government 
obliged him to accept of the Chair of 
Political Economy at GK>ttingen, where 
he published an historical work, entitled 
<* Original Documents relating to Ger- 
man Histoiy." In politics a moderate 
liberal, he offered his services to the 
Hanoverian Government in drawing up 
a charter then conceded to popular cla- 
mour. Two years afterwards he pub- 
lished a work, in which he opposed alike 
Democracy and Absolutism, entitled 
"The Science of Politics, based on 
facts," which has since gone through 
several editions. In 1837, when the con- 
stitution was put down, and M. Dahl- 
mann was obliged with six of his fellow 
professors to leave Hanover, he re- 
tired to Leipsic, where he devoted him- 
self to historical research. The result of 





The Histoiyof Den- 
/* paUuhML in lMO-43; one of the 
in&poitant historical works of the 
eaotory. In 1M2 he accepted the Pro- 
frftrihip of History and Political £co- 
lomy mA Bonn, and published in the 
■me year his ** History of the English 
Berolutioii," and the '* History of the 
ncnch Bevolution." He was elected a 
flwmber of the National Assembly at 
Frankfort, and laid before it the project 
of Provisional Government, which was 
adopted by the majority. M. Dahlmann 
wished to confer the hereditary mon- 
archy on the King of Prussia, but being 
aealonaly in favour of German unity he 
oppoaed the amustice of MalmoS, which 
had been entered into by Prussia with- 
out the authority of Parliament. After 
thia reactionazy policy set in, and the 
liberal cause being completely defeated, 
he retomed to his professorship at fionn, 
which had been kept open for him. 

DALE, Thb Bkv. Tuoxas, M.A., 
Canon of Saint Paul's Cathedral, and 
Vicar of Saint Pancras, poet and popular 
author, was bom at Pentonville, Lon- 
don. August, 1797. His mother died 
when he was but three years old, and 
his father having married again, went 
to the West Indies, to edit a public 
journal, where he also dieii, leaving his 
only sou. A presentation to Christ's 
Hospital was eventually obtained 
for him, where, under the late Dr. 
TroUope, by whom he was most 
kindly treated, he received a superior 
classical education. In 1817 he entered 
the University of Cambridge, having 
previously pubhshed his "Widow of 
Nain," which was speedily followed by 
the «*Ontlaw of Taurus," and **Irad 
and Adah, a Tale of the Flood," his first 
work passing through six editions within 
a very short periocL He was ordaine<l 
in 1823 first curate of St. Michat-rs, 
Comhill, London, and afterwards, in 
1835, by the 8|)ecial favour of Sir 
Robert Peel, appointed to be Vicar 

of St Bride'a In 1843, through the 
same influence, he became a Canon of 
St Paul's; and, in 1846, Vicar of St 
Pancras. He had previoiuly held the 
Lectureship of 8t Margaret Lothbury, 
but resigned it in 1849. With the ex- 
ce]>tion of hit poems, of which a col- 
lected edition was published in 1836, 
his edition of Cowper, and his transla- 
tion of Sophocles, hii later writings are 
exclusively religious, consisting chiefly 
of Sermons — '*The Domestic Liturgy 
and FamUy COiaplain," **The Sabbath 
Companion," &c. They display a fine 
tone of thought solid erudition, and 
the purest taste. 

DALHOUSIE, Jambs Andrew 
Brown Ramhay, Marquis of, is the 
tenth £arl of Dalhousie, bom at Dal- 
housie CasUe, near Edinburgh, in 1812. 
As Lord Kamsay, his titie by courteHy, 
he was first educated at Harrow, and 
then took his degrees at Oxfonl in 1833. 
He contested without success the repre- 
sentation of Edinburgh, on Conservative 
princi]iles, with Mr. Abercromby, sub- 
sequentiy Speaker of the House of Com- 
mons, and with Sir John Campbell, the 
present Lord CHiancellor. By his frank- 
ness and manly straightforwardness, 
however, he won golden opinions, not 
less from his adversaries than from his 
l>artizans. In 1837 he was returned to 
the House of Commons for the county of 
Haddington, and on the death of his 
father, in 1838, he succeeded to the 
Earldom of Dalhousie. In 1843 he 
was appointed Vice-President of the 
Board of Trade, and in 1845 President 
with a seat in the Cabinet resigning 
with the Ministry in 1846. In 1847, on 
the return of Lord Hardinge from India, 
he was offered and accc])ted the Cover- 
nor-Generalship, being the youngest man 
ever apiwinted to that important and 
responsible office. The Sikhs, shorUy 
after his landing, broke out a second 
time into war. Under his management 
they were defeated everywhere. He 




then annexed the Ponjaub, seemingly 
indifferent to public opinion as to that 
decisive step, but keenly alive to the 
interests of the country. Pegu, Bezar 
and Nagpore, and lastly Oude, came 
under the same system of political ac- 
quisition ; but^ while conquering and 
annexing, he did not forget to develop 
the internal resources of the country. 
Eailways, canals, and t^egraphs were 
established ; he sought to reform the 
administration of the civil and legal de- 
partments, and extended education and 
public works. In 1849 he was elevated 
to the dignity of a Marquis, receiving at 
the same time the thanks of both Houses 
of Parliament. He is a K.T., and Lord 
Warden of the Cinque Ports. The 
marquis returned from his duties in the 
East in shattered health in 1856. Hav- 
ing no sons by his late wife, his cousin 
Lord Panmure is the heir of his Scottish 

DALLAS, GBORaB Mifflik, an 
American statesman, and at present 
representative of the United States at 
the court of St James's, was bom at 
Phihidelphia, in July, 1792. His father, 
who was a lawyer, filled several im- 
portant offices in the State. The son 
was destined for a similar career. 
Having taken first-class honours at 
Princeton College in 1810, he was after- 
wards called to the bar, but desirous of 
knowing the world, he obtained the post 
of private secretary to the Russian Special 
Embassy, of which Mr. Gallatin was 
the chief. After visiting various con- 
tinental countries he returned to Ame- 
rica, and in 1817 was named Deputy 
Attorney-General for the eastern dis- 
trict of Pennsylvania. Elected mayor 
of Philadelphia, he was in 1829 ap- 
pointed district Attorney-General, and 
in 1831 was returned to the senate of 
the United States for Pennsylvania. 
In 1833 he retired from Congress, and 
resumed his profession with decided 
success until 1837, when President Van 

Buren confided to his chai^ the Amer- 
ican embassy at St. Petersburg, from 
which he was recalled in 1839 at his 
own request. A profound lawyer and 
dexterous pleader, he once more took his 
position at the bar, but was again 
induced to abandon the courts by his 
election to the Vice-Presidency of the 
Union, in 1844. This office he held 
until the elevation of General Taylor to 
the Presidency, in 1849, when he re- 
signed and returned once more to the 
practice of the law. In 1856 he was 
named Ambassador to London, succeed- 
ing Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Dallas, whihst 
understood to be one of the democratic 
party, has invariably sought to main- 
tain the most amicable relations be- 
tween Great Britain and the United 
States, and his course as a diplomatist 
has been such as to procure him the con- 
fidence of his own countrymen, and to 
elicit the esteem of the British people. 

DANA, Jambs D wight, LLD., Pro- 
fessor of Geology and Natural History 
in Yale College, Connecticut^ was boru 
in Utica, in the State of New York, on 
12th February, 1813. He studied at 
Yale College, graduating B.A. in 1833, 
and shortly afterwards was appointed a 
Teacher of Mathematics to the youth of 
the American navy. In that capacity 
he sailed to the Mediterranean, return- 
ing in 1835, and acting afterwards for 
two years as Assistant Professor in the 
chair which he now fills. In 1836 he 
was appointed mineralogist and geologist 
to an exploring expedition to the South- 
em and Pacific Oceans, which sailed in 
1838, and retumed in 1842, after a voy- 
age round the world. He was chosen 
Professor in Yale College in 1855, and 
he is now engaged in the discharge of 
the duties of that chair, to which he adds 
the editorship of the *' American Jour- 
nal of Science." He was elected in 
1854 President of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science. 
His principal publications are — *' A 




of Minenlogy," " Manual of ! meant to have made a mere tour, but on 

Mineralogy," "Report on Zoophytes," 
and *' Report on Cnutacea.'' He has 
oofDtributed a number of papers to vari- 
ooa learned societies in America. Pro- 
fesaor Dana is a member of the Geologi- 
cal Society of London, and various other 
•eientilic bodies. 

DANA, Richard Henbt, an Amcr- 
poet and essayist, was bom in 

reaching Bristol he f oimd that his funds 
had run short, and there accordingly he 
stopped to replenish. Under the cir- 
cumstances he settled in Bristol, teach- 
ing drawing, and painting small pictures 
with such success as to become tirmly 
established in that city. In 1817 he 
I>ainted a large picture of ** Criminals 
going to the Upas Tree,'' which was 
November, 1787. He is the son of ' exhibited at the British Institution, 
Francis Dana, minister to Russia, mem- London. **Disa]»pointed Love," and 
ber of Congress, and Cliief Justice of ** Sunset at Sea, after a Storm," were 
Maasachusetts. He originally adopted i exhibited at the Royal Academy — the 

the profession of the law, but was 
obliged to abandon it in consequence of 
ill health. His leanings were literary ; 
and he joined his relative, Edward T. 
Channing, in the editorship of the 

last picture being purchased by Sir 
ThomoH Lawrence, at a ])rice far above 
that ])ut uiK>n it by the artist. Sir 
Thomas Lawrence adviseil him t^j remove 
to Ix>ndon, which he did, and soon after 

" North American Review," to which j pnxiuccil the picture of " The Patsage of 
he contributed largely. In 18*21 he ' the Israelites thnmgh the Re<l Sea. " In 
commenced the publication of "The I 1825, after the exhibition of "The Em- 
Idle Man," the "Review " having ' barkation of Cieo])atra on the Cydnus," 

proved a failure. Dana's first poem. 

he was elected an Associate of the Aca- 

•*Thc Dying Raven," published in the i demy. In 1820, owing to some domestic 
•' New York Review " in 1825, was fol- \ misfortunes, he left England, and re- 
lowed, in 1827, by "The Buccaneer." |raaine<l till 1840 on the Continent. In 
He published his writings in a collected I tliat year he returned to England with 
form in 183^ adding some new com]iosi- 1 his large picture, " The Deluge." Mr. 
tiona Since then he has rarely api)cared I Danby's landscapes blend great imagi- 
as an author. His works are character- ' native power with ]>oetic retinement In 
isedbyafertileimagination, and strength 'his own peculiar path, the historical 
and delicacy of expression. His eldest landscape, Mr. Danby has long stood 
son, Richard Henry Dana, is the author ! without a rivaL Since 1845 he has rc- 
of "Two Years before the Mast," and ' sided at Exmouth. His sons having 

" To Cuba and Back. " The first-named 
of these works is marked by peculiar 
abihty, its author having entered the 
merchant service from a love of maritime 

DANBY, Francis, A.R.A., a land- 
scape painter, bom near Wexford, Ire- 
land, 179^ The third son of James 
Danby, Esq., of Common, he received 
his earliest lessons in design in the School 
of the Royal Dublin Society of Arts, and 
exhibited his first pictures in 1811, at 
the exhibition in that city, leaving Ire- 
land for England in the same year. He 

adopted the same profession, are rising 
to distinction in their career. 

DANILO, Petrovitch Niegosch, 
reigning Prince of Montenegro, under 
the suzerainet6 of the Porte, was ]x>m 
on the 25th May, 1826, the succession 
l)eing collateral In 1852 he was pro- 
claimed Prince, after a struggle with his 
uncle, Thomas Petrovitch, in which the 
young prince was assisted by the Czar of 
Russia. He received the investiture at 
St. Petersburg, and returned to his na- 
tive country with the idea of revolution- 
udng the institutions of Montenegro. 


IW *»|i«mM tK^ eiril and eodedaitical 
tktK'iioiu vWf the Prince, as ^1Juiika, 
luiudiu^ over the latter to one of hia re- 
kUivv^ with the title of Archimandrite. 
Ue then undertook the construction of a 
Ipreat public ruad from his capital to 
Oittaro^ and the preparation of a penal 
code, the chief object of which was to 
|iut an end to the vendetta in Monte- 
negra The war with the Sultan which 
followed put an end to these attempts at 
reform. It continued down to 1855, 
when it was terminated by the interven- 
tion of the Allied Powers. In 1855 
Prince Danilo married the daughter of 
a banker of Trieste. With his wife he 
visited Vienna and Paris in 1857, in 
order to induce these powers to support 
his claims of exemption from the suze- 
rainetd of the Porte, but without success. 
A consi)iracy, supported by the old 
Bussian jMuty, compelled him to return. 
He has since, it is understood, made 
great preparations to join in any at- 
tempt to o])i)ose the luretensions of the 
Turkish Grovemment should they ma- 
terially affect his independence. 

DAKGAN, William, a capitalist 
and contractor, the projector of the 
Dublin Exhibition, was bom in 1799, in 
the county of Carlow. The son of an 
extenaive farmer, he received a good 
education. He was afterwards sent to 
a surveyor's office, whence he went as 
an engineer into the employment of 
Telford. Subsequently he became an 
engineer, or rather contractor, on his 
own account His first work of import- 
ance he obtained in 1832, when he 
pulled down a market-house, cut open 
a street, and built a bridge, at Ban- 
bridge, in Ireland. He then became 
contractor for the first railway laid in 
Ireland, the Dublin and Kingstown, 
and since that time he has been con- 
nected with almost every public work 
in the sister country. He was the 
main stay of the Dublin Exhibition in 
1853, his advances being over £60,000. 



him at his country 

■ seat, near Dublin, at the opening of the 
! Exhibition ; and he refused the honour 
. of a baronetcy which it was proposed to 
confer upon him. 

j DAE WIN, Chamjb, M.A Cantab., 
i F.R.S., an eminent natorshst and au- 
thor. When a very young man be 
accompanied Captain Fitzroy in his voy- 
age round the worid, in HM.S. **£eagle," 
during the years 1831—1836. His jour- 
nal first appeared in 1839, as part of the 
general narrative of the voyage, and 
was subsequently re-pubhshed in a modi- 
fied form under the title of ** Journal of 
Researches into the Geology and Natural 
History of the various Countries visited 
by HM.S. 'Beagle.'" In 1842, his work 
**0n the Structure and Distribution of 
Coral Bee£B " appeared, which was fol- 
lowed by his ** Geological Observations 
on South America.** Since this period 
he has contributed many papers to the 
Greological Transactions, and to other 
scientific periodicals. His chief contri- 
bution to Zoology is the ** Monograph 
on the Family Cirripeda," in two large 
volumes, in which he points out many 
curious and interesting particulars in 
relation to the histoiy and economy of 
the barnacles and sea-acorns, and fur- 
nishes a minute description of every 
known species of the family. He has 
recently (November, 1859) published a 
work entitled, **The Origin of Si>ecies 
by Means of Natural Selection ; or, The 
Preservation of Favoured Races in the 
Struggle for Life.** This volimie, as 
stated in the introduction, gives only in 
a condensed fonn the result of more than 
twenty years* study, and will hereafter 
be followed by a more detailed treatise 
on the same subject. Mr. Darwin's 
writings exhibit close observation and 
untiring industry in collecting and ar- 
ranging facts. Mr. Darwin, although 
he has adopted conclusions contested by 
other naturalists, has always been very 
cautious in arriving at results without 




■afficMnt data. He is a dear and de- 
gant writer; and hit wwks, indepen- 
dently of their scientific value, are writ- 
ten in a style well calni1at<y1 to render 
tbem lu|$hly attraotiT& 

D'AUBIGNE, J. H. Merle, D.D., a 

which he stadied under the Chapel 
Master at Aix. Before he was twenty 
years of age, he was prevailed upon to 
proceed to Paris, to complete his mu- 
sical education ; but his relations for- 
sook him, and his resources were limited. 
GInunch historian and theologian, I The St. Simonians, about the same time, 
bom at Geneva, 1794^ and is the ' sprang up ; ho joined them, and passed 
■eoond son of Aim6 Robert Merle d*Au- ! through various phases of fortune. In 
bigii6, a merchant in that city. He > 1844, he produced his first great woiiL, 
received his education in Greneva, and I '*The Desert," cousurting of about 2000 
then proceeded to Berlin, to complete pages of music, and written in a year ! He 
his theological studies. Here he formed ' has com]x>8ed much, but his works are 
a friendship with Neandor. A visit to not generally known, or if known, not 
Wartbuig Castle, where Luther was con- understood and appreciated at their full 
fined, and where D*Aubign^ was present ' value. The following list contains his 
at the tercenary jubilee of the Re- 1 chief productions : — *'Four S}rmphonie8 
fonnation, stimulated him to write for a Grand Orchestra ;" "The Desert," 
his "History of the Reformation of the , a sjrmphony ; " Moses on Sinai," an 
Sixteenth Century." For some years ' oratorio ; "Chrintopher Columbus," a 
fiastor of the French Church at Ham- ^ symphony ; '* Eden, "an oratorio; "The 
burg, in 1823 he was appointed by | Gate of the Desert," an opera in three 
the King of the Xetheriands, minister acts ; "Herculaneum," an o])era in four 
of the Protestant Cliurch at Brussels, jacts; "The Captive," an opera in two 
In 1831 he returned to Geneva, where acts; **Two Sonetti;" "Symphonies 
he was appointed Professor of Church . for Nine Musical Instruments ; " "The 
History to the new Theological School Four Seasons," for twenty-four stringed 

founded by the "Evangelical Society." 
This chair he still retains, together 
with the Presidency. As a preacher, 
professor, and author, Dr. Merle 
D*Aubign^ has achieved a wide-spread 
reputation throughout the Protestant 
world, but chiefly in England and Scot- 
land. He has frecjuently visited this 
country, meeting with a warm welcome 
from the zealous members of the evan- 
gelical party in the various churches. 
In 1856 he received the freedom of the 
city of Edinburgh. Besides his great 
work, he is the author of " The Protector 
a Vindication" (1847), and "Germany, 
England, and Scotland : Recollections of 
a Swiss Minister" (1848). 

DAVID, Felicien, a French musical 
composer, was bom at Cadenet, in the 
department of Vaucluse, on the 8th of 
March, 1810. Left an orphan when a 
child, he early devoted himself to music, 

instruments; "Two Trios, for the 
Piano, the Violin and Violoncello ; " 
"Twelve Melodies for the Piano and 
Violoncello;" "The Brises d'Orient," 
for the piano ; " Eight Symphonies," stu- 
dies for the piano ; " The Ruche" con- 
sists of thirty songs for the human 
voice, sixty romances and melodies, 
&c. A {peculiarity of the compositions 
of David is the attem]>t to suggest by 
music, operations of nature, which are 
obvious only to the eye. 

DAVIS, Sir John Francis, Bart., 
K.C.B., was bom in London, in 1705. 
He is the eldest son of S. Davis, Esq., 
formerly member of the Board of Re* 
venue in India, and a Director of the 
East India Company. Mr. Davis was 
attached to Lord Amherst's embassy to 
Pekin in 1816, and was joint Commis- 
sioner with the late Lord Napier in China 
in 1834. On his return to England, two 




yean aftcrwardfl, after a residence of 
more than twenty years in China, he 
published '*The Chinese : a General De- 
■oription of Cliina and its Inhabitants," 
in two volumes, which was at once ad- 
mitted to be the best work on China in 
the English language. In 1841 he pub- 
lished "Sketches in China,** with ob- 
servations on the war which was then 
going on. In 1841 Mr. Davis was ap- 
pointed Grovemor and Commander-in- 
Chief of Hong-Kong, in which post he 
remained for the following six years. 
He was created a Baronet in 1845, and 
a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath in 
1854 On his return to England, in 
1847, he took up his abode in Glouces- 
tershire, of which county he is a Deputy- 
lieutenant. In addition to the works 
above mentioned. Sir John Davis is the 
author of a translation of ** Chinese 
Moral Maxims," "Chinese Novels,** 
"China diuing the War and since the 
Peace** (1852), and of various philologi- 
cal treatises, and literary papers on cog- 
nate subjects, some of which have been 
published in French and German trans- 

DAWSON, George, M. A, a popular 
lecturer and preacher, was bom in Lon- 
don in 1821. Educated at home, he 
thence proceeded to Glasgow, where he 
took the degree of Master of Arts. He 
come to the ministry of the Baptist non- 
conformists, and after remaining for some 
time unemployed, was chosen, in 1844, 
minister of Mount Zion Chapel, Birming- 
ham ; but not conforming in all particulars 
to the requirements of the trust-deed and 
views of a portion of his congregation, a 
separation took place, the majority, how- 
ever, remaining with him. A new 
church, that of "The Saviour,*' was 
opened in 1847, in which he continues 
to preach, deviating more and more from 
the conventional style of preaching. He 
has attained his popularity more as a 
lecturer than as a preacher ; and, indeed, 
in the former capacity he has met with 

pre-eminent sucoeos, in all parts of Eng- 
land and Scotland. 

DECAZES, Eltb Due, was bom on 
the 28th September, 1780, at St Martin 
de Laye, near Liboume, Gironde. He is 
descended from a Gascon family, enno- 
bled by Henri Quatre in 1596. Com- 
mencing his studies in the military school 
of Venddme in 1790, he was afterwards 
called to the provincial bar. He removed 
to Paris under the consulate, and mar- 
ried the daughter of the President of the 
Court of Cassation in 1805. In 1810 he 
was called to Holland by King Louis, 
as a confidential adviser, and after that 
sovereign abdicated the throne, he be- 
came attadied to the service of the 
mother of Napoleon, as secretary and 
councillor. After Waterloo he acted as 
chief of police, and in the al>sence of the 
troops, maintained the peace of the city 
of Paris. He passed, in 1818, to the 
Ministiy of the Interior, vacated by the 
Duke de Richelieu. In this office he 
did good service as a reformer in com- 
merce, manufactures, science, agricul- 
ture, social progress, and prison amelio- 
ration. In 1830, M. Decazes was absent 
from Paris, but he publicly deplored the 
overthrow of the Boyal Family. He 
has retired into private life for many 
years, but is still held in high esteem in 
France as a man and a patriotic citizen. 

DE GREY, Earl. iScc Ripon, Earl 


DELACROIX, Ferdinand- VicTOR- 
Eqoene; French painter, was bom at 
Charenton Saint Maurice, near Paris, on 
the 27th of April, 179a There are but 
few incidents in his life to notice. He 
received a liberal education, his father 
having been a member of the Old Con- 
vention, a Minister under the Directory, 
and Prefect of Bordeaux at the time of 
his death. He had three miraculous 
escapes from death, and after the last 
went to college, where, notwithstanding 
his passion for art, he studied diligently. 
At the age of eighteen he entered the 




agfe£lier of the cUumo painter Pierre 
Gvifaiii, who had already for pupils, 
Q4nctaalt uid Ary Scheffer. These pu- 
pils abandoned the traditions of their 
inatmctor, and became declared parti- 
Bus oi the romantic school His prin- 
cipal pictures are '*The Massacre of 
Sao," ** Dante and Viigil in the In- 
ferno," «• Algerian Women," "The 
Jewish Wedding." Delacroix, though 
not likely to take rank in the high po- 
•itioii his admirers claim for him, un- 
doabtedly possesses superior power as 
an arttst, and his influence upon con- 
temporaiy French art has unquestionably 
been great He is now admitted chief 
<jf the romantic schooL 

DELANE, John T., chief editor of 
tbe ISmes newspaper, was bom in 1802. 
He was educated at Magdalen Hall, 
Oxford, where he took his degree. He 
was afterwards called to the bar. His 
tact and talent as a writer were early 
appreciated, and he has been for many 
yean acting editor of the Time^ which 
has been conducted with an amount of 
skill and literary ability, with a dis- 
crimination and in a tone of right feeling 
and high morality which cannot be too 
strongly praised. To write a biographical 
notice of Mr. Delane would be nothing 
more or less than to trace the history of 
the Times since the death of Messrs. 
Walker, Barnes, and Bacon. Under 
Mr. Delane*s admirable bionagcment the 
paper has continued to hold the first 
place among English newspapers, and 
exercises supreme influence on public 
opinion, both in England and abroad. 

DELAROCHE, Paul, a French his- 
torical painter, was bom at Paris, on the 
17th July, 1797. At an early age he 
turned his attention to the study of 
landscape painting ; not wishing to ap- 
pear as a rival to his brother, then an 
historical painter of some note. Two 
unsnccessfid competitions for the prize 
awarded to landscapes by the School of 
Arts overcame his fraternal scruples; 

and in 1816 he became a pupil of Baron 
Gros, under whose direction he mode 
rapid progress. In 1819, when only 
twenty-two, he exhibited his first pic- 
ture, *' Nephthali dans le Desert." In 
1836 the Government confided to his 
care the interior decoration of the Church 
of the Madeleine, and he proceeded to 
Italy to study carefully the works of 
the old masters. All was prejtarcd for 
the work, when another artist was asso- 
ciated with him. Fearing that there 
would be a wont of unity, he reUnquished 
the undertaking, but as compensation 
was appointed to decorate the Palais des 
Beaux Arts. He travelled for about four 
years afterwords, and in 1841 completed 
his finest work, the paintings in the 
Hemioycle of the Palais des Beaux Arts. 
His productions are very numerous, and 
so excellent as to disarm criticisuL Some 
of them have been exhibited in this coun- 
try, and many have been engraved. 
Among his pictures may be enumerated 
jthe **Enfant8 d^Edouard," the best 
known of his pictures, which for many 
years has been in the gallery of the Lux- 
embourg; "Cromwell contemplating the 
dead body of Charles I. , " which, exhibited 
in 1833, was universally admirc<l ; **The 
Execution of Lady Jane Grey ; " ** The 
Youth of Galileo ;" ** The Assassination 
of the Duke of Guise in 'the CasUe of 
Blow" (1835) ; and '^The Death of Queen 
Elizabeth," also In the Gallery of the Lux- 
embourg. M. Dclaroche has also executed 
four great historical pictures for the 
galleries of Versailles, viz., **Tbe Bap- 
tism of Clovis," "The Benediction of 
Pepin le Brcf," "The Crossing of the 
Alps by Charlemagne," and the Corona- 
tion of the latter at Rome. The chief 
works of M. Delaroche have been en- 
graved by the most eminent French 

a Russian i>atron of authors, is the most 
conspicuous member of a family of capi- 
talLsts — the Rothschilds of Russia. He 




was bom at Florence, about 1810, and is 
son of the Count Nicolas Demidov, cele- 
brated for his taste in the arts, and for 
his prodigious fortune. The founder of 
the house of Demidov was a serf, who, 
in the days of Peter the Great, left his 
native village to escape enlistment in the 
army of the Czar. Niteita bound himself 
to a blacksmith at Tula, being paid for his 
work at the rate of about three halfpence 
a-week. Before the close of his career, 
on the birth of the prince Peter, he made 
the Empress a present of a hundred 
thousand roubles. Niteita was a special 
favourite of Peter the Great, and under 
his auspices he established the first iron 
foundry in Sn>cria. The gold and silver 
mines of the Ural mountains were dis- 
covered by his son and grandson. P^- 
dently enough, however, they concealed 
this discoveiy, until they had ascertained 
that the Grovemment would allow the pro- 
prietors of the land to work it to their 
own profit. In 1840, Anatol Demidoff 
was married at Florence to the Princess 
Matilda de Montfort, daughter of Prince 
Jerome Bonaparte, and of the Princess 
Catherine of Wurtemberg. The marriage 
produced no chililren, and after five 
years it was dissolved by mutual con- 
sent — the Princess Matilda receiving an 
allowance of 200,000 roubles a-year. He 
has founded an annual prize of 5000 
roubles for the Academy of Sciences, at 
St. Petersburg. Demidoff resides chiefiy 
in Italy. 

DE MORGAN, Augustus, a distin- 
guished mathematician, now Professor 
of Mathematics in University College, 
Loudon, was bom at Madura, in Southern 
India, in 1806. He was educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, but, from 
objection to the sub8cri])tion8, never 
took a higher degree than that of B.A. 
He studied some time for the bar, but 
relinquished that pursuit for the profes- 
sorship already named, holding it from 
1828 to 1831, when he resigned, return- 
ing to the chair again in 1836. He is 

one of the secretaries and a member of 
the council of the Royal Astronomical 
Society. His name was prominently 
brought forward by the controversy 
which he conducted in 1847 with Sir 
William Hamilton, relative to the title 
of the former to the discovery of a new 
principle in the theory of syllogism. He 
has acquired a very high and well- 
deserved distinction by his works, among 
which maybe mentioned, **The Con- 
nexion of Number and Magnitude : an 
Attempt to explain the Fifth Book of 
Euclid" (1836); an "Essay on Proba- 
bilities, and on their Application to Life 
Contingencies and Insurance Offices " 
(1838) ; " First Notions on Logic, prepa- 
ratory to the Study of Geometry '* (1 839); 
"Fonnal Logic ; or the Calailus of Infer- 
ence necessary and probable " ( 1 847) ; and 
*'The Book of Almanacs, with an Index 
of Reference, by which the Almanac may 
be found for every year up to a.d. 2000 ; 
with Means of finding the Day of any 
New or Pull Moon from B.c. 2000 to 
A.D. 20(X).*' He was an extensive con- 
tributor to the Penny Cyclopaedia and 
the various publications of the Useful 
Knowledge Society, and has written 
largely in the ** Athemeum," the ** North 
British Review," and the various scien- 
tific Transactions. 

DENMARK, Kino of. See Charles 
Christian Frederick. 

DERBY, Edward Geofprey Stan- 
ley, Earl of, was bom in 1799, at 
Knowsley Park, Lancashire. He is the 
eldest son of the thirteenth Earl Derby, 
then only heir apparent to his father. 
After quitting (]!hrist Church, he pur- 
sued, with eminence, his studies at 
Elton and Oxford, and entered the 
House of Commons in 1820, as mem- 
ber for Stockbridge. For four years he 
took but little part in the business of 
the House ; but from the fast time that 
he gave himself completely to politics, 
his surpassing power as a debater was 
universally acknowledged. From 1826 




to 1830^ he sat as member (or Preston. 
Kominated, under the short-liFed Crode- 
lich administration, Under-Secretary for 
the Colonies, Preston having elected 
Heniy Hnnt, then the idol of the £ng- 
bah people, Windsor, at the same time 
» nomination borough, received the re- 
jected of Preston, and for tWo years he 
kepi his seat for that ancient town. In 
1832 he was returned for North Lanca- 
shire^ which he continued to represent 
until called to the House of Lords in 1845. 
In 1830 Mr. Stanley was appointed 
Chief-Secretary for Ireland, under the 
Grey administration, holding the office 
tiU 1833, when he became Secretary for 
the Colonies. In both capacities his 
energy and eloquence had 1>een of signal 
aervice to the Whig government. But 
in 1834i in conjunction with Sir James 
Graham, the Duke of Richmond, and 
Lord Ripon, ho separated from Earl 
Grey, upon the question of the reduction 
of tJie Irish ecclesiastical establishment 
and the secularization of a large portion 
of the revenues. In 1841 he took office 
in Sir Robert PeeFs [ministry, as Colo- 
nial Secretary, and continued till 1845, 
when he was raised to the House of 
Peers, under the title of Baron Stanley 
of Bickcrstaffe, that the Government 
might then have the benefit of his great 
debating powers. Not long after this 
elevation. Sir Robert Peel having ex- 
pressed his intention to repeal the Corn- 
laws, Lord Stanley resigned, and in the 
session of 1846 became leader of the 
Opposition, known as the Protectionist 
party. On the dissolution of the Whig 
cabinet in 1852, the Protectionist Con- 
servatives were called to power. Of 
that ministry. Lord Stanley, now the 
Earl of Derby, was the chiei It lasted 
just ten montha In 1855 the noble 
Earl declined the task of constructing 
another ministry, and Lord Palmer- 
ston came into power as successor to 
Lord Aberdeen. On the fall of the 
Palmerston administration, he again 

became Premier, a position which he 
held from . February 1858, to August 
1859. In NovembOT of the latter year, 
he and his co-ministers were enter- 
tained at a banquet in Liverpo<d, 
where he expressed his principle of 
political action to be, not to needlessly 
thwart the administration for the time, 
but rather to assist the Government in 
any difficulty that might arise. In 1825 
Lord Derby married Emma Caroline^ 
daughter of the first Lonl Skelmersdale, 
and has three children, of whom Lord 
Stanley, M.P., bom in 1826, is heir 

DESCHENES, Perceval, Admiral, 
was l)om in 1790. He early distin- 
guished himself in his profession, and 
was present at the battle of Trafalgar. 
Commanding the French Baltic fleet, 
he gallantly seconded our navy in the 
attack on Bomarsund m 1854. The 
Emperor rewarded the gallant admiral's 
services, by conferring on him the Grand 
Cross of the Legion of Honour at the end 
of the war. 

DEWEY, Orville, D.D., a Unita- 
rian divine, was bom at Sheffield, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1794; he studied theo- 
logy in the seminary at Andover, and 
was ordained a clergyman in 1823. He 
preached with great success, in the 
orthodox Congregational churches, for 
a year or so, but then joined the Uni- 
tarian body, filling Channiug's pulpit 
when that theologian visited Europ& 
He also travelled in the Old World, and 
gave the results of his observations in a 
work entitled ** The Old World 'and the 
New '* (1835), which was succeeded by 
two or three volumes of sermons, one of 
them controversiaL His reasoning is 
comprehensive, his illustrations are 
poetical, his style is easy and polished. 
A complete edition of his writings has 
been published in this country. 

DICKENS, (Charles, a novelist, was 
born in February, 1812, at Landport, 
Hants. His father, Mr. John Dickens, 




belli a gowrnment situation, the du- 
tii<« connecttMl with which compelled 
a fix'^iueut change of reaidence, and a 
|K»rtit»u of his son's education was 
thus iweivoil at Chatham. At the 
conclusion of the war, in 1815, the 
father, after his retirement from go- 
Tcrnmcnt service, became connected 
with the London press, in the capacity 
of a reiwrter. Intending his sou for the 
legal profession, he placed him in an 
attorney's office. An early passion for 
literature, however, rendered him un- 
willing to remain in this career ; and he 
\)ecame connected with the press. Ob- 
taining an engagement first upon the 
*< Mirror of Parliament," and subse- 
quently ui)on the "Morning Chronicle," 
his abilities as a parliamentary reporter 
soon drew upon him conspicuous atten- 
tion." It was in the "Morning Chronicle" 
that many of those "Sketches of Life 
imd Character" appeared which were 
afterwards pul^lisheil as " Sketches by 
Boz.'^ The success of this first effort 
was BO decided, and showed the posses- 
sion of so rich a vein of humorous and 
descriptive jwwer, that the late Mr. 
Hall, of the firm of Chapman and Hall, 
nro|M)scd that he should write a story 
after the same manner. Thus originated 
the famous "Pickwick Papers." The 
BUCCC88 of these })aper8 was so decided, 
that at the early age of twenty-five, 
Mr. Dick ens h*^!! become the most i>opular 
of English novelists. Shortly after the 
publication of the first number of " Pick- 
wick, " Mr. Dickens married a daughter 
of Mr. George Hogarth, music writer 
and critic. When " Bentley's Miscel- 
lany" was started in 1830, he became 
its editor ; and in that periodical origi- 
nally appeared liis novel of " Oliver 
Twist," afterwards republished in three 
volumes, which was rapidly followed by 
** The Life and Adventures of Nicholas 
Nickleby" and "Master Humphrey's 
Clock." Mr. Dickens now visited Amer- 
" American Notes for General 


Circulation" was the product of that 
tour. In 1843 ho began his series of 
" Christmas Stories," which have proved 
so peculiarly attractive. In 1846 Mr. 
Dickens became editor of the "Daily 
News " — originated as a liberal morning 
paper, and in its columns appeared 
" Pictures from Italy." His connexion 
with the " Daily News " was soon found 
to be far other than a success. The 
I)a|)cr made a very narrow escai)e from 
being ruined by the staff that had been 
gathered round it, among none of whom 
did it appear that the real editorial 
faculty was to be found. Political dis- 
quisition was not the forte of the 
novelist, and his connexion with the 
* * Daily News " was abandoned. * * Deal- 
ings with the Firm of Dombey and Son" 
was now commenced, followexi by "The 
History of David Copperfield," "Hani 
Times," "Bleak House." and "Little 
Dorrit." In 1850 Mr. Dickens started 
"Household Words," a weekly pericxli- 
cal, which has been enriched by the 
contributions of some of the ablest and 
most popular writers of the day. This 
has been succeeded by " All the Year 
Round," which promises to be even more 
successfuL The time has not yet come 
for an impartial estimate of the genius 
of this unquestionably most successful 
novelist of our o^n or of any age. 
Wherever the English language is known, 
Dickens is read, and not a few of bis 
works have been translated into the 
various languages of Europe. Following 
the example of Thackeray and otherM, 
he for some tune ap|)eared to public 
audiences as the reader of his own works, 
and with marked success, in most of the 
princi])al towns of the kingdom. 

DICKSON, Samuel Henry, M.D., 
Pn)fessor of the Practice of Medicine in 
the Jefferson Medical College, PhiLidel- 
])hia, was bom at Charleston, South 
Carolina, in 1 798. He graduated as A. B. 
at Yale College in 1814, passed two years 
in the Medical University of Penn^ylva- 




TCoehred hii diploma in 1819; and 
fwmiiMmced practice in Charlertop. After 
being the means of eBtaUiehing a Medi- 
cal College in that city, he was appoint- 
ed Professor of the Theory and Practice 
of Medicine to the New York Uni- 
Ttxmty, in 1847. After three years, 
vpon. special invitation from Ids former 
ooUeagnes, he returned again to Charles- 
ton, where he remained until 1858, when 
he was appointed to the chair which he 
now holds, in the most flourishing and 
largest medical school in America* Dr. 
]>ickson has produced a number of well- 
digested medical works, and is looked 
op to as being one of the most eminent 
American writers on medical science. 
He is, besides, a poet and an accom- 
plished man of letters. 

DILKE, Charles Wkntworth, a 
journalist and critic, was bom on the 8th 
of December, 1789. He began life in 
the Navy Pay Office. On a consolida- 
tion of offices in this department being 
effected, he retired, and purchased the 
" Athenienm,'' a jouroal which had 
previously been unsuccessful. Mr. Dilko 
took sn active part in editing this paper 
nntil 1846 ; when he undertook the man- 
agement of the *' Daily News." In 1849 
Mr. Dilke finally retired from active 
employment as a journalist, and now 
enjoys a life of learned leisure, contri- 
buting occasionally an article to the 
"Athenaeum," but taking no share in 
the management of the paper. 

DILKE, Charles Wentworth, 
JiTNiOR, son of the above, was boro in 
London, on the 18th of February, 1810. 
He was educated for the legal profes- 
sion. He was one of the foremost pro- 
moters of the Great Exhibition of 1851, 
and was one of the active members of 
the managing committee. For Ids un- 
wearied and successful services on this 
occasion, he was offered the honour 
of knighthood, but declined not only 
that^ but all pecuniary reward. 

DINDORF, WiLHELM, an eminent 

Gennan critio and scholar, was bom at 
Leipsic, in 1802. He studied in the 
university of hii native city ; and, after 
an examination passed with idai, be- 
came, in 1828, the P^fessor of Literary 
History. He resigned the chair in 1833, 
and for some years devoted himself ex- 
clusively to philological works, espe« 
ciaUy tiie new edition of Heury Ste- 
phens' *' Thesaurus Oreciie Lingus," 
pubUshed by Firmin Didot, of Paris. 
He has since edited for the University 
of Oxford, a series of the Greek classics, 
as well as several for Didof s " Library 
of Greek Classics,** published at Paris. 
These works, in which the editor has 
given proof not only of erudition, but of 
a sagacity not always associated with it, 
have placed him in the first rank of 
living Greek scholars. 

DISRAELI, Benjamin, a novelist, 
orator, and ex-Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, was bom in London in 1805. 
He is the son of the amiable and learned 
author of "The Curiosities of Litera- 
ture," who resided chiefly on his pro- 
perty, near Wycombe, in Buckingham- 
shira Mr. Disraeli's education was 
carefully superintended by his father. 
When completed, he was articled to 
a solicitor, not with the view of fol- 
lowing the profession, but with the 
jmrpoee of acquiring the business habits 
and qualifications necessary to fill a 
situation in a public office, which had 
been secured for him by his father's 
influence. A short experience of the 
drudgery of a lawyer's office soon proved 
to young Disraeli, that the career 
traced for him by his father was hope- 
lessly uncongenial to his tastea Inhe- 
riting an independent fortune from his 
parents, he relinquished his chances in 
favour of his younger brother, who, 
entering the field thus opened to him, 
has ultimately risen to the important 
office he now holds, that of Registrar 
of the Court of Chanceiy. Subsequently 
to his short trial of business-life, Mr. 





l\dr*i,2^ v»itvU the CVnitiiieiit» and 
^•NiCv' A»d )KiM»lhHl in 1S27 hia dash- 
;^ tK»xvl v>f " Vivian Grpy.** He shortly 
AiH'wanl* went to the Continent a 
««\xmhI tinH\ and visited the dassic 
i\N:H^n« and hallowed ground of Italy 
aiul iSreece, whence he extended his 
Umr to Turkey and Syria. Returning 
fnnu travel at the moment the Re- 
fv\rm Bill agitation had introduced a 
uew era into British politics, he was 
anxious to obtain a seat in Parliament. 
Kecommended by Mr. Hume and Mr. 
O*0onnell, he was invited by the Tory 
corporation of Wycombe to stand for 
that borough, but was defeated. He 
never stood for Marylebone, as has often 
been erroneously stated. Resigning, for 
tlie present, all hope of parliamentary 
honours, he resumed his literary oc- 
cupations, and devoted himself for 
about two years to purely literary avo- 
cations, during which time he published 
**Contarini Fleming," a psychological 
romance; the ** Wondrous Tale of Al- 
roy," a work so thoroughly Oriental in 
its style and diction that many have 
supposed it was originally written in 
IKKitry; **Thc Rise of Iskander;" **A 
Vindication of the British Constitu- 
tion ;" and "The Revolutionary Epic," 
which was, strictly speaking, an epic 
ridiculing revolutions. In 1835 he un- 
successfuUy contested the borough of 
Taunton, in the Conservative interest; 
or, as he has himself somewhere said, 
**on exactly the same principles as he 
hod always professed." About this time 
he had a dispute which led to a hostile 
correspondence between him and the 
sou of Mr. O'ConnelL Subsequently 
the great agitator sought an interview 
with Mr. Disraeli in the House of Com- 
mons, to express his regret at what had 
occurred, having, as he said, "been 
misled and precipitate." In a let- 
ter written to 0*Connell after the 
Taunton election, Mr. Disraeli thus al- 
ludes to his repeated failures: — *'I 

have a deep oonriction the hour is at 
hand when I shall be more successfuL 
I expect to be a representative of the 
people before the Repeal of the Union. 
We shall meet at Phihppi." After his 
defeat at Taunton, Mr. Disraeli returned 
once more to his literary labours, and in 
1836 apiKJored "Henrietta Temple," 
which the "Times" recently pronounced 
"the most })erfect love story ever 
written." In 1837 he pubhshed "Ve- 
netia,*' which he intended as a philo- 
so{^c view of the character of Lord 
Byron. His political ambition was now 
at length about to be gratitied. At the 
age of thirty-two he was returned as 
one of the Conservative members for 
Maidstone, along with Mr. Wyndham 
Lewis. Unfortunately, however, the 
list of his failures hod not yet closed ; 
for his maiden speech was accompanied 
throughout by the laughter of the 
House, and at last he was comi)eIlcd to 
resume his seat, uttering these wordn : — 
"I have begun many things several 
times, and have often succeeded at last. 
I shall sit down now, but the time will 
come when you will hear me." Within 
two years from this prediction of future 
success, arising from present failure, he 
began to gain the ear of the House. 
Within two years more he was recog- 
nised as the leader of the " Young Eng- 
land party." During the Peel ministry 
of 1841-46 he acquired the highest 
distinction as a master of sarcasuL 
During the whole period that Sir Robert 
Peel was developing his Free-trade 
policy, Disraeli's attacks on him were 
incessant, and his brilliant invective 
saved the Tory party from being broken 
up, and achieved for himself personal 
distinction and parliamentary i>osition. 
On the fall of Sir Robert Peel's govern- 
ment^ he was — ^with the exception of 
Lord Greorge Bentinck, who died sud- 
denly in 1848 — the most conspicuous 
man in the Protectionist ranks. It is 
only justice to him to state, that after 




he had driven Peel from office, he never 
agftiD made the alightest attack upon 
him, except on one occasion, when, 
shortly before his death, Peel made a 
rather severe onalauj^ht on the Protec- 
tionist party. In 1846 Mr. Disraeli was 
returned for the county of Buckingham, 
and on the retirement of the Russell 
cabinet in 1852 he became Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, under Lord Derby, 
who was sulisequently obUged to give 
way to Lord Aberdeen. On the break- 
ing out of the Russian war in 1854, 
patriotism having for the time almost 
extinguished party feeling, faction was 
hushed, and a liberal supi>ort was ac- 
corded by Mr. Disraeli and his support- 
ers — first to the Aberdeen, and sulwe- 
quently to the Palmerston administra- 
tion. On the break up of tlie Pal- 
merston cabinet by the Conspiracy Bill, 
Mr. Disraeli again became C*hanccllor of 
the Exchequer, and resumed hia jKKsition 
of leader of the House of Commons in 
the Derby administration of 1858 ; but 
in the following year, being again met 
by an adverse majority of the Lower 
House, Lord Derby and colleagues re- 
signed To the great annoyance of 
many of his own party, Mr. Disraeli 
frequently sjioke, and always voted, in 
favour of tiie Jew Bill, except ui>on 
one occasion, when he was absent from 
the House for some time, from a severe 
illness. Mr. Disraeli is a warm advo- 
cate f(»r government by party ; and at 
the Liverpool banquet to Lord Derby in 
1859, he declared himself ** thoroughly 
convinced that with a Parliamentary 
Government, government by party was 
absolutely necessary." Mr. Disraeli still 
represents in Parliament the coimty of 
Bucks, and remains the undisputed 
leader of the Opposition in the Lower 
House. Should his life and health be 
spared, he will share all the honours 
and responsibihty of lus party, and, 
perhaps, rise to higher office than he has 
yet filled. Besides the early novels 

which appeared before he entered Par- 
liament, Mr. Disraeli has written **Co- 
ningsby," "Sybil," and ** Tancred," 
semi-poUtical novels, known and ad- 
mired in a far more judicious circle than 
that of the circulating libraries, and 
which will always entitle him to a hi^ 
place among the most brilliant and dis- 
tinguished of English novehsta 

DIXON, William Hepwobth, of the 
Inner Temple, and editor of the '*Athe- 
Qffium," was bom on the dOth of June, 
1821, and is the son of Alexander Dixon, 
of Holmfirth, in the West Riding of York- 
shire, where his famQy had been settled 
from the time of the Roses. After spend- 
ing some time in a merchant's office, and 
conducting for a short i)eriod a Chelten- 
ham new8]>apcr, Mr. Dixon repaired to 
Loudon, where he entered as a student 
of the Inner Temple, and was in due 
time called to the bar. He wrote for 
the "Daily News" and the "Athe- 
iiiuum." His "Literature of the Lower 
Orders," originally published in the 
former journal, brought him into notice ; 
"London Prisons," another work from 
liis strong and earnest mind, elevated 
him still higher in tlie world^s opinion ; 
but the solid foundation of fame was 
laid in 1849, when he imbhshed " John 
Howaid, a Memoir," written many 
years before, and one of his first finished 
works. He could not at first find a 
publisher for this work, although he 
ofTcred to give away the copyright with- 
out any remuneration for authorship, 
on the simple condition of pubUcation. 
At length, when it did come out^ it ran 
through three editions in a year. He has 
followed up bis Memoir of Howard with 
biographies of Penn and Blake, which 
have run through many editions, and 
have been largely reprinted abroad. In 
1850 he was a Deputy Commissioner for 
organizing the Exhibition of 1851. In 
the following year he published an 
anonymous pamphlet^ "The French in 
I England ;" showing that if Napoleon I. 




conld not accompliBh his poipofles of 
invasioii, to do so was beyond the power 
of Napoleon m. Mr. Dixon wrote two 
essays for the '* Prize Magazine" and 
was the snccessfol competitor. The pro- 
prietors of the " Athenseam* ' were strock 
with their ability, and engaged him on 
their staff. From about 1850 he was the 
working editor. In 1853 he was con- 
stituted sole and responsible editor of 
that journal; a position which he re- 
tains with honour to himself and advan- 
tage to literature. Mr. IKxon was one 
of the closest friends of the late Lady 
Morgan, and was selected by that bril- 
liant wit and fascinating woman as her 
hteraiy executor. He has travelled 
much of late years on the Continent. 
His object in these tours is known to be 
a careful examination of the scenery 
and geography of places connected with 
events in English histoiy. He has been 
for thirteen years a constant reader of 
unpublished State pai>er8 ; and two years 
ago, when the Tories were in office, he 
induced Lord Stanley and Sir E. B. 
Lytton to throw open these vast trea- 
sures to the free use of men of letters. 
The Master of the Rolls has often bene- 
fited by his advice in the conduct of the 
great national works now in progress of 
publication, viz. : " The Calendar of 
State Papers," and the ** English Chro- 
nicle." Mr. Dixon for nine years past 
has published nothing with his name ; 
reserving his strength for the "Athe- 
naeum," and an historical work on which 
he is engaged, the publication of which 
has often been announced in the jour- 
nals as about to take place, and is 
anxiously expected. 

DOBELL, Sydney, a poet, first 
known as ** Sydney Yendys,*' was bom 
in Kent, in 1824, and brought up in the 
neighbourhood of London. His father 
was a wine-merchant, who, when the 
poet was eleven years of age, removed his 
establishment to Cheltenham. In 1836 he 
entered the counting-house of his father 

as a derk, and was actively engaged in 
business when he wrote his first work. 
In 1844 he manied Emily, daughter of 
QeoTge Fordham, Esq., of Odsey House, 
in Cambridgeshire. He had received at 
home a liberal education, and did not 
find a dose application to counting- 
house routine incompatible with poetry, 
for which he had early shown unusual 
powers. In 1850 he published "The 
Roman," and, in 1854^ "Balder," both 
of which created a sensation, by their 
originality of conception and style. By 
one party of critics these works were 
pronounced to belong to the very highest 
order of poetiy ; by another, they were 
severely condemned as unintelligible 
and spasmodic. In 1855 Mr. Dobell, 
in conjunction with Alexander Smith, 
the author of "A Life Drama," pub- 
lished a volume entitled " Sonnets on 
the War," and in 1856 appeared a book 
of lyrics, called "England in Time of 

DOO, Oborox Thomas, R. A., line en- 
graver, was bom in January, 1800, in the 
parish of Christ Church, Surrey. Devoting 
his attention to line engraving when 
this art stood high in public favour, he 
was, in 1825, appointed engraver to his 
Royal Highness the Duke of York ; 
Historical Engraver in Ordinary to King 
William IV., in 1836; and in 1842 
Historial Engraver in Ordinary to Queen 
Victoria. In 1852 he was elected Mem- 
ber of the Society of Arts, Amsterdam, 
and in the following year Meml>er of 
the Academy of E^ne Arts, Pennsylva- 
nia, U.S. In 1854 he became a Corre- 
sponding Member of the Imperial Aca- 
demy of Parma, and in 1857 a Member 
of the Imperial Academy of St Peters- 
burg. In 1856 he was elected an Asso- 
ciate of the Royal Academy of Arts in 
London, and in 1857 Royal Academician. 
The works by which this distinguished 
artist is best known are his " Knox 
Preaching before the Lords of the Cove- 
nant," after Willde ; his admirable ren- 




derii^ of miy*8 "ComUV and his 
elaborate veraioii of Eastlake^s picture 
of the "ItaliAD Pilgrims coming in sight 
of Borne." Baffaelle's <* Infant Christ 
beuing the Crosa,'' and the " £cce 
Homo *' of Correggio^ are also works 
pmfesing a rare order of merit The 
yeiy limitf>d patronage which line en- 
graying has of late years received, 
almost led Mr. Doo to abandon the 
profeHion, and for some time he painted 
in oil a number of highly characteristic 
portraits. He has now, however, re- 
turned to his 0¥m department of the 
profession, and several laige engravings 
by him are now in progress. 

DOBAN, John, Ph. D., F.S.A., an 
EngJish writer, a member of an old 
T^nster family, was bom in London in 
1807. He was chiefly educated by his 
father, spending many years while a boy 
in Famce and Qennany, afterwards be- 
coming tutor in several noble Kngliali 
families The first manifestation of his 
literary bent was the production of a 
melodrama, the ** Wandering Jew,*' 
written when he was fifteen, and brought 
out at the Suirey Theatre. He has 
been an extensive contributor to periodi- 
cal literature ; but is best known by a 
series of racy works^ the cfaaractes of 
which may be inferred from their very 
titles, such as *' Table Traits, and Some- 
thing on them," "Habits and Men," 
** Knights and their Days," and **Mo- 
narchs retired from Business." The 
**Historyof Court Fools" is probably 
the best specimen of his quaint style and 
original method of thinlung. '* Any- 
thing^" says the ** Athenaeum," "more 
quaint and surprising than Dr. Doraa's 
tale of the origin of court fools is scarcely 
to be found in the pages of the greatest 
and most genial humorists." His last 
work, published in 1860, is a series of 
biographies of the heirs -apjiarent of 
England, under the title of " The Book 
of the Princes of Wales." Almostallhis 
works have been reprinted in America. 

Bart., son of Admiral Sir Charies 
Douglas, who served imder Bodney, waa 
bom at Gosport^ in 1776. He entered 
the army when young; waa at Wal- 
cheren and Corunna, and served in 
Spain and Portugal in 1808 and 1809, 
and again in Spain in 1811 and 1812. 
He published several treatises on matters 
connected with military science between 
1816 and 1819, and was appointed Go- 
vernor of New Brunswick in 1823, re- 
taining that office till 1829. He 

Lord Hi^ Commissioner of the Ionian 
Islands from 1835 to 1840, and in 1842 
was elected member for Liverpool, hold- 
ing the seat till 1847. In 1851 he ob- 
tained the rank of General, and became 
Colonel of the 15th Begiment of Foot 
His principal publications are an *' Essay 
on the Principles and Construction of 
Military Bridges, and the Passage ol 
Bivers in Military Operations," "A 
Treatise on Naval Gunnery," ** Observ 
ations on Camot's Fortification," '* Con 
siderations on-the Value and Importanc 
of the British and North American Pro 
vinces," and ''Naval Evolutions," a 
book which vindicated his father's claim 
to the origination of a brilliant manceu- 
vre in 1782. He censured the conduct 
of the war in the Crimea in 1855, and 
showed, what afterwards turned oat 
true,^ that Sevastopol could not be 
reduced without the plan of operatioxi|| 
being changed. Several of his works 
have run throu^ various editions, espe- 
cially his ** Treatise on Naval Gunnery," 
the recommendations of which were not 
acted upon by the Admiralty until 1830 
thirteen years after its first publica- 

DOYLE, BiCHABD, an artdst, waa 
bom in London in 1826. He is son 
of the author of the lithographio 
sketches which, with the signature of 
**HB" at the comer, created so much 
sensation some years ago, not more oa 
account of thdr verisimilitude than 

I) i: <) 


1> r r 

l»c(iius(' of till.' [MM nii.iyly tjuaiiit iiKtho.l 
in which an idea was conveyed in a 
sketch. He gave early indications of 
his particular talent as an art satirist, 
and the pages of ** Punch ** afforded him 
unple scope for the display of his power. 
He contributed for a number of years 
to this periodical, and his sketches have 
never been excelled for dry humour and 
sharp wit. He caught up the current 
follies of the day, and exposed them 
with a few touches of his pencil so 
cleverly that the very classes ridiculed — 
the ridicule always being good-natured — 
scarcely knew whether they should in- 
dulge in anger or mirth. Mr. Doyle 
eventually withdrew from '* Punch," in 
consequence of the attacks on Roman 
Catholicism admitted into its colunms, 
he having been brought up in the 
Roman Catholic faith. Since his sepa- 
ration from ** Punch," he has been 
principally engaged in illustrating books, 
such as Leigh Hunt's ** Jar of Honey," 
Ruskin's " King of the Golden River," 
and Montalba's ** Fairy Tales from all 
Nations," and is the illustrator of **The 
Continental Tour of Brown, Jones, and 

a French statesman and diplomatist, 
was bom at Paris, on the 19th of No- 
vember, 1805. Having received an ex- 
cellent education, at an early ago he 
entered upon political life ; but not 
before having spent some time in the 
study of the law. In 1830 he became 
AUadhi to the French ambassador at 
Madrid, M. d'Harcourt, and subse- 
quently to Count Rayneval, whose con- 
fidence he soon completely -won. In 
1833 he went to the Hague, as Charge. 
^ Affaires^ and had there the chief share 
in conducting the diplomatic transac- 
tions arising out of the dissolution of 
the union between Belgium and Hol- 
land. The mode in which the diplo- 
matist conducted himself in this critical 
juncture was highly gratifying to all 

• •"iK'fMU'l. PiiiK.'t' Tallfvraii'l, \vholi;ul 
watclied the progress of the conference, 
pointed him out to the French govern- 
ment as of the greatest promise. He 
was in Spain, as first Secretaiy and 
ChargS d'Affairei during the civil war, 
and was called to P^uris by M. Thiers, in 
1840, to fill the function of Diredeur in 
the Foreign Office. In 1842 M. Drouyn 
De Lhuys, elected a member of the 
Chamber of Deputies, saw symptoms 
of the coming disaster which was to 
prostrate constitutional government in 
France, and remonstrated with Guizot 
ui)on the policy of the government, 
contending warmly for the reform 
movement He represented the de- 
partment of Seine-et-Mame in the Con- 
stituent and Legislative Assembly, and 
was made President of the Committee 
on Foreign Afiairs. There he took a 
moderate stand, .and always voted with 
the moderate party. On tiie election of 
Louis Napoleon to the Presidency, M. 
Drouyn De I^huys was a{^inted Mi- 
nister of Foreign Affairs. He was 
surrounded by difficulties; European 
politics i)re8enting one mass of compli- 
cations. He left the ministiy in 1849, 
and, in the same year, was sent as am- 
bassador to England. In 1852 Napo- 
leon again entrusted him with the 
ministry of Foreign Affairs, and in that 
ca^tacity he had to conduct the nego- 
ciations relative to the recognition of the 
French empire by foreign powers. In 
1855 he represented France in the con- 
ferences at Vienna, but for various rea- 
sons he was 8U|)erseded by Coimt 

DUCHATEL, Charlbs Marie Tan- 
NEGUY, Count, a French statesman^ 
was bom at Paris, on the 19th of Feb- 
ruary, 1803. His father, who was 
descended of an old Norman family, 
embraced the principles of 1789, was 
a deputy, and a peer of France, 
under the restoration. The subject 
of this notice studied law and came 




io the bar. Very soon, however, he 
manifested a predilection for politics. 
He joined the liberal party, and 
took an active part in founding and 
editing the *' Globe." After the revo- 
lution of 1830, he employed all his powers 
and influence in favour of the Orleans' 
dynasty. He has held office as a Coun- 
cillor of State, Royal Commissioner 
to the Chamber, Deputy in 1833, 
and. in August, 1834, Minister of 
Commerce. In 1837 he declined to 
accept office under Count Mold He 
re-entered the ministry under the 
presidency of Marshal Soult, as Minis- 
ter of the Interior, an office in which 
he carried many very important and 
salutary measures, which were gene- 
rally well received by all classes of 
politicians; and were in all cases con- 
sistent with the principles of sound and 
liberal parliamentary government. It 
was, invariably, to the influence and 
power of the Chamber, that Duch&tel 
looked for the support of the authority 
of the government ; and he totally dis- 
regarded the clamour out of doors; 
which, however, was never specially 
directed against him. He was, during 
the long period of his parliamentary 
career, returned almost unanimously to 
the Cliamber. The fxmp tTitaJt, of 
course, put an end to the career of Du- 
ch^tel, and introduced an order of 
things under which the influence he re- 
tains with bis countrymen could not be 

DUDEVANT, Madahb Amaktine 
AuRORE DupiN, by marriage — better 
known in England by her assumed name 
of "Georges Sand" — a French novelist, 
was bom at Paris, in 1804 Owing to 
the death of her father. Mademoiselle 
Dupin was educated by her grandmother, 
the Comtesse de Horn. The Comtesse 
was an admirer of Rousseau, and her 
young charge was brought up in con- 
formity with his views. When thir- 
teen years of age, her grandmother 

was prevailed upon to send her to Paris, 
where she was placed in the Convent of 
the Augustines ; with all the enthusiasm 
of her nature, she entered into the 
spirit of the place, and resolved to take 
the veiL Her family interfered to pre- 
vent this result, and at the age of seven- 
teen she was married to M. Dudevant. 
The marriage was not a happy one, and 
in 1834 a separation was effected; 
Madame Dudevant^ under a judgment 
of the court in her favour, retaining her 
fortune and children. When twenty- 
seven, she came to reside at Paris, and 
becoming acquainted with Jules San- 
deau, the friends betook themselves 
to literature. ** Rose et Blanche," a 
novel pubhshed in 1832, was the joint 
product of their labours. Madame Dude- 
vant having been obliged to return to 
the place where she was educated, ** In- 
diana" was produced by her labours ; 
and to it, in conmiemoration of her 
friendship with the Parisian student, 
she affixed the name of '* Georges Sand." 
The work at once conferred a celebrity 
upon her, which has been sustained and 
augmented by her subsequent writings. 
Madame Dudevant*s prolonged famili- 
arity with the leading thinkers among 
the philosophical democrats, and her 
own ardent genius, prepared her to 
hail with the impassioned rapture of her 
nature the triumph of democracy in 
1848. She had then an interview with 
M. de Lamartine, whom she had long 
known ; but, on this occasion, no dis- 
cussion took place between them re- 
garding political questions. She esteemed 
and admired this great man without 
participating in all Ids ideas. Since the 
accession of Louis Napoleon to power, 
Madame Dudevant has ceased to be a 
journalist After 1848 she did not in- 
troduce political questions into her writ- 
ings, the liberty of the press having 
disappeared from that period. Her more 
recent works are purely literary. Her 
. autobiography appeared some time ago. 




Hiu^uiaI vuhuiMM of tkifl work are filled 
%iUi » lukmiive of the eaily life and 
luiUtury adveuturee of her father. To 
juHtify this elaborate introduction, 
"Uviu-gtsa Sand" aaaerta that every iao- 
kWd life ia a mystery; that thooghta, 
Miefi, iuatinota, are all an enigma^ 
ttnleaa we can trace their origin in the 
paat. Of her other worka, the moet 
remarkable are her noTela, entitled 
*»Andr6," "Jacquea," "Simon," "Mau- 
prat," "La Demi^re Adini," "La 
Petite Fadette," "Le Compagnon de la 
Tour de Franoe," "LaMareauDiable," 
fto. She is the writer of varioua plays, 
which have met with great success, 
including "Francois le Champi," 
"Claudie," "MoUtoe,'' Ac. 

DUFAURE, Jules Armand Stinib- 
LAS, a lawyer and ex-minister of France^ 
was bom in 17d8i. He was educated at 
Paris for the bar, and for some time prac- 
tised his profession at Bordeaux. He 
entered on political life in 1834^ being 
elected Deputy for the arrondissement of 
Saintes, when he ranged himself among 
the constitutional liberals. In 1836, 
under the ministry of M. Thiers, he was 
nominated a Councillor of State. In 
the midst of the ministerial oombina- 
tiona brought about by Louis-Philippe, 
the last attempt at resistanoe by the 
republican party took place in 1839, 
when a cabinet was formed in which 
were included MM. Passy, Yillemain, 
DuchAtel, and Teste, and in which M. 
Bnf aure accepted the ministry of Public 
Works, for the first time set aside as a 
special department. In his capacity of 
minister, he conducted the discussions 
in the Chamber, on the question whe- 
ther railways should be constructed by 
the State, or left to private companies. 
On the Ist of March, 1840, this mi- 
nistry was replaced by that of M. 
Thiers, to which M. Dufaure offered no 
opposition. Under this ministry, and 
that of M Guisot which followed, he 
acquired great influenoe by his active 

participation in the discussion of all 
great questions connected with finance 
and public woika. A medal was struck 
in his honour, as a reward for the man- 
ner in which he had carried through the 
great prqjd de loi i4>plicable to rail- 
ways. After having been appointed 
Vioe-Pteeident of the Chamber, under 
the patronage of the ministry, he was 
re-elected in 1845 by the votes of the 
Opposition. He was not connected with 
the agitation which preceded the expul- 
sion of Louis-Philippe, and protested 
against the banquets as' unconstitu- 
tionaL After the revolution of Feb- 
ruary, he was elected representative of 
the Charente-Inf ^rieure, and became one 
of the chie& of the moderate democrats; 
voting, however, with the "left," for the 
banishment of the Orleans' family ; but 
with the "right" against Socialism, and 
in favour of every measure calculated to 
restore and maintain order. Afterwards 
he became a constitutional minister 
under Louis Napoleon. When the Pre- 
sident of the Republic resolved to usurp 
supreme power, Dufaure having always 
supported the cause of liberty, opposed 
the coup cPiUxt, against which he pro- 
tested, in common with all the eminent 
statesmen of France. He was obliged 
to retire, and has since withdrawn from 
the turmoil of French politics. Having 
been admitted to the Parisian bar in 
1852, he soon rose to a high place in the 
profession. His political life had made 
his name familiar, and his acquaintance 
with practical business, and steady ad- 
herence to opinions in which the middle 
classes sympathised with him, soon 
secured for him a success which his 
forensic ability would have ultimately 
obtained for him. His powtfful logics 
and vigorous language, have now placed 
him in the very first rank among the 
legal practitioners before the law courts 
of Paris. 

DUFF, Alkxandbb, D.D., LL.D., an 
Indian Missionary, waabom at Pitlochrie, 




mPcrthdure, on the 2601 of April, 1806. 
H» wtadied st the Univendty of St An- 
drews, carrying off the highest honours 
in rlsfiiis and philosophy, and graduated 
as M. A. in 1826. Thereafter, he pursued 
his theological studies at St. Andrews, 
and in 1829 was selected by the Church 
of Scotland as their first missionary to 
India^ He was twice shipwrecked on 
the passage out. Immediately on his 
aniyal. Dr. Duff laid the foundation of 
that great evangelistic system with which 
his name is so intimately connected; 
and, in particular, of that institution 
which, from small beginnings, soon be- 
came the largest and most influential for 
Christian and general objects in India — 
an institution in which, for nearly a 
quarter of a century, there have been 
apwaids of one thousand bondjide pupils ; 
and in which, in addition to a compre- 
heutve elementary educational system, 
there is conducted a complete collegiate 
course in science, literature, philosophy, 
and Christian theology. In 1834 he was 
compelled, by severe illness, to quit the 
scene of his labours, and returned to 
Britain, where his efforts to diffuse a mis- 
sionary spirit throu^iout the churches 
were unremitting. Shortly after his 
return he was created D.D. by the Uni- 
Tersity of Aberdeen. In 1839 he again 
proceeded to India, and continued to 
labour incessantly for ten years, when, 
at the special invitation of the Free 
Church of Scotland, which he had joined 
in 1843, he once more returned to his 
native country. It was on this occasion 
that Dr. Duff organized a new system for 
the permanent support of the mission, 
which has been productive of the greatest 
good. In 1851 he was unanimously 
chosen Moderator of the General 
Assembly of the Free Church of Scot- 
land, the hi^est honour the Church had 
it in her power to bestow. In com- 
pliance with the solicitation of the Pro- 
testant churches of America, Dr. Duff 
visited the United States and Canada in 

1854 In 1855 he returned to Calcutta^ 
vid Bombay and Central India. For 
several years he was the sole editor of 
the "Calcutta Review;" and, on his 
return to India, after his last visit to 
Europe^ he was at once nominated by 
Lord Canning a member of the committee 
appointed to prepare the scheme of the 
Calcutta University. Since that period, 
as Member of the Senate and Syndicate, 
and President of the Faculty of Arti^ 
he has been unceasing in his exertions 
to promote its welfare. Dr. Duff has 
written largely on the subjects associated 
with his sphere of labour. His principal 
works are " India and Indian Missions," 
'* Missions the Chief End of the Christian 
Church,*' "Lectures on the Church of 
Scotland,'' "Missionaiy Addresses, "and 
* * Letters on the Indian Rebellion. " He 
has also been an extensive contributor to 
periodical literature. 

Frederick Temple Blackwood, Ba- 
RON, was bom at Florence in 1826. He 
studied with distinction at Oxford, and in 
1849 was one of the Lords in Waiting to 
the Queen, but resigned in 1852 when 
the Conservatives came into power, re- 
suming office in 1854. He sits as an 
hereditary peer by the title of Lord 
Clandeb(^e. There are few more accom- 
plished noblemen than Lord Dufferin. 
Ho is an excellent scholar, a graceful 
lecturer, and a very lively and agreeable 
writer. He has taken as yet only a 
small part in public affairs ; but there 
will be always interest attached to him 
as the inheritor of much of the genius 
of his great-grandfather, the celebrated 
Richard Brinsley Sheridan, his mother 
being a sister of the Duchess of Somer- 
set and the Hon. Mrs. Norton. His 
claim to distinction as an author rests on 
his ** Letters from High Latitudes, being 
some Account of a Yacht Vojrage to 
Iceland, San Mayen, and Spitsbergen, 
in 1856," one of tiie liveliest, most read- 
able^ and pleasant books of the day. 




Lord DufTerin has just been sent as 
British Commissioner to Syria. 

DUFFY, Charles Gavan, some 
years an Irish journalist of the anti- 
English school, at present a member of 
the Colonial Legislature of Australia, 
was bom in the county of Monaghan 
in 1816. He was educated at Belfast, and 
went to Dublin about 1834, where he 
obtained employment on the Press. His 
first decided start in journalism was an 
appointment as editor of the "Vindi- 
cator, " a new8])aper established in Bel- 
fast to inculcate the principles of the 
party who clamoured for repeal of the 
Union and the dominancy of the Roman 
Catholic religion. He conducted that 
paper energetically, but in 1841 he left 
Belfast for Dublin, where he originated 
the " Nation, " a journal once well known 
for its ultramontane and republican 
views. War to the knife was the doc- 
trine of Mr. Duffy, whilst that of his 
leader, Mr. O'Connell, was moral force 
to accomplish a political change. Their 
parties sc]»arated, but not until Mr. 
Duffy had been imprisoned for sedition, 
in company with the most violent agi- 
tators of the day. Mr. Duffy's advanced 
opinions leil him to assist in founding 
what was termed the ** Young Ireland" 
party, wliich was only scattered by the 
arrest and transportation of Mr. Smith 
O'Brien. Mr. Duffy was tried for high 
treason, but the jury disagreeing, there 
was no verdict. In 1852 he was returned 
to Parliament for the borough of New 
Ross, and kept that seat until 1855, 
when he emigrated to Australia, and 
became so actively engaged in the poli- 
tics of the new country that he was 
elected a member of the Colonial Legis- 
lature, and subsequently held office in 
the Colonial Government, from which, 
however, he has been removed. 

DUMAS, Alexandre, a French no- 
velist, was bom at ViUers Cotterets, on 
the 24th of July, 1803. Young Dumas 
received an education which was very 

limited, in his native town, from the Abb6 
Gr6gaine. At the age of fifteen, having 
no resources independent of his own 
labour, he went to Paris and obtained a 
situation; but aspiring to literary pur- 
suits, he resolved to try his fortune 
as a dramatist. ** Henri III. ct sa 
Cour" was the result, and was fairly 
successfiU. In 1820 Adolphe de Leuven, 
a young gentleman from Paris, who 
had begun to write for the theatre, 
proposed to him that they should 
unite their efforts To write for the 
theatre, said Leuven, was a trade like 
any other, and only required practice. 
Thus commenced that career of romance 
and play-writing which has given Dumas 
so great a notoriety. He broke through 
the conventional laws of dramatic compo- 
sition, and produced startling incidents, 
rapid changes, intricate plots, and villan- 
ous and virtuous characters in contrast. 
The fashion was new, and took with the 
giddy and volatile. His novels, first 
stmck out in /euilletons, were pemsed 
and talke<l of, and what seemed a mira- 
culous facility of composition induced 
people to wonder, and all the more to 
read. His famous lawsuit with the 
directors of the "Presse" and the "Con- 
stitutionnel," brought to light the fact 
that he was bound to furnish these jour- 
nals annually with a larger number of 
volumes than the swiftest penman could 
copy, and that he had l)cen assisted 
by a large staff of coUnhoraieura. The 
works of Dumas which have met with 
the greatest success are **Les Trois 
Mousquetaircs," which at first appeared 
in the *SSi^cle" newspaper, in which it 
was continued under the title of ** Vingt 
Ans Aprfts, " and ** Le Vicomte de 
Brag61one ; " ** Le Comte de Monte 
Christo," which ap|)eared in the "Consti- 
tutionnel;" and "La Beine Margot," 
published in the * * Presse. " These three 
works have done more to popularize the 
name of the author than any of his other 
productions. He has recently published 




A "life of Garibaldi," which is a strange 
eamponnd of fact and fiction. 

DUMAS, Alexandre, the younger, 
was bom at Paris in July, 1824. He is 
tlie son of Alexandre Dumas, the novelist, 
and was educated at the Institution 
Qoabsnz and the Coll^ Bourbon. 
Among authors and artists his talents 
were early recognised, and he was ad- 
mired by the society into which he was 
thrown, when very young, for his gaiety 
and brilliancy. He has produced a num- 
ber of novels and dramas. In the for- 
mer dass of works the ** Trois Hommes 
Ports" occupies the first place in point 
of talent ; in the latter, "La Dame aux 
Oam^lias" (1852), and the **Demi 
Monde " (1855), take precedence. These 
eomedies have been successful in the 
hi^^iest d^ree ; but great fault has 
been found with their immorality, being 
considered even more pernicious in 
tendency than the worst productions of 
the elder Dumas. 

DUMAS, Jean Baptiste, a French 
chemist, was bom at Alaia, in the de- 
partment of Card, 1800. In 1814 he 
eommenced his medical studies at his 
native place, and afterwards followed 
them up at Geneva, where his devo- 
tion to science attracted the attention 
of the professors. Having formed an 
acquaintance with Dr. Provost of Ge- 
neva, Dumas and Provost performed 
many experiments together, and pub- 
lished numerous papers on physiological 
subjects, and more particularly on blood 
and generation. The fame of these pa- 
pers procured him an appointment in 
Paris, as Teacher of Chemistry at the 
£cole Polytcchnique, and Professor of 
Chemistry at the Ath§n6e. He was 
returned to the National Legislative 
Assembly as representative for the de- 
partement du Nord, 1849, and supported 
the President He was appointed Minister 
of Agriculture and Commerce, then mem- 
ber of the ** Commission Consultative." 
Afterwards he entered the Senate as Vice. 

President of the Council of Public In- 
struction, and became President of the 
Municipal Council of Paris. At the 
Great Elxhibition held in London in 1851 
Dumas occupied a prominent position as 
chairman of one of the juries. Dumas' 
researches upon ether, the laws of iso- 
merism, the law of substitution, and the 
atomic weights of elementary substances, 
stand out among the investigations that 
make the nineteenth century remarkable 
in the annals of science. As a professor 
he was noted for lus fluency, eloquence 
of style, and the great ability of his 
demonstrations. His principal works, 
and those of the pupils of his school, 
have for their object organic chemistry. 
He has published **A Treatise on Chemis- 
try applied to the Arts," in eight volumes ; 
**A Course of Chemical Philosophy," in 
one volume ; and ** A Discourse on the 
Chemical Statics of Organized Beings." 

DUNCOMBE, Thomas Slingsby, 
M.P., an English politician, was bom in 
1796. He was returned to Parliament 
for Hereford in 1826, and ranged himself 
with the extreme Liberal party, and 
zealously supported the Reform BilL 
In 1832 he was defeated by Lords Mahon 
and Ingestre, but early in 1834 was 
returned for Finsbury. He opposed the 
Irish Coercion Bill, and in 1842 pre- 
sented the National petition, signed by 
above three millions of the industrious 
classes in favour of universal suffrage, 
vote by ballot, and a shorter duration of 
Parliament. Among other matters, he 
was virtually the means of establishing 
Jewish emancipation, by successfully 
carrying, in 1858, his motion for placing 
Baron Rothschild on a committee which 
was to hold a conference with the House 
of Lords ; since which, the doors of the 
House of Commons, which had been so 
long closed against the Jews^ have been 
thrown open for their admission. 

DUNDAS, Vice- Admiral the Hon. 
Richard Saunders, was bom at Mel- 
ville Castle, in the county of Edinburgh, 




on the 11th of April, 1802. He is a 
son of Lord Melville, who for many 
years was First Lord of the Admiralty ; 
and entered the Navy in 1817. He 
served under different commanders 
as a midshipman, until June 1821, 
when he was appointed lieuten- 
ant, and shcnily after Commander, 
commissioned to the Sparrowhawk. 
Ordered from Halifax to the Mediter- 
ranean Station, he cruised until 1824, 
when he was promoted to the rank of 
Post Captain, subsequentiy taking com- 
mand of the Volage and the Warspite, 
the latter a seventy -six gun-ship, and the 
first man-of-war that circumnavigated 
the globe. On his return to England in 
1828 he was again appointed to the 
Mediterranean Station, where he re- 
mained some years, and in 1837 he was 
placed in charge of the Melville, seventy- 
two guns, and took a very distinguished 
part in the war with China. In 1845 
Captain Dimdas became private secre- 
tary to the Earl of Haddiagton, then 
Pirst Lord of the Admiralty, but that 
post was relinquished in the following 
year on the resignation of Ministers. 
Meantime (1841) he had conferred on 
him the Military Companionship of the 
Bath. In 1851 he was appointed Su- 
perintendent of Deptford Dockyard, 
and in 1853 promoted to the rank of 
Bear- Admiral In February, 1855, he 
was called on to command the British 
Fleet in the Baltic, superseding Sir 
Charles Napier. Some time after taking 
the chief command he bombarded Swea- 
borg, reducing the place to ashes, after 
a severe cannonade on the 0th of Au- 
gust. The war ended. Admiral Dim- 
das was created a K. C. B., and re- 
ceived the honorary degree of D. C. L. 
from the University of Oxford, together 
with the French order of Grand Officer 
of the Legion of Honour. In 1858 he was 
advanced to the rank of Vice- Admiral 
of the Blue. 
DUNDONALD, Thoica8 CocHRA2fS| 

Eakl of, was bom on the 14th December, 
1775. At an early age he joined the 
navy, but in consequence of the objections 
of his father he did not enter regularly 
into the service until 1793, when he joined 
the Hind corvette, of twenty-eight guns, 
imder the command of his uncle, Sir 
Alexander Cochrane. He was not long 
in giving proofs of his daring character, 
distinffliishing himself in May, 1795, as 
acting Lieutenant of the Thetis. After 
serving in obedience to orders, from 
vessel to vessel, he joined Lord Keith's 
flag-ship^ the Baifleur, in the Mediterra- 
nean. When, after cruising for some time 
in pursuit of the French fleet, Lord Keith 
shifted his flag to the Queen Charlotte, 
Lord Cochrane accompanied him. On 
the 21st of September, 1799, he executed 
a task which displayed at once his reso- 
lution and his judgment. The Lady 
Nelson cutter was hemmed in off Cabritta 
Pointk Gibraltar Bay, by the French and 
Spanish vessels. He took with him the 
Queen Charlotte^s boats, attacked the 
opposing foroe^ and ultimately boarding 
some, rescued the beleaguered vesscL 
In Mji-'Vrh, 1800, in command of the 
war-sloop Speedy, he captured no fewer 
than 50 vesselia^ with 122 guns and 
534 prisoners, lus own ship mount- 
ing only 14 guns and carrying 54 men. 
He enooimtered the Gamo, 32 guns, 
319 men, off Baroelona, on May 6th, 
1801, and after a desperate struggle 
made her a prize. This action gained 
him his rank aa Captain. But there 
is no sunshine without shadow. The 
Speedy was obHged, after a thirteen 
months* cruise, to surrender to a French 
squadron consisting of three ships of 
the line. Lord Cochrane became a pri- 
soner of war, but was soon after ex- 
changed. From that time, although 
very badly used by the Admiralty, he 
was scarcely ever out of service or out 
of dangw, cruising in the Pallas and 
the Imp^euse^ taking the enemy's 
ships here^ and blowing up batteries 




when, in 1809, he was ordered, 
m the most intrepid commander at the 
Ine within reach, to destroy by means 
«f fire-diipfl the French fleet, then in 
fte B—qne Roads. He undertook this 
■iaion of victory or death, went on 
board one of the ships, which contained 
a large quantity of gunpowder, and was 
su ecc — f u L After being knighted, he 
\»»t»mntm member for Honiton and then 
for Westminster. Lord Cochrane, while 
in Ptehament, exposed the shortcomings 
and venality of the Admiralty, and was 
an inveterate opponent of ministers ; the 
remit of which was, that when, in the 
early part of 1814, a report was spread 
that Napoleon had fallen, and Lonl 
Cochrane and his friends had taken 
advantage of this for their own interests, 
the ministry considering this a good 
opportunity to stifle his opposition, 
accused him of stock jobbing and fraud. 
He was found guilty of spreading a 
report that damaged thousanils for his 
oiwn gain, was fined, and depriveil of all 
hii rewards and decorations. In addi- 
tion, he was to be imprisoned for a 
year. But before the term was con- 
cluded, his WcMtminster cnnJititucnts 
considering that he was the victim of 
party feeling, re-elected him to the 
House of Commons, and escajnng from 
jtalf to the astonishment of the mem- 
bers made hia bow to the Speaker. 
From a prison to foreign service was 
no unpleasant change. Lord Cochrane 
went to South America, and fought 
heroically for the inde}>cndence of the 
Spanish colonics. He next gave the 
weight of his character and genius 
to Greece, aftc>r being a short time em- 
ployed by the Brazilian government, 
and eventually, forty-four years after the 
war, was restored to hia rank in the navy 
of Great Britain. He became Earl of 
I>un<lonald in 1831, Vice- Admiral of the 
Blue in 1841, and mounted once more the 
order of the Bath in 1847. In 1851 he 
was Vice- Admiral of the AMiite, and in 

1852 Rear- Admiral of the United King- 
dom. It is much to be regretted that the 
Earl of Dundonald has not met with that 
cordial response throughout his life which 
his talents, energies, and patriotism have 
deserved. In former days he has had to 
contend with the jealousies of his inferiors 
in ability, although by the accidents of life 
they may have been his superiors in sta- 
tion. His various inventions, offered to 
different governments, prove him to be a 
man of genius; and although some of the 
imjjrovements he has suggested in the 
mode of carrying on war may have ap- 
peare<l at first sight somewhat too highly 
coloured in their promised results, still 
the motives which induced him to present 
them to the judgment of the naval and ord- 
nance boards, should at least have secured 
for them a careful examination. But he 
has outlived his enemies, and can now well 
affonl to forget past circimistances. Ca- 
lumnies have been disproved ; the evil 
spirit that had haunted him is banished ; 
and the maligned Lord Cochrane is more 
honoured than ever. Since his retirement 
from active service, he has turned his at- 
tention to the science of naval warfare, 
and has invented new projectiles and new 
methods of bloi^-ing up ships ; but his plans 
have been always rejected by the powers 
that be. In Ids eighty-sixth year Lord 
Dundonald^s activity is still on the ascen- 
dant, and he is occupied on the ** Stoiy 
of his Life," a memoir which will, in aU 
time to come, stimulate the pluck and 
energy of English seamen. 

a metlical writer, was bom at Keswick, 
in 1708. He commenced the practice of 
medicine in 1819 in London, but in 
1824 went to America, having been 
chosen Professor of Medicine in the 
newly-established University of Virgi- 
nia. In 1833, he was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Materia Mcdica in the Univer- 
sity of Maryland ; and, since 1836, of 
the Institutes of Medicine and Medical 
Jurisprudence in the Jefferson Medical 




College of Philadelphia. Dr. Bcmglin- 
son's works are bo many text-books, 
on which students and practitioners may 
place implicit reliance. He is one of 
the most popular medical authors of the 
day. So great has been the demand for 
his works, that of the ** Medical Lexi- 
con," *'Greneral Therapeutics and Ma- 
teria Medica," "Human Physiology," 
"Human Health," "New Remedies," 
and the "Practice of Medicine," re- 
prints of 100,000 volumes had been sold 
up to 1858. 

BERT, a French navigator, was bom in 
1793. He entered the French Marine 
Service in 1804. He was promoted in 
1819 to the rank of lieutenant ; and in 
1824 to that of captain of a frigate. In 
1841, he was rear-admiral, when he pro- 
posed to Louis-Philippe to occupy the 
Society Islands. His proceedings there 
arc well known ; when he returned from 
the Pacific to France, they were dis- 
avowed. Under the Republic he sat in 
the National Assembly for the de^iart- 
mont of Mame-et-Loire, always voting 
with the majority. Latterly there has 
been nothing heard of him. 

DUPIN, Andre-Marie Jean Jacques, 
known as Dupin ain6, ex-President of 
the National Assembly, was bom at 
Varzy, on the Ist February, 1783. 
He was called to the bar in February 
1800 ; and in 1802, when the schools 
were re- opened, he was the first to 
pass as Doctor before the now faculty. 
Ho endeavoured to obtain a vacant pro- 
fessorship in the School of Law in Paris, 
but being refused, he commenced prac- 
tice at the bar, where the piquant origi- 
nality of his speech, the brilliancy of his 
wit, and the extent and accuracy of his 
knowledge, gained for him a great repu- 
tation. In 1811 he was recommended 
for the place of Advocate-Creneral to the 
Court of Cassation, which he did not 
obtain, but he was almost immediately 
appointed to the Commission for Classi- 

fying the Laws of the Empire, which 
immense undertaking was afterwards 
entrusted to his sole charge. His poli- 
tical life began in 1815, when he was 
returned to the Chamber of Representa- 
tives, and took part with the liberal 
opposition. He was, with M. Berryer, 
the defender of Marshal Ney, in 1815 ; 
he also defended the Englieimien, Wil- 
son, Hutchinson, and Bruce, who had 
been so instrumental in the memorable 
escape of Lavalette ; and as the steadfast 
enemy of the Jesuits, enjoyed an ex- 
tended popularity under the Restoration. 
Dupin has directed great attention to 
the productive powers of France, and 
has written two works upon that sub- 
ject From 1815 to 1830 he was a 
member of the Representative Chamber. 
In 1830 he was a zealous sup|)orter of 
Louis-Philippe, and in 1831 was named 
Procureur-G6n6ral. Towards the end of 
1832 he became President and Speaker 
of the new parliament. His political 
career for a number of years presents 
few striking features. In 1842 he was 
named reporter of the project of law in 
favour of the Duke de Nemours being 
regent ; and in 1848, he introduced the 
Count of Paris to the Chamber, recom- 
mending the members to recognise him 
as king and the Duchess of Orleans as 
regent. He made a show of moral oppo- 
sition to the coup (Tital when the As- 
sembly was dispersed, but he has since 
seen it his interest to reconcile himself 
to the rule of Napoleon. In point of 
fact, Dupin is the solitary example of 
the seduction of any eminent statesman 
of the old regime, by the Emperor. 

DUPIN, Ba&on FRAN901S Pierre 
Charles, a French statistician and se- 
nator, brother of the preceding, was 
bom at Varzy, in Nivcmais, on 6th 
October, 1784. He studied in the Poly- 
technic School, and in 1808 was named 
engineer to the Marine Service, when he 
was employed in the preparation of the 
channel fl^ and in fonning the arsenal 




wl Antwerp. He was four years at 
Oofffu, whitlier he went after the Ionian 
Tilar^T had been ceded to France. On 
his Tetum to Paris, in 1812, he devoted 
Ida attention to the study of the con- 
struction of ships; in 1813 he founded 
the Maritime Museum, which has served 
as a model fur the naval museum of the 
Lofavre. A favourite pupil of Monge, 
and a friend of the repubhcon Carnot, 
he witnessed the fall of the empire with- 
out r^ret. He asked permission of 
Foach6 to defend Camot Entrusted 
with the superintendence of the dock- 
yard at Dunkirk, he visited in 181 C the 
maritime establishments of England. 
Four years afterwards he began the 
publication of his "Voyages dans la 
Grand Bretagne entre 1816 et 1821," 
in which he |)ointed out the advantages 
of constitutional government. In 1815 
he was admitted to the Institute. In 
1824 Louis XVIII. conferred on him 
the title of Baron ; but he continued true 
to liberal principles, and being returned 
Deputy for Tarn he made numerous 
■peeches on public instruction, the navy 
and its ox^ganization, &c He opposed 
PoUgnac, and was elected for Paris, 
July 1820. He tilled various offices up 
to 1837» when he was created a peer of 
France ; and since then he has main- 
tained his principles without sacrificing 
his independence. Among his works 
may be enumerated a work entitled 
"Geometry and Mechanics, in their 
Application to Industry and the Fine 
Arts" (Paris, 1825 and 1826); "The 
British System of Administration" (1823) ; 
•* Lectures on Industry, Commerce, Na- 
vigation, and the Sciences applied to 
the Arts ;" ** Opening Addresses to the 
Conservatory;" "The Eloge of Gas- 
pard Monge," read on the 2nd of Sep- 
tember, 1849, in the name of the Aca- 
j^Mny of Sciences ; " Discourse pro- 
nounced at the Distribution of Prizes to 
the French Exhibitors on the 25th of 
November, 1851;" a pamphlet on the 


Comparative Industry of Paris and 
London" (1852) ; and various other re- 
ports and Hoges, 

Charles, President of the Provisional 
Government of France in 1848, was 
bom at Neuliourg, Eure, on the 27th 
of February, 1767. In 1789 he was 
admitted as an advocate before the 
l>arhament of Normandy, and embraced 
the principles of the Ilevolutdon with 
ardour. He led a very active public 
life, tilling many offices, his political 
creed being, liberty of the people and 
the press, equal civil and political 
rights, and a representative system. 
Through all the chauges of dynasty that 
have occurred during his long life, M. 
Du|)ont De L*Eure has sustained the 
reputation of being a pure-minded citi- 
zen and an honest man. 

DUPONT, Pierre, a French poet 
and song writer, was bom at Lyons in 
1821. His parents were ver}' poor, 
but, by one means and another, he 
received a fair education, and got to 
be employed in the office of a notary, 
and afterwards obtained a clerkship in 
a bank. In 1839 he went to Paris, and 
in time attracted notice. He published 
a volume of poetry, entitled "The Two 
Angels," in 1844 ; and its success, though 
moderate at first, evoked the spiiit of 
poetry. He awoke one morning and 
found he had risen to fame by his song 
of "Les Boeufs." Thenceforward he 
devoted himself to the composition of 
songs, to most of which he composed 
music, without knowing anything of 
the science. After 1848 he was car- 
ried away by the Socialist notions of 
the day, and '\^Tote a few songs 
which compromised him with the 
government. In December, 1851, he 
remained under concealment for six 
months ; at the end of which he was dia- 
covered, and condenmed to six months' 
banishment to Landessa, in Algeria. He, 
however, obtained a pardon, and since 




then he lias not interfered in politice. 
The best known of his songs are, 
••LesBoeufs," "Le Braconnier," "Le 
Louis d*Or/* ** Le Chant des Nations," 
*«Le Chant des Soldats,*' "Le Dahlia 
Bleu," "LaVigne." *« La Chanson du 
B16,*' "La Vache Blanche," "La Pin 
de la Pologne," &c. Various editions 
of lus songs have been published, both 
with and without music. M. Dupont may 
be looked upon as the Bums of France. 
DYCE, THE Rev. Alexander, an 
English author and critic, was bom in 
Edinburgh, in June, 1798, and received 
his education at the High School of 
that city, and Exeter College, Oxford. 
Having completed lus curriculum, he 
received episcopal ordination, and offi- 
ciated for several years as a curate in 
Cornwall and Suffolk. On going to 
London he entered there upon a literary 
career, in which lus general learning 
and critical sagacity have gained him 
merited distinction. After publishing 
''Select Translations from Quintus 
Smjrmseus," an edition of the poet 
Collins, and ** Siiecimens of British 
Poetesses,** he edited the works of 
Shakspeare, Beaumont and Fletcher, 
Peele, Greene, Webster, Shirley, Mid- 
dleton, Marlowe, Bentley, and Skelton. 
Amongst his other jNiblications are, 
** Si)ecimen8 of British Sonnets ;" "Re- 
marks on CoUier's and Knight's Edi- 
tions of Shak8i>eare ; ** "A Few Notes 
on Shakspeare;" and "Strictures on 
Collier's new Edition of Shakspeare." 
The lives of Shakspeare, Pope, Akenside 
and Beattie, in the "Aldine Poets," 
were written by him ; and he has edited 
various volumes for the Camden and 
Percy Societies. His " Recollections of 
the Table Talk of Samuel Rogers," 
has been several times reprinted. As a 
Shakspearian critic Mr. Dyce is perhaps 
most favourably known, and his text of 
the great dramatist has been pronounced 
by the "Quarterly," to be by far the 
best yet given to the world. 

DYCE, WiLUAic, R. A., a painter of 
history, and writer on subjects connected 
chiefly with the Fine Arts and ecclesi- 
astical antiquities, was bom at Aber- 
deen, in 180ft. He was educated at the 
University of Aberdeen, and took the 
degree of M.A. at the age of sixteen. He 
was intended for one of the learned pro- 
fessions, but subeequentiy devoted him- 
self to art, and went to London in 1825 
to be entered as a pupil of the Royal 
Academy. He was admitted ; but his 
father having been advised to send him 
to study in Italy, Mr. Dyce set out for 
Rome in the same year. On his return, 
he produced a picture on a classical sub- 
ject, which was exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1827. After a second visit 
to Italy, he finally returned to this 
country, and spent some years parUy in 
London and parUy in Aberdeen and 
Edinbur;^ A pamphlet, which he 
wrote in 1896, "On the Application of 
Design to Manufactures," having been 
brought under the notice of the Board 
of Trade, he was summoned to London, 
and sent by the President — ^then Mr. 
Poulett Thomson — on a mission to the 
Continent^ to report on the organiza- 
tion of Foreign Schools of Design, with 
a view to the formation of an establish- 
ment of that kind in London, which 
was then in contemplation. The re^wrt 
made by him was printed by the House 
of Commons, and he was appointed Di- 
rector of the new establi^mient» with 
Mr. Herbert, R.A., as Head Master. 
He held this office for five years ; and 
on lus resignation in 1843, was appointed 
Inspector of the Provincial Schools, 
which had been established under his 
management^ and a member of the 
CounciL His occupations at the School 
of Design having become less engross- 
ing, he again applied himself to art, and 
in 1844 exhibited his picture of "King 
Joash shooting the Arrow of Deliver- 
ance," the merits of which were so 
fully recognised that he was elected 




Associate of the Royal Academy. The 
same year he exhibited a specimen of 
fresco painting at the Westminster 
Hall Exhibition. He soon afterwards 
received a commission for a fresco for 
Buckinghxun Palace, and subsequently 
for Osborne. He was the iirst of the 
artists employed on the New Houses of 
Parliament, and so highly was his * * Bap- 
tism of Ethcll)ert" — his grand fresco in 
the House of Lords — appreciated, that 
he has been for years eng^^^ed in adorn- 
ing the New Palace. He was elected 
an Academician in 1848; but of late 
years, in consequence of his other com- 
missions, he has exhibited few oil pic- 
tures. He published in 1843-44, in 2 
vols. 4to, an edition of the Book of 
Common Prayer, with the ancient musi- 
cal notation ; accompanied by a Disser- 
tation on Gregorian Music, and its adap- 
tation to English words. He is also the 
author of a reply to a pamphlet of Mr. 
Kuskin on a theological subject ; of a 
work on **The Management of the 
National Gallery ; " and of numerous 
articles in periodicals to which his name 
is not attached. He is Professor of the 
Theory of the Fine Arts, in King's Col- 
lege, London. 

EADIE, .Tony, D.D., LL.D., an 
eminent biblical critic, was bom about ! 
the year 1814^ in Alva, a small town in , 
the county of Stirling. At a very early 
period Dr. Eadie l>egan to manifest 
8U|)crior j)ower8, and made ra[)id pro- 
gress in all those branches of a lilx^ral i 
education, forming a necessary prepara- 
tion for the ministry. Having completed 
his preparatory studies, Mr. Eadie en- 1 
terod the University of Glasgow ; thence 
he passed with honour ti> the divinity 
hall of the Unite<l Presbyterian Church, 
then under the superintendence of Drs. 
Dick and MitchclL Ha\4ng completed ' 
his theological curriculum, Mr. Eadie be- 
came a ])reacher of the GospeL His sui)e- [ 
nor powers were soon a]>preciated, and 
at the early age of twenty-one he was, in 

1836^ ordained minister of the congrega- 
tion of which he is still the pastor. On 
the death of the late accomplished Dr. 
Mitchell, Professor of Biblical Literature 
to the United Presbyterian Synod, such 
was the estimation of Dr. Eadie^s scholar- 
ship and capacity, that he was unani- 
mously appointed in 1843, by the Synod, 
to fill the chair of his quondam teacher. 
Dr. Eadie was in 184C-47 twice called to 
a pastoral charge in Edinburgh, but re- 
fused to go. While discharging with 
high acceptability the duties of this 
professorship, and continuing to minister 
to his large congregation, every scat in 
his cha(>el being let. Dr. Eadie has also 
devoted himself to the production of not 
a few works of great usefulness and 
ability. " CVuden's Concordance," which 
has since passe<l through twenty editions, 
was the first work with which his name 
was associated, and was undertaken in 
conjunction with the llev. Dr. King. 
The "Biblical Cyclopcedia," ** Lectures 
on the Bible to the Young,'* ** Early 
Oriental History," "Divine Love," "A 
(*omplete Analytical Concortlance," 
"Paul the Preacher," and a "Life of 
Dr. Kitto," are all jieculiarly popular 
and able works; while his Commen- 
taries on Ephesians, Colossiaiis, and 
Philippians are highly valuable contri- 
butions to the science of biblical iutcr- 
])retation. The second edition r>f the first 
of these is now in the press. Some of 
the most enidite and graceful pajters in 
" The Journal of Sacred Liteniture," and 
ahu> in "Kitto's Cycloiw<lia of Biblical 
Literature," were contribute*! by Dr. 
Eatlie. The iMiges of the "Nt^rth Bri- 
tish Review" have likewise ))wn en- 
riche<l by his pen. His latest pnxluction 
is a touching and admirable ohtiniate of 
that facile pnncef» of English Congre- 
gational theologians, the late Dr. Pye 
Smith. This ot^Sfiy has been apjiro- 
priatcly prefixed to a new edition of the 
"Scripture Testimony to the Messiah," 
of that learned divine. Dr. Eailie is 





now engaged in editing an Ecclesiastical 
Cyclopaedia, as a com|»anion to the 
"Biblical Cycloixedia." Dr. Eadie re- 
ceived the degree of LL.D. in 1844, 
from the University of Glasgow, and 
that of D. D. in 1850, from the University 
of St. Andrews. 

EASTLAKE, 8ir Charles Lock, a 
painter, and President of the Royal 
Academy, was l>om at Plymouth, in 1793. 
Ha\ing |>assed through the usual course 
of e<lucation at the granmiar schools of 
his native place, he adopted painting as 
a profession, and entered the Royal 
Academy, London, as a (lupil of f(*uscli, 
and afterwards visited Paris. He re- 
turned to England, and established him- 
self as a |>ortrait (utinter at Plymouth. 
When, after Waterloo, the ship of war 
which was tf> carry Na{)oleon to Saint 
Helena lay off Plymouth, Eastlake seized 
this opportunity for securing the last 
portrait of the ez-Em|Xiror obtained in 
Euro|)e. As the great man walked the 
deck of the '*Bellerophon," the artist, 
while in a small l>oat, took sketches of him, 
and from them produced a full-length 
portrait, wiiich gave quite a new idea of 
the i)er8onal a]>{>earance of Nai)oleon, 
the French portraits being in general 
highly idealize<l. After a tour to Italy, 
Sicily, and Greece, he, in 182;^, forwarded 
to the Exhibition of the Royal Academy, 
views and sketches he had made. 
In 18'28 he contributed his famous 
"Peasants on a I^grimage to Rome, 
firHt coming in sight of the Holy 
City." In 1830 Mr. Eastiake was 
elected R. A His next great work, one 
of the most imiN>rtant of recent contri- 
butions to the English historical school 
of luiiuting, wan "Christ Weeping over 
JeriLSidem. " The deep sentiment of this 
great picture won its way to all hearts. 
It was followed by "Hagar and Ish- 
nuu.-!.*' In 1841 Mr. Eawtlake was &i>- 
pointed Secretary to the R(»yal Commis- 
sion, formed for inquiring whether 
Advantage might not be taken of the 

rebuilding the Houses of Parliament, to 
promote the Fine Arts. In 18o0 Mr. 
Eastlake was elected President of the 
R(»yal Academy, and in the same year 
he received the honour of knighthiKKL 
In 1855 he was api)ointed Director of the 
National Gallery, with a salary of i: 1,000 
a year. Opinion is divided resjiecting 
the precise |>osition of Sir Charles as an 
artist, although by many able judges he 
is esteemed not only the ablest, but oXaa 
the most learned of English painters. 
He is the translator of "Goethe on 
Colours," "Notes to Kiiglers Hand- 
book of Painting," and "Contributions 
towards a History of Oil Painting." 

EDWARDES, Sir Heiibert Bex- 
JAMiii, K.C.R, an Indian oflicer, was 
bom at Frodesley, in Sliroi>shire (whero 
his father was rector), on PJtli Novt-mber, 
1819. Educated at Richmond, Siurey} and 
at King's College, London, he received 
a cadetship in 1840. HaWng attracted 
notice by a series of letters on ]>ubhc 
affairs in the " Delhi Ciazette," ad- 
dressed by "Brahminee Bull to his 
cousin John Bull in England," he was 
ap])ointed, in 1845, aide-de-cani[> on 
the staff of the Commander-in-Chief, Sir 
Hugh (now Lonl) Gough. After taking 
part in the battles of MtMxlkee and 
Sobraon, and being wounded in the 
former engagement, he was entrusted, 
in 1846, with an im]>ortant mission to 
the court of the king of lunmux) and 
Cashmere, in which he was completely 
successfuL In the following year he 
was deputed by Sir Henry LawTence to 
accompany, and control, a Sikh force, 
desi»atched to realize the arrears of 
tribute withheld from the Sikh govern- 
ment by the tribes of Burmoo, a hill- 
bound countiy on the Afghan Ixmler of 
the Punjaub. The expedition was only 
])artially successful ; and, at Lieutenant 
Edwardes* advice, a second was de8])atcli- 
ed at the close of the year, iK'nuanently 
to reduce and occupy the valley. The 
complete success of the Lieutenant's 




plans is narrated in his *'Year on the 
Pimjaub Frontier in 1848-9." Scarcely 
had Burmoo been reduced than war 
broke out at Mooltan. Hearing of 
the murder of two English officers, 
Lieut. EdwardcH, on his own authority, 
commenced military operations against 
Dewan Moolrftj, the Sikh governor of 
that province ; and his plans being aj)- 
proved of by Sir Frederick Currie (then 
officiating as President at Lahore during 
Sir Henry Lawrence*8 absence in Eng- 
land), he levied an irregidar force from 
the border tribes, in aid of a force of 
Sikh Regulars, and obliged M(M)lr&j Ut 
withdraw his army from the left bank 
of the Indus, and won a complete vic- 
tory, taking eight guns from the enemy. 
This battle was fought on the ISth Jime, 
and is called **Kineyree," fn«n the 
neighbouring ferry of the Chenab. The 
defeated relx^s fled to Mooltan, wore 
followed, and again defeated there, with 
Moolrilj at their head, on July Ist, with 
a loss of two more guns. Moolrilj then 
shut himself up in his foit, and was 
blockaded by the unitcil forces of Lieut. 
EdwardoB, General Cortlandt, and the 
Nawab of Bhawulpoor (commanded by 
another English subaltern, Lieut. E(l- 
ward Lake, of the Bengal Engineers), 
till a regular British force imdervieneral 
Whish arrived to besiege the fortress. 
For these services Lieut. E<lwanles was 
promoted to a Brevet-majority, was 
made an extra Companion of the Bath, 
and had a gold medal voted to him f)y 
the East India Company. During the 
operations he lost the use of his right 
hand by the accidental explosion of a 
pistol in his 1>elt; in consideration of 
which the East India Company gave 
him a good service f tension of ill 00 a 
year. On the assassination of the Com- 
missioner of Pesh&wur, in Sei)tem))er 
1 8o3, he was selected to succeed him. His 
services in that post, though attracting 
less notice, are perhaps the most useful 
and solid which he has rendered; for 

by a firm but kind adndnistration, he 
gradually attached the frontier tribes, 
and induced government to retrace its 
former jxjlicy towanls Afghani<»tan, and 
fonn a friendly alliance with Dost Ma- 
hommed, the Ameer of CabuL The 
fruits of these labours were n.>aped in 
the memorable year 1857, when the 
native army of Bengal mutinied. In- 
stead of fraternizing with the 8e{)03r8» 
the tril)es of the Peshilwur frontier sided 
with government, and furnished import- 
ant lei'ies for service in Uindostan, while 
Dost Mahommed maintained a friendly 
attitude throughout the war, instead of 
marching down to Peshilwur, and tam- 
ing the scale against the English. In 
Indian }>olitics Lieut. -CoL Edwardes is 
a decidetl advocate of an oi>enly-avowed 
Cliristian i>olicy, in op{i^>sition to the- 
traditional policy of neutrality in reli^ 
gious matters, and advocates, in all* 
government schools in India, the forma^ 
tion of a Bible class at which attendance- 
may ])e vohmtary. In 1850 he received' 
the honorary degree of D.C.L (ronk 
Oxford, and on the 18tli June, 1800, th& 
honorary degree of LLD. from Cam* 

ECJG, AucirsTi'S, a luiinter, was bom 
in London, in 181G. Of his early lif» 
we have no record, but we find him ex- 
hibiting at the Academy in 18.'i8, and 
electeil an Associate in 1848. He is an 
admirable illustrator of »Shaks{)eare and 
Le Sage, to some of whose lighter 
fancies he has given a charm beyond 
the reach of ^-ritten description. Among 
his chief works are " Le Diable BoN 
teiix," "Tlie Victim," "(^.il Bias ex- 
clianging Kings with Camilla," "Queen 
Eliza1)eth discovering that she is no 
longer Yoimg," "Henrietta of England 
relieve<l by (.Cardinal De Retz," " Kath- 
ariue and Petruchio,'* and "Bucking- 
ham rebuffed." A more important 
work is " Peter the Great seeing Cathe- 
rine, his future Empress, for the first 
time ; " a picture which, for conceptioa 

• • • 



\ * \, >. w*-.r. V\ two oUht 

\ wvr.l lUfo: ono Iving 

■ - ^ .; '.\%jii>» .^! IWkinirhani," 
;nV.V An.) xho othor a **tri- 
«\ :.:.N^ ;« JS.Vv ^liicU luul no 
' . ^ «x .U^niN>l in an extract 
« ;^ A^\ itvnmnl l>y nuwt of the 
A ,io«u>:»!u' trrtp»tly). Mr. Egg 
\i*» ."'t.' ot \\w Artist* soKvUmI to arrange 
I he \vk:u(iuji;3t At tlio ManclictttcF Exhi- 

f>;i INTON AXi> WINTON, Ancm- 
n\ii» Wiii.iAM MoNTOOMKRiR, fifteenth 
Vixux t)K. and K. T., late Lonl Lientenant 

V «^ «-•• 

1 •• 

■ « 

when in the course of a few months he 
attaineil to a popularity never accorded 
to any of his predecessors. Ue dis])layed 
ability for which he had never got 
creilit ; he was accett»i]>le and genial ; 
a1x)ve all, for the first time in Ireland 
(hiring a hundred years, ho exliibited 
the novel s^tectacle of a nohlenian re- 
solved to govern the country ^-ithout 
reference to x>arty ; and thus was turned 
the first leaf in the history of Ireland's 
social advancement. On the overthrow 
of Lord Derby's administration, in 185.S, 
he was necessarily recalled ; but on the 
reinstatement of the Conservatives, in 
1858, he returned to Ireland as Lord 

«tf Indian d. was lN>rn at Pidermo, in i Lieutenant ; of course retiring when 
Siv'ily, in I SI 2. He MUcctH?ded to tlie ; Lord Derby resigned in 1859. As a 

fHvrap' in 1810, and when he attaineil 
his majority t(N)k his st-at in the House 
of Ijiinls on the (.•onscr\'ative benches. 
Attached to fiold-si)ortH, he encouraged 
racing and hunting ; but though display- 
ing what many were i^leaseil to tt-rm 
eccentricities, he lurver iieglectetl the 
^turc of hw intellect. At an early 
period in life, under the inlluonce of ideas 
quite allowable in a yonng nobleman 
vho rej>re«t'nte<l the Sir Hugh Mont- 
gomer>' of (.'he\'y Chace, he got up the 
famous tiiurnaiiient which was to evoke 

the spirit of the chivalrous a^^e, and much misre]>resented by the prewu He 
trhicli iii<U^'<l produced a lasting eflfect was eU^cted Lord Rector of Glasgow 
on the niimls <»f many jwrsous who wit- University in 1853 ; and ho is Lord 
nC8S(^l it. Tlic pageant was gorgeous. Lieutenant of the county of Ajt. He 
Lady Stymour, u<»w Duchess of Somer- ' manied, in Novemlier 1859, LadyAdela 
set, was t\u} (^luren of ru?auty, and the , Cajwl, daughter of the Earl of Essex. 

EHKENBERG, OnnisriAy Gorr- 
FRETD, a German naturalist and micro- 

landlonl. Lord Eglinton takes great 
interest in agricultural improvements. 
He is fond of out-door games, and there 
are few better curlers or l)owlers in 
Scotland. He preserves his attachment 
to field-sports, but at the same time no 
one more highly appreciates intellectual 
cultivation, and he has endeavoured to 
the utmost to i)romote the difTusion of 
education through every class of the 
conununity. The Scottish rights ques- 
tion was warmly e8(>oused by Lonl 
Eglint(^)n, on grounds which have l>een 

present KmjKTor of the French one of 

the spectators. In 1841 his lonlship 

uiarrifil tlie wi<b>w of the lute (\aptain ' seo])ist, was Iwm on the 19th of April, 

(.'iK'keioll, 11.x., but who died in 1795, at Delitzch, in Prussian Saxony. 

185.S, greatly regrotteil. Lonl Eglinton 
t^)«»k no vt>ry prominent jjai-t in ]H>litical 
liie ; ami when, in 1S52, on Ijord 

He received his early education at 
Sehulpforta, and there eonmiencetl the 
Htudy of theology, which he afterwards 

Derby's acM'ession to jwwer, he was i abandoned for that of medicine, at 
ajM>oiJ^te<l to the Lonl Lieutenancy of | Leipsic, in 1815. In 1817 the law of 
Irelajid. the Opp(^iti<»n sneered and the ' military service called him to Berlin, 
Ministerialists doubte«l ; but both were where he took the degree of Doctor of 
discoveix'd to have made a great mistake, I Meilicine in 1818 ; and published in the 




"Academia Leopoldina," his observa- 
tions upon the germination of seeds. 
At this time he became ac(|iiainted with 
the celebrated Hemprich, with whom he 
was sent on a scientific expedition into 

floats microscopic dust. From objects 
examined, and drawings made, during 
his travels in Africa, Syria, and Arabia, 
a great nimiber of plates have l>een 
prei>ared and published at intervals, 

Egypt. The two travellers visited the since 1828, the work not ha\'ing yet 
coa.*its of Lydia, Middle 'Egypt, Nubia, i l^een finished. Ehrenberg is a meml)er 
Dongola, and Syria, exploring the ruins of most of tlie leametl societies of Europe, 
of Baalbec and Moimt Lel>anon. After . and enjoys a higher reputation with sci- 
retuming again to Cairo, they ])roceede<l | entilic men than with the general jmblic, 
to Mount Sinai, the height of which was in consequence of the character of his 
ascertained by Ehrenberg, and thence to ; researches, which have oi»ened up new 
the Red Sea, Arabia, and AbysMnia. , fields of scientific observation, in the 
On his return from his eastern journey, cultivation of which he has throughout 
EhrenlKjrg was ap()ointed one of the his whole career held the highest rank, 
professors of the Faculty of Medicine. EICHWALD, Edward, a naturalist, 
at Berlin. In 1829 he accompanied was Iwm in July, 1795, at Mittau, in 
llumlx)ldt to the Und Moimtains, di- Lithuania. He studied medicine, and 

rooting his attention especially to micro- 

the natural sciences, at BerliiL After 

scopic investigations. Cuvier in the travelling over a great part of EurojH?, 
French Acatlemy, and HumbtJdt in he retunietl to Russia in 1821, where he 
"Cosmos, "have pointed out the immense delivered some iM)pular lectures, and 
scientific value of these inqiuries. Eh- ; was api)ointed Professor of Zoology and 

Midwifery, at Casan. From 1825 to 
1827 he exploretl the Casi)ian Sea, and 
the country of the Caucasus; and on 

renl>erg's great work on "Infusoria," 

forming one part of his investigations, 

was published in 1838, and drew upon 

him the attention of scientific men all ' reaching Europe once again, was ap- 

ovcr Europe. In 1842 he was elected j pointed Assistant Professor in the Uni. 

PeriHitual Secretary of the Royal Aca- versity of Wihia. That institution hav 

demy of Berlin, having been a Fellow 
from the year 1827, and having con- 

ing l)een suppressed, he was ap{>ointed, 
in 1838, Peq)etual Secretary and Pro- 

ti-ibutetl many memoirs to the IVans- feasor of Zoology and Mineralogy to the 
actions, during the whole of the inter- Me<lical and Surgical Acmlemy of that 
veniug jjeriod, among which may l^e ] place. Calle<l then to St. Petersburg, 
enumerated one on "The C^nocei»ha- he filled several scientific situations, 
lus;" a second on "The Soil of the and roamed through various countries, 
Desert ;" a third on " The Corals of the . adding to his o^-n knowledge, and the 
Red Sea;" a fourth on "The Limiino- i)ower of conveying it to otiiers. In 

sity of the Sea." Since the publication 
of his " Infusoria," he has i)ur8ued his 

1851 the learned Pi-ofessor retired from 
the really active jwirsuits of his pro- 

investigations of the fossil forms of mi- fcssion, and receive<l the title (*f Coun- 
croscopic organisms, the resiUt of his I cillor of State. lie is a member of all 

iuijuiries being embodied in a work 
cntitied " Micro-geologie," publishetl in 
1854. This work illustrates the micro- 

the Academies of Russia, as well as 
of many foreign societies. Belonging 
to a Geiinan i>rovince of Russia, Eich- 

scopic life of the whole globe; more wald has ^-ritten his works in Latin, 
es])ccially in its connexion with and i Fi-ench, Russian, and German, but 

influence ujion rocks, the soil, the bed of 
the sea, and the atmosphere in which 

chiefly in German. Among the most 
imxK>rtaut of his works, arc his "Jour* 




ncy to the Caspian Sea and the Cau- 
casus ;" " The Ancient Geograi)hy of the 
Caspian, the Caucasus, and Southern 
Russia ;" ** A Treatise on the Silurian 
Deposit of Esthonia;" "Sketches, hy a 
Natiu-ahst, of Lithuania, Volhynia, and 
Podolia ;" **Plantanim Novaiiim quas 
in itinere Caspio, C'aucasico, obscrvavit 
Fascicuh;" "Fauna Caspico-Cauca- 
Researches on Russian Infuso- 


." i« 

ria;" "The Palieontology of Russia," 
&c. &c. 

Earl of, K.T., late Governor-General 
of Cana<la, an<l now British Amhassador 
Extraorilinary to China, was bom 
in 1811. Lord Elgin, the representative 
in the male line of the great Scottish 
house of Bruce, is the son of the <lis- 
tingiushed nobleman who enrichetl the 
art treasures of this kingdom by his 
collection of scidpture, generally known 
as the "Elgin marbles." The present 
Lonl Elgin was educated at his father's 
seat in Fifeshire, and aften^'anls at 
OxfortL He was returned to Parha- 
ment as member for Southami)ton, in 
1841 ; and in 1842, on the death of his 
father, was calle<l to the House of 
Peers. In the same year he was ap- 
pointwl Governor of Jamaica, where he 
continued to a<l minister the affairs of 
the island with eipial ability and suc- 
cess until 184(5, when he was sent to 
Canada as Governor- General, His atl- 
ministration of the Canadian govern- 
ment was l)e3'ond all precedent suc- 
ceasfuL Recognising no party, he sought 
to develop the industrial and commer- 
cial resources of the colony, a difficult 
undertaking with a country which had 
long been distracti'd by intestine feuds. 
He encouragetl agriculture and trade by 
every means at his command, and ad- 
mitted no distincti<m between the citi- 
zens (►f the Upper and Lower Provinces. 
By his patience, forbearance, and a<lesire 
to accommcxlate himself to the habits of 
those with whom he hatl to deal, he i 

conciliated all pAzties; and nnce that 
time, Canada has been one of the most, 
if not the most, prospermiB of all the 
British colonies. In 1857, the serious 
disputes between the European and 
native population in China, which had 
broken into an open mptore, induced 
the British Government to look oat for 
some able and resolute diplomatist to 
settle matters in that remote quarter of 
the worUi His antecedents at once 
pointed out Lord Elgin as the fittest 
man to act in an intricate case with 
'vigour and discretion. He accordingly 
']>roceeded to the East, arranged the 
difficulties, and procured a treaty which 
gave Britain freer aoeess to China 
than she ever enjoyed before. His task 
was not only delicate, but dangerous ; 
but he fidfilled it, so far as it lay in his 
]>ower, with consummate address and 
skill He regretted not having had the 
r>pportunity of overawing the Chinese 
Government in their capital before re- 
turning to Europe, which he seems to 
have considered absolutely necessary to 
bring them to a true sense of their posi- 
tion v^ath regard to the European powers. 
After the return of the Earl of Elgin to 
Englaml, and on the formation of the 
present ministry, he was appointed Post- 
master-General. Owing to a breach of 
the Chinese treaty, he has again left 
this country for the East, where there 
can be little doubt that decisive mea- 
sures will now be taken to curb the 
insolence of the "Celestials," and to pro- 
tect both the European merchants and 
the native i)roducer8 from the rapacity 
and stu[)i<lity of the ruling power. 

Hon. Edward Law, Earl of, was 
l)orn on 8th of September, 1790. He is 
the son of the celebrated Chief Justice 
of the King^s Bench, and was educated 
at Eton and Cambridge. He succeeded 
to his father's title and estates in 1818. 
In the Wellington ministry he held 
the office of Privy Seal, and in Sir 




Robert Peers govcmment (1835) was 
President of the Board of Control That 

editions. He was the founder and Pre- 
sident of the Phrenological Society ; 

administration existing but a few j President of the Royal Medical and 
months, Lord Ellenborough had no post ! Chirurgical Society of London, and is a 
until 1841, when Sir Robert Peel placeil ' Fellow of the Royal College of Physi- 

hiiii in his old situation. Lord Auck- 
land having been recalled from the 
government of India, Lord Ellenbo- 

cians. In 1837 Dr. Elliotson became a 
convert to Mesmerism, as a curative 
and an anaesthetic agent. The council of 

rough succeeded him, arriving at Cal- ■ University College not concurring with, 
cutta in 1842. He conquered Scinde, j but strongly opposing his views, he 
and reduced Owalior ; but his opponents resigned his situation in 1838. He con- 

accused him of so many eccentricities, 
that the now defunct East India Com- 

tinued to follow his favourite pursuit, at 
great exjiense to himself, and established 

pany recalled him, though contrary to the '^Zoist,'* a journal devoted to mes- 

the wish of the ministry. In 1846 he 
was First Lonl of the Admiralty, but 

merism and phrenology, and extending 
to fifty-two numl)erB. He is the author 

went out with Sir Robert PeeL In of many medical, mesmeric, and meta- 
1858 he once again took charge, under ■ physical writings ; the first chiefly pub- 
Lonl Derby, of Indian affairs, but an I lished in the Transactions of the Royal 
untoward despatch to Lord Canning, Medical and Chirurgical Society, the 

the Governor-General, having become 
public property, such a storm was raised 
as c()mpelle<l him to resign office. Lord 

two last in the **Zoist." 

ELLIS, Mrs. Sarah, formerly Miss 
Stickney, a writer on female education, 

EllenlM)rough is an accomplished orator, ■ was born about the beginning of the 
though somewhat dogmatic in the ex- ' present century, and received her earlier 

pression of his opinions. 

ELLIOTSON, John, ^LD. Cantab., 
F.R.S., was bom in London about the 
close of last century. He studied in the 
Universities of Edinburgh and Cam- 
bridge, his earlier education having )>een 

schooling in a *' friend's" seminary. Her 
first literary effort was a series of do- 
mestic stories, called ** Pictures of Pri- 
vate Life." About the time of her 
marriage with the Rev. Wm. Ellis 
(1837), her mind was strongly directed 

received from private tutors. He attend- to the position of women in modem 
ed the meilical practice of St. Thomas's society, and towards the best means 
and Guy's Hos]>itals for about three for their moral and intellectual improve- 
years, and was elected one of the phy- ' ment. To aid in developing her ideas 

sicians to the former institution. In 
1831 he was appointed Professor of the 
Practice of Medicine in the London 
University, where he l)ecame one of its 
most pojjular and effective of instnictors. 
In 1834 he succeeded in establishing an 
hos])ital in University College, and then 
resigned his api>ointment at St. Tho- 
mas's. His lectures, published in the 
"Lancet'* and "Medical Gazette," 
were universally attractive ; as was his 
translation of Blumenbach's "Physio- 
logy," with notes more vohuninous than 

she wrote and published ** The Women 
of England,'* which was followed by 
"The Daughters," "Wives," and "Mo- 
thers of England." The same tendency 
towards treating her favourite subject — 
the elevation of the female character — 
runs through all her works ; the * * Sons of 
the Soil," "Family Secrets," "Preven- 
tion 1)etter than Cure," "The Education 
of Character," and "Social Distinc- 
tion," being |>erhai)8 the happiest of her 
voluminous productions. 
ELLIS, Rev. William, an English 

the text, a work which reached to five missionary. In 1814 Mr. Ellis became 




connected with the London ]MiB8ionary 
Society. In November 1815 he married 
Biiss Moor, a young huly devoted to 
missionary work, and in the following 
mouth cm1>arked with his newly-mar- 
ried wife at Portsmoutli for the scene of 
their future labours. From the period 
they landed in the South Seas, until 
1824, Mr. and Mrs. Ellis were inces- 
santly engaged in missionary work ; 
and in his ** Polynesian Researches" he 
has emlKKlied the results of his acquaint- 
ance with the condition of the islands, 
and tlie character of the jiopulation. 
Having returned to England, Mr. Ellis 
acted as one of the secretaries of the 
London Missionary Society; and from 
information received from the mission- 
aries, together iivith official documents, 
he preparecl a ** History of Madagascar." 
More recently he has jmblished ** Three 
Visits to Madagascar," a work which is 
highly esteemed, and very i>opular. He 
has als4» written a "History of the 
London Missionary Society," a "Vindi- 
cation of the South Sea Missions," and 
"Village Lectures on Poi)ery." Mrs. 
Ellis died in January, 1835, and in 1837 
Mr. Ellis married Miss Sarah Stickney, 
a lady well known by her works on 
female eilucation. 

ELLIS, Sir Hknry, K.H., a writer, 
and princi])al librarian of the British 
Museum from 1827 to 185(>, was born in 
1777. Amongst his most valuable pub- 
lications is " Original Letters illustrative 
of Englisli History, from Autographs in 
the British Museum, the State Pai)er 
Office, and one or two other sources, 
with Notes and Illustrations." This 
work has brought to light new and 
imiKirtant facts ; and is a most interest- 
ing collection. Sir Henry Ellis has 
also been rejipousi)>le e<litor of an en- 
largc<l edition of Dugdale's "Monasti- 
con Anglicanum," a work of great re- 
search, and has edited, revised, and 
added to numerous publications on Bri- 
tish autiquitieS) and history. The 

"General Introduction to Domesday 
Book" was also one of his successful 

EMERSON, Ralph Waldo, a dis- 
tinguished American writer and s])ecula- 
tist, was bom at Boston about the begin- 
ning of the present century. He 1 >elongs 
to ike transcendental school of philoso- 
phers. Having graduated at the early 
age of eighteen, at Harvard University, 
Mr. Emerson accepted an invitation to 
become the pastor of a Unitarian church, 
in his native city, and during the next 
seven or eight years continued to dis- 
charge the duties of that office. Being 
afterwards severed from his church, ho 
delivered lectures at Boston, devoted 
himself to study, and eventually pub- 
lished a work called "Nature," wherein 
he expressed some peculiar sentiments. 
" Man Thinking " was the next eml>o- 
diment of his special opinions. Called 
in 1838 to dehver an address to the 
senior class in Divinity College, Cam- 
bridge, the "idealistic pantheism" of 
his philosophy was still more fully de- 
veloped : subsequently he addressed the 
same views to literary societies of Dart- 
mouth College, and pnxluced a great 
effect by his orations. Mr. Emerson 
pubhshed the "Dial;" and in 1846 a 
volume of poems. In 1849 Emerson 
visited England, receiving a cordial recep- 
tion from the literary society of London. 
His impressions of things as they are in 
England, the result of that >isit, has nince 
been published in a small volume, en- 
titled "English Traits," not indeed 
wanting in mannerism, but singidarly 
fair, and justly appreciative. A col- 
lected edition of Emerson's works has 
been published in England, but his in- 
fluence u]>ou the British mind has been 
comparatively limited. This circum- 
stance is {>erhap8 accounted for by the 
fact that he is more an interpreter of 
Coleridge and Carlyle, than an original 
ENCKE, JoHAKN F., an eminent 




German astronomer, was bom 23rd Sep- 
tember, 1791, at Hamburg. In early life 
he was counecteil with military matters 
iu the Prussian service, but having a taste 
for astronomy, he eventually devoted him- 
self to the Htudy of that sublime science. 
He is most known in connexion with his 
researches respecting the comet of Pons, 
n(»w calletl after him, whose ])eriod of 
revolution he has lixed at 1,200 days; 
and also by his calculations of the dis- 
tance of the earth from the sun. He 
also 8i>eculateil on the existence of an 
ether as the cause of comets not re-ap- 
I>eariug at their calculated time. These 
labours have secured for Mr. Encke 
a great reputation among German 
astronomers. He was ai)iM)inted joint- 
director of the Oliservatory at (iotha, 
whence he was called to Berlin as 
StHjretary of the Academy of iSciences 
an<l Director of the Observatory. He 
was also entrusted with the publication 
of the astronomical almanacs. He pub- 
lishes rcgidarly an account of the astro- 
nomical ol>Mervations made at Berhn. 

ENFAXTIN, Barthelemv Pkusper, 
a French ^Mlitician and sociid reformer, 
wiw }H)ni at Paris, on the 8th Febmar}% 
IVMt. He was admitted to tlie Poly- 
technic School in 1813, and was one of 
tlie ]>upils who, in March 1814, offered 
such a determined resistance, at the 
Barrii>rc du TrOne, to the allied armies. 
The school having been bn)ken up he 
lost all chance of promotion iu the army, 
and in 18*21 entered a l>anking establish- 
ment. In lS2o he adopted the prin- 
ciples of the iSt. iSimonians, and stxin 
afterwards endeavoured to disseminate 
his opinions on social qucKtiouH in the 
cohmiiis of the "Productcur," a journal 
which he and some of Ids friends set on 
f<K>t. He and his fellow-lalx^urers toile<l 
zealously to place the doctrines of social 
refonn, and the "rehgiou of thought,'* 
on a timi basis. The conversion of the 
hulies was one of hia esi>ecial objects. 
Neither he nor his friends desired any 

profit from these exertions. Enfantin, 
indeed, lost his whole imtrimony, and 
was ultimately prosecuted as an enemy 
to public morals, and condemned, in 
1832, to a year's imprisonment. This 
sentence had the effect of disi>erBing the 
St Simonians. After a confinement of 
a few months Enfantin was lil)erated, 
and proceeded with some of his followers 
to Egypt. There they remained for three 
years, studying carefidly the Suez canal 
])roject8, and the embankments of the 
Nile. From 1839 to 1842 Enfantin was 
a Member of the Scientific Commission 
of Algeria. After his return to France, 
in 1845, alMwdoning his earlier social 
projects, he was ai)iK)iuted to carry 
through the amalgamation of the I'aris 
and Lyons, Lyons and Avignon, and the 
Nord and Strasburg Railways, He is 
now acting manager of the Paris, 
Lyons and Mediterranean Railway, and 
Manager of the General Water Comjiany 
at Paris. 

EOTVOS, Josef, was bom at Of en, 
on the 3rd September, 1813. After en- 
joying the instnicti<mM of a private tutor, 
Eotvos was sent to a public school, and de- 
voted himself to the study of his native 
language, of which he is the first living 
writer. Eotvos commenced his literary 
career by a translation of Goethe's 
*'Goetz von Berlichingen," followed, in 
183.'{, }>y two original cometlies, and a 
trage<ly, which were highly successful 
After travelling in 183G in Germany, 
Switzerland, France, and England, he 
returnetl to Hungary, and etUted a work, 
the proceeds of which were given to the 
relief of the sufferers from an inundation 
at Pesth. * * The Carthusian, " a novel, was 
contributcil to by him. Entering the 
Hungarian diet, the novelist soon distin- 
guished himself in the arena of jKilitics. 
In 1841) owing to family losses, Eotvoe, 
from occupying one of the first iXMitions 
in Hungarian society, was suddenly 
2>lunged into i)overty. Eotvos, despite 
of temptation, remained faithful to the 




national cause, and rather than sacrifice 
hia priui'ipleM, 2>referreil to seek a subsist- 
eaw ill the hilMUirs of his pen. In pur- 
suance of this resolution, the ** Village 
Notary " was produced. This work was 
folio wetl by a romance entitled * * Hungary 
in 1514." In 1848 Eotvos accepted the 
post of Minister of Public Instruction in 
the Batthyani administration, but the 
stormy course of events that shortly fol- 
lowed was ill suited to his feelings and 
character, and he retired to Bavaria, de- 
voting himnelf to the preparation of a 
work on the ** Influence of the Leading 
Ideas of the Nineteenth Century on the 

ESPARTERO, Don Baldomero, 
Duke of Vittorta, was bom February 
27, 1792, at Crrauatula, in the old province 
of La Mancha. Having received a good 
education, in 1806 he was sent to the 
University of Almagro, and entered the 
army as a volunteer to opi)ose the French 
invaders of Spain, in 1808. In a httle 
more than a year from the time he had 
adopted the i»rof ession of arms, he entere<l 
a military school at Cadiz, acquiring a 
complete acquaintance with military 
science and tactics, and from 1811 to 
1814 he continually advanced his posi- 
tion in the anny. In the following year 
he procee<led to South America under 
General Morillo, to defend the $|)anish 
provinces against (reneral Bolivar and 
his companions in rebellion. After an 
adventurous ten years i)asse<l in South 
America, Esi)artero returned to Spain 
in Noveml)er, 1825, enriched, and 
married tlie daughter of a wealthy 
Spanish proi)rietor. On the outbreak 
of the civil war, when the death of 
FenlinaiKl VII. left the Salic law to be 
a bone of contention (1833), Espartero 
quickly rose to the chief command of 
tiie Queen's troops. For his services 
against Don Carlos, he was created a 
Grandee of the First Class, with the 
title of Duke of Vittoria. On the 
usurpation of the regency by the Queen- 

mother, EsiMutero was appointed Regent 
of Si»ain. For two years after this 
apjMintment he continued to i>erform 
the duties of that office, and governed 
the country weU and wisely; but the 
Queen-mother, incessantly engaged in 
attempts to grasp at power which she 
could only use for evil, had made a 
^Mirty which sought to restore her in- 
fluence. OverthroHTi by this con8i)iracy 
against his authority, Esi>artero retired 
to London. He, the only true jmtriot 
Spain has had for a century, was de- 
creed a traitor, and deprived of his 
dignities. For alx»ut six years he lived 
a quiet and retired life, but parties grew 
too numerous in Spain for the safety of 
the throne, and in the peq>lexity of the 
time the Queen and the C-imstitution- 
alists could fix u|K)n but one man cai>a- 
ble of extricating the nation from its 
troubles, and the Duke of Vittoria was 
the man. Having returned to Spain, 
Espartero was again i)laced at the head 
of the government in 1854, and con- 
tinued to occupy that position for two 
years, when, through intrigues, his re- 
signation was necessitatetL The con- 
stitutional minister gave place to 
despotism and O'Donnell, one of those 
men whom tlie wicked fear, and the 
good dare not trust. From an humble 
I>osition Elsx^artero raised O'Donnell to a 
high position, made him a bosom friend 
and took him into his confidence. On 
the first opiwrtunity O'Donnell intrigued 
to overthrow his patron. In most respects 
Espartero stands out as a noble exception 
to those who have lately been the ad- 
visers of the SiMinish crown. 

ESPINASSE, Esprit Charles Ma- 
RIE, a French general, was l>om on the 
2iid of April, 1815, at Saissac, in the 
dei>artment of the Aude. He entered 
the Military School of St Cyr in 1833, 
and gained his first pn)motions in Al- 
geria. As Chief of Battalion in 1845, he 
commanded the Zouaves; in Jidy, 
1851, was a Colonel; in 1852 General of 




Brigade, and Aide-de-Camp to the Em- 
peror. When war was declared against 
Russia, he cc»mmanded a brigade of the 
first diviifion of the army of the East. 
He distinguished himself at the Tcher- 
na3~a, and at the assault on the Mala- 
koff. and in 18^5 was advanced to the 
rank of General of Division. In 1858 
he was called to be Minister of the In- 
terior, a iKtsition which, however, he did 
not long retain. 

EUGfcNIE, Empress of tite Frexch, 
•bom at Granada, May 5^ 1826, is the 
second (laughter of the Count of Montijos, 
her mother being of Scottish descent. 
Having l)een educated i)artly in France 
and EngLind, she vinited Paris in 1851, 
and by her grace and ))eauty attracted 
great attention. Amongst her admirers 
was the Emi)eror, to whom she was 
eventually marrie<l on the 30th January, 
1853, the ceremony Innng perfonned 
amidst the splendour which the rank of 
all parties demanded. Her Majesty has 
become the mother of a son, on whom 
the hopes of the imperial family are 
centre<L She has accompanied the 
£mi>eror in most of his journeys, and 
with him visited Queen Victoria at 
London in 1855. She is highly esteemetl 
for her kind and amiable disposition by 
all cl;i<ises in France. 

EVANS, Lteittexant-Genkral Sir 
Dk Lacv, G.C.B., M.P., a native of 
Ireland, was Iwm in 1787. In 1807 he 
became ensign in the 22nd Regiment of 
Foot, with which he servc<l tliree years 
in JnrUa. In 1812 he joined the 3nl 
Light Dragoons, serving with them 
during the campaign of the Peninsula, 
and taking part in the chief actions of 
the war. In 1814 he served in the 5th 
West India Regiment as brevet lieu- 
tenant-col* m el, and was present at the 
capture of Washington, the attack on Bal- 
timore, and the operations l)efore New 
Orleans. Returning to England early in 
1815, he took part in the l)attle8 of 
Quatre Bras and Waterloo. In 1835 he , 

l>ecame commander of the Spanish Le- 
gion, and again distinguished himself by 
his genius and bravery on the soil of the 
Peninsula. In 1831 General Evans was 
electwl a member of the House of Com- 
mons. Having lost his seat for Rye, in 
1833 he was chosen for Westminster. 
It was while in Parliament for this 
borough, that he was offered the com- 
man<l of the Spanish Legion already 
alluded to, which he accepted, with the 
sanction of his constituents. In this 
jMMition his difficulties can scarcely be 
over-estimated ; he and his legion were 
of great service to the Queen^s cause, 
and, as usual in Spanish matters, were 
treated with ingratitude. He was 
promoted to the rank of Major-General 
in 184(). In 1854 he was a]){>ointed to 
the command of the second division of 
the army in the East, with the rank of 
Lieutenant-General. At Alma and In- 
kermann he behaved with great gallan- 
try. On his return to England he received 
the thanks of the House of Commons, and 
was honoured with the Grand Cross of the 
Bath. Sir De Lacy Evans' military career 
has l>een as varied as it is extensive. 
India, the Peninsula, America, Waterloo, 
and the Crimea, are the witnesses of his 
genius and his valour. As a i)olitician 
he has been a consistent LiberaL 

EVERETT, Edward, D.C.L., was 
l>om in April, 1794, at Dorchester, near 
Boston, United States, and in 1811 
graduated at Harvard University. After 
having stuclidl law for some time, he 
abandoned it for theology. Succeeding 
the Rev. J. S. Buckminster, he fuUy 
sustained his already high reputation. 
His health failing, in 1815 he exchanged 
his pastoral office for that of Professor of 
(5 reek in Harvard University. Having 
received |)ermission to visit Euroi)e, Mr. 
Everett came to England, where he con- 
tinued for a short time, when he pro- 
cee<led to Giittingen, in order to study 
the (jlerman language and literature, and 
methods of instruction. Having visited 




Paris, Rome, Greece, and Turkey, after 
an absence of five years he returned to 
America, and in 1820 became the editor 
of ** The North American Review,*' 
which, by his exertions, obtained a high 
position in literature. The prominent 
part which Mr. Everett had taken in 
political affairs in the United States in- 
duced General Harrison, when he became 
President of the United States, to nomi- 
nate him minister to the English 
Court, a post which he held for five 
years with the highest honour to him- 
self and government. It was during 
this official residence in England, that 
Oxford be8t<jwe<l upon him the de- 
gree of D.C.L. On returning home, 
Mr. Everett was elected President of 
Harvard University. Having resigned 
this office in 1849, from ill health, he 
remained without any si)ecific appoint- 
ment until 1853, when he was elected a 
meml>er of the Senate of Massachusetts. 
Mr. Everett holds the highest position as 
a scholar and an orator. He has retired 
into private life, owing to the dehuate 
state of his health. 

EXETER, Henry Phillpotts, Bi- 
shop OP, leader of the High Church 
party in the Church of England, was 
born in 1777. He studied at Oxford; 
was M.A. in 1798, and D.D. in 1821. 
He was first rector of Stanhope, and 
then chaplain to the Bishop of Dur- 
ham. It was well understixHl, at the 
time, that he was appointed to the See 
of Exeter (1830), as a reward for the 
vigoK)U8 support he gave the Duke of 
Wellington's government on the ques- 
tion of Roman Catholic Emancijuition, 
the year before. He was, at one time, a 
keen controversialist, and an indefatiga- 
ble pamphleteer ; whilst in the House of 
Lords he api>eared in the light of an eccle- 
siastical L(tn\ Brougham, for energy, fire, 
and independence. It may be remarked 
as a singular circumstance, that he was 
bom in the same house as wasWhitefield, 
the eminent dissenting minister. 

FAED, Thomas, a painter, was born, 
in 182G, at Burley Mill, near Gatehouse 
of Fleet, Kirkcudbrightshire. Shortly 
before his father's death, in 1843, he com- 
menced his studies as an artist, under 
the careful eye of his eldest brother, 
then a miniature painter in Edinbiu'gh, 
and now one of the leading artists in 
Scotland. He was for some time one 
of Sir William Allan's pupils, labouring 
with unremitting zeal, and gaining 
prizes at every competition in the School 
of Design. After being chosen an Asso- 
ciate of the Royal Scottish Academy 
(1849), and painting the often engraved 
and well-known jncture, "Sir Walter 
Scott and his friends, at Abl)otsford," 
Mr. Faed settled in London, in 1852, 
and rose rapidly in public estimation. 
In 1855 he painted the " Mitherless 
Bairn," which elicited the atlmiration of 
critics and connoisseurs. *'Home and 
the Homeless," " Conquered but not 
Subdued," "First Break in the Family," 
"List'ners Hear nae Gude o' Them- 
sels," and "Sunday in the Backwooils," 
are noble pictures, overflowing with 
genius, as well in com|)Osition as in 

FAIRBAIRN, William, a civil en- 
gineer and machinist, was bom at Kelso, 
in 1789, and brought up as a mechanic 
in the vicinity of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
In 1817 he commenced business in Man- 
chester in partnership with Mr. Lillie, 
and the firm soon rose into the very 
foremost position in the tnule of that 
city; and when this partnership was 
dissolved, Mr. Fairbaim continued the 
business. About the year 1830 or 
1831, he made various trials as to the 
shai)e of vessels, and employed a small 
iron vessel for that purpose. The suc- 
cess of the exx>eriments emboldened the 
experimenter, and by 1836 he ventured 
on the construction of iron vessels of 
considerable tonnage. He was one of 
the earliest members of the British 
Association for the Advancement of 




Science, to which he has contributed 
■ome valuable papers on engineering 
subjects. His practical knowledge has 
been employed in assisting some of the 
largest constructions, one of these being 
the bridge over the Menai Straits for 
the Chester and Holyhead Railway, and 
his experiments on the strength of iron 
are highly valued. Mr. Fairbaim has 
occasionally made his a])pearaneo in the 
lecture-room, discoursing upon engineer- 
ing and other matters in a lucid manner. 
Ho is a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
and a corre8[X)nding member of the 
National Institute of France. 

FARADAY, Michael, an eminent 
chemist and electrician, was bom in Lon- 
don in 1791, and from a comparatively 
obscure origin, has by his own unaided 
genius obtaiDed a position as one of the 
most noted philosophers of Europe. 
Whilst working at a Ixxikbinder's he 
was by accident introduced to a gentle- 
man, who, i)crceiving his abilities, ena- 
bled him to attend some of Sir Hum- 
]>hrey Davy's lectures at the Royal 
Institution. To these young Fanulay 
jKiid the dee]>est attention ; and by for- 
warding Sir Humphrey the notes he 
had taken, he thus became acqiminted 
with that well-known chemist. This 
circumstance laid the foundation of his 
future fame. Young Faraday, disgusted 
with trade, which he considered as 
'* vicious and selfish," already asjiired 
to devote himself to science. Having 
communicated his longings to the great 
chemist, through his goo<l offices he 
o}}tained, in March 1813, the post of 
assistant in the laboratory of the 
Royal Institution. Sir Humphrey, 
however, ad\nsed him not to give 
u]> the prospects ho ha<l beiorc him, 
as ' * {Science was a harsh mistress, and 
in a pecuniary point of view, l>ut 
poorly rewanling those who devoted 
themselves to her ser>'ice." In the au- 
tumn of the same year he went abroad 
with Sir Humphrey Davy ; and return- 

ing in the spring of 1815, resomed his 
labours at the Institution, where he has 
ever since remained. Dr. Faraday*a 
discoveries have raised him to a fore- 
most place among that crowd of illus- 
trious investigators of physical science 
that adorn our age. His distinguished 
merits have been long since acknow- 
ledged by nearly every learned body in 
Europe. In 18.32 the University of Ox- 
ford named him D.C.L. His best known 
works are— (1) *' Chemical Manipula- 
tion," the third edition of which was 
published in 1842; (2) ** Experimental 
Researches in Electricity;" (3) **Six 
Lectures on the Non-MetaUic Ele- 
ments," edited by Dr. ScoflTem. 1853; 
and (4) ** Six Lectures on the Various 
Forces of Matter," edited by William 
CYookes, F.C.S. 

FAZY, Jean Jaiie», bom at Geneva, 
in May 17%, is descended from a French 
Protestant family, exiled after the revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes. He studied 
in Paris, and early became a writer on 
Iioliticai economy. His works, up to 
1840, indicated that he |)ref erred the 
material interests of society to specula- 
tive or theoretical politics. In July, 
18^10, he was appointed principal editor 
of *'La Revolution;" when he signed 
the protest of the journalists against the 
ordonnances of Charles X. He opposed, 
HuliHcquently, the candidature of Louis- 
Philippe, and after that King's acces- 
sion M. Fazy embraceil the side of the 
Railical op|>osition. His views were of 
a character so violent that he was even- 
tually obliged to reliuquiyh the manage- 
ment of the ** Revolution ;" and he 
then established the ** Revue R6publi- 
cainc." But the many miscarriages of 
the democratic party, the difficulties 
of the position he had taken, the dis- 
couragement of Latitte and La Fayette, 
together with other causes, decided him 
to leave France, and change the field of 
his activity and his ambition. As a 
Genevan he was noted for his patriotism. 




Id 1833 lie was QMrkcil as the hciul of the 

[diilusophicHl nuliculH, hftvingloDg lief ore 
rewli^ri'd liiinsvlf uuDBtiicuuiu. He then 
fouruliHl tbu "Itfavue de livn^ve," and 
ia lS41,urgiuiiziug a Radical committee, 
ho iDitiaUtl k revolutitmaiy agitAtiun. 
Hia lalHiiim were iiiceB«uit ; and he 
took liart in alaioat oJl the piditical 
movemcota »E tbo tiuit;. lu the diacua- 
siuns uf lS4(i, iiu tha Bubject 
JesuitH. 1)ctH'i.'cn thc.> Fruteatiuit 
RoQian Catliolic Cantons, the Sta 
oil ol>aervfd a neutrality that ' 
eueil the banila of tbe Sondm 
policy whielideeiily irritated M. 
the Ruilicala. iiad which lod I 
dcmonstratiun of tha ]iopular w 
atroincd the Council to lay . 
power. On the fuUowing day- 
9th-— a Provisional Govenun 
formeil, M. Fozy being ita c 
exercLtcd very conHidenible i 
and the Canton of (.itucva wiu .u^v/..^ 
those wbicli, in 1848, adopted the new 
Federal Contititution. M. Teay oon- 
tjuued to moiotnui his repuUicao opi- 
nioua, adviicatiug them through his 
journal, |>rouhuniing bis Bymjiatby with 
all uatioiu whieh then demanded hberty 
and inilc|"eniUnce. The reaction of, 
1S49 modified his language, however, if 
not bis ideas. He renuuned a memlier , 
of the Siati! Council of Geneva, and 
was elected its President, heing at tbe 
same time a member of tbe Federal 
Assembly. He took an imgiortant part 
relative to the affaire of Neufchatel, 
zealously supiwrting Swiss nationahty. 

FEUDISANDIV. (Salvator Marie 
JosEFU Jean Baptists Luuu Gomaga 
Rai'HAEL Renia Jamvia), ex-Grand 
Duke of Tuscany, Imjierial Prince and 
Arcbduke i>f Austria, and Prince of 
Hungary and Bohemia, was bom on tbe 
lUth of June, 1835, and succeeded to a 
nominal tliroiie, on the abdication of his 
father, ou tbe Slat July, 18S9, con- 
sequent upon the French invaairai of 
Lombordy, and the war wiged by the 

' Fjuperor Napoleon IIL for the "idea" 
(if the enfranchisement of Italy. It is 
understood (hat the Grand Duke, whoae 
subjeiite sternly refuse to recognise him, 
has token refuge in the armins of hia 
relative, fricuil, and patron, the Em- 
peror of Austria. 

FEBGUSSON, James, an architect 
and aichfeologict, was born at Ayr, in 
IT 1808, and received his educa- 
-. tbe High School of Edinburgh, 
ichool he went into tho countiug- 
ond thonce to be poctDer in a 
neroautile estakliBhmeDt, where 
luntjnt moi« engaged bis attention 
be Arts. After having devoted 
'. during four years, to commercial 
a in Holland and London, Mr. 
son proceeded to India in 1829, 
I an indigo planter, and subse- 
r 01 partner of a firm in Calcutta. 
:rwards returned to England, hav- 
...,^ .u^lizdd a fipitune, and hon jiubliahed 
the first volume of an " Iliatorioal 
Inquiry into tbe True Princijiles of 
Beauty in Art, more especially with 
reference to Architecture," and subse- 
quently the "Ulustrated Handbook of 
Architecture. " Mr. Fergusson has since 
produced a work on Fortification, in 
which he reconunonda the employment 
of earthworks instead of masonry, and 
a larger develoiiment of artillery-fire 
. for defence than had [irev{<iuBly been 
thought of, and illustrated bis proposals 
at the Exhibition of 1851 by a modeL 
His theory, as a matter of course, was 
ridicided by military martinets ; but 
tbe prolonged defence of Sebastopol by 
earthworks has taught greater respect 
for his opinions. He is erudite, reflec- 
tive, and suggestive, and all his worka 
indicate minute and judicious research. 
FIELDS, James T., an American poet, 
bum at Portsmouth, New Hampehire, 
in 1820, is chiefly known in Europe 
from his being a partner in the cele- 
brated publishing and bookselling honae 
of licknor and Field*, Boston. Mr, 




Fields is, however, regarded in his own 
country as an excellent critic, and he 
has edited numerous poetical works, 
besides writing poems himself, which 
are characterised by natural sentiment 
and refined expression. A volume of 
his poems was published at Boston, in 
1849. He also printed, in 1858, a vol- 
ume entitled ** A Few Verses for a Few 
Friends.*' A collected edition of his 
compositions has been published. 

FILLMORE, Millard, ex-President 
of the United States, was bom on the 
7th January, 1800, at Summer Hill, 
New York. His father was a small 
farmer, and the son's education was 
therefore limited. He was sent, at the 
age of fourteen, to Livingston County, 
to learn the trade of a tailor, and was 
then apprenticed to a wool-carder and 
cloth-dresser. His heart was fixed on 
supplying his educational defects, and 
with this view he for some time 
kept a schooL Rising gradually, but 
slowly, he studied law, got into practice, 
in 1829 was elected member of the 
State Assembly, and in 1832 sent to 
Congress. He rcsimied his profession 
in 1835; but was again returned to 
Congress in 1837, where he continued 
till 1843. He soon took a distinguished 
position at the bar ; in 1847 was elected 
Comptroller of the State of New York, 
and in 1848 Vice-President of the 
United States by the Whigs, General 
Taylor being President. The death of 
the General put Mr. FiUmore in posses- 
sion of the presidental chair, July 9th, 
1850. His constitutional term of office 
expired on the 3rd of March, 1853; 
and though he had many ardent friends, 
he took no steps towards a re-election. 
Li 1854 he made the tour of the United 
States ; and in 1855 and 1856 travelled 
through the continent of Europe, and 
while at Rome was nominated by the 
American |>arty for the Presidency, but 
was not elected. He has now with- 
drawn from politics. 

FOLEY, John Henry, RA, a 
sculptor, was born in Dublin, in 1818. 
At an early age he studied modelling 
in the schools of the Royal Dublin So- 
ciety of Art ; went to London in 1834, 
and became a student of the Royal 
Academy, where he was distinguished 
for his talent and industry. The mo- 
del of ** Innocence," and the ** Death 
of Abel," exhibited in 1839, were his 
first works of mark. His **Ino and 
Bacchus," a work of great beauty, 
brought his name prominently before 
the public in 1840. His next works 
of note were the " Houseless Wan- 
derer," and **A Youth at a Stream." 
The latter, in conjunction with the 
group of ** Ino and Bacchus," exhi- 
bited in competition at Westminster 
Hall, in 1844, obtained for him an 
appointment to execute works for the 
New Houses of Parliament ; the results 
of this commission being the well- 
known statues of Hamjiden and Sel- 
den, erected in St. Stephen's HaU. In 
1851 his group of ** The Mother" was 
produced ; and since that time, the sta- 
tues of **Egeria" and ** Caractacus,'* 
for the Egyptian Hall in the Mansion 
House. These works have helped to 
extend Mr. Foley's reputation in an 
eminent degree; but his greatest pro- 
duction is an equestrian statue of the 
late Viscount Hardinge, erected at Cal- 
cutta. This statue has been considered, 
by the most eminent artists of the day, 
to be "one of the finest works of 
sculpture of modem times," and they 
have united in signing and presenting 
to Mr. Foley a testimonial to that effect, 
at the same time recommending a dupli- 
cate of the work to be secured for erec- 
tion on some public site in London. 

FONBLANQUE, Albany, formerly ed- 
itor of the * * London Examiner, " was bom 
in 1797. This eminent journalist has of 
late years been withdrawn from the news- 
])a|)er world, by his ap|>ointment as S^ 
I tistical Secretary to the Board of Tra 




Mr. Fonblanque was originally intended 
for the bar ; but directing his atten- 
tion to the political questions of the 
day, he sent some articles to the *' Ex- 
aminer/' which were so well received 
that he gave up law and took to the 
press. His style was brilliant, polished, 
and yet caustic — a mingling of Addison 
and Sheridan with Swift and Cobbett. 
Ultimately he l>ecame the editor of that 
journal, and his services to the liberal 
cause were such, that he was appointed 
to his present office at the Board of 
Trade. The only book that bears his 
name is "England under Seven Ad- 
ministrations,*' which is simply a re- 
print of leading articles published from 
time to time in the '* Examiner." 

FORBES, Sir John, M.D., an Eng- 
lish physician, was born in 1787, at 
Cuttlebrae, Banffshire. He studied, in 
the first instance, at the Marischal 
College, Al)erdeen, and graduated at 
Edinburgh, as M.D., in the year 1817. 
He practised for some time in Penzance, 
Cornwall, then at Chichester, from 
which he removed to Loudon. Ho was 
the first amongst English medical prac- 
titioners to recognise the importance 
and value of pliysical diagnosis as a 
means of detecting diseases of the heart 
and limgs. Dr. Fc»r1)es has drawn at- 
tentitm to the Milue of auscultation, and 
was one of the fouuders of the British 
Me<lical Association. As editor of the 
** British .and Foreign Medico-Chirurgi- 
cal Review," Sir John did much to 
elevate tlie tone of the literature of the 
profession ; unfortunately, however, it 
was not suecessfid in a i»ecuniary sense, 
although it greatly enhanced his re- 
putation. He was aj)pointed Phy- 
sician in Ordinary to Her Majesty's 

has taken a deq> interest in the diffu- 
sion of knowledge, and in the improve- 
ment of education. 

FORREST, Edwin, a tragedian, was 
bom in Philadelphia, on the 9th Marcli, 
1806. He was early trained to the stage ; 
at twelve years of age he played one or 
two minor parts in his native city, and 
at thirteen appeared there as ** Young 
Norval," two years afterwards entering 
upon his first regular engagement with 
Jones and Collins, managers of the 
Western Circuit. After several years 
of professional vicissitudes, he retume<l 
from the Backwoods to the Atlantic 
States, and in 1826, at Albany, he 
played second to Kean. In 1827 he 
first appeared in New York, in the cha- 
racter of *' Othello," and was haile<l as 
a powerful and true interpreter of Shak- 
spcare. After performing several years 
in the princii)al cities of the United 
States, gaining new laurels everywhere, 
he visited Europe, in 1834 Preceded 
by a high reputation, he received offers 
to play in London, which he declined ; 
his visit being one of study and oltser- 
vation. In 1836 he retiuTied to his 
native country, and resumed his profes- 
sion. The same year he received new 
|)ro])06als from London, which he ac- 
cepted, and in Noveml)er a])[>eareil at 
Drury Lane, as "Sjiartacus," and next 
as "Othello." His gigantic frame, 
deep sonorous voice, antl a truly original 
conception of the Shak8})earian ])arts 
he embodieil, made him tlie lion of the 
season. Revisiting England in 184o, 
the applause which greeted his first ap- 
I)earance was revoked in some quarters, 
more from jealous feeling, it is said, than 
from any other cause. In 1837 he mar- 
rieil, in London, a daughter of Mr. John 

household, and Pliysician Extraonli- Sinclair, the vocalist, from whom lie 
nary to His Royal Highness Prince separated in 1849. He has for some 
All)ert, with the honour of knighthoixl, time, from ill health, been unable to re- 
in 1853, and was elected a Fellow of the sume his professional avocations. 

Royal Society, and created a D.C. L 
by the University of Oxford. Sir John 

FORSTER, John, an English jour- 
nalist and essay writer, was born at 




Newcastle, in 1812. Having received 
an excellent preliminaiy education, Mr. 
Forster completed his studies at London 
University. He and his fellow-students 
commenced a work called the *' London 
University Magazine." In 1834 Mr. 
Forster wrote for the ** Examiner," of 
which he afterwards became the sole 
editor. As a journalist, Mr. Forster 
has long worked in a wide field of use- 
fulness, and has never failed to exhibit 
a generous appreciation of merit. His 
"Lives of the Statesmen of the English 
Commonwealth" has been highly 
praised. Peculiarly exact in matters of 
fact, teeming with the best information 
respecting the men and the times of 
which it treats, remarkable for energy 
and grace of style, this work is at once 
one of the most useful and attractive 
memorials of that memorable epoch, 
when " the crown of England hung on 
a bush, and Cromwell sat on an ungar- 
nished throne." Since this original 
publication Mr. Forster has given the 
literary world the most delightful and 
the most erudite ** Life of Oliver Gold- 
smith" that has yet appeared. The 
publication of this work involved Mr. 
Forster in a controversy with another 
of Goldsmith's biographers, Mr. Prior, 
who sought to show that Forster had 
purloined lus facts. Li this controversy 
Prior forgot the old adage, **the tools 
are for those who can use them." The 
biographic genius of Forster had given a 
life and beauty to the sterile collection 
of dry-as-dust detail which Prior had 
brought together. It was impossible, 
after what had been done with respect 
to Goldsmith's memoirs, that different 
biographers should not traverse much 
ground in common. But though that 
was inevitable, Mr. Forster succeeded 
in showing that he needed not, in his 
intellectual opulence, to plunder the 
scanty treasury of Prior. The elaborate 
and valuable illustrative . notes, with 
which the Life of Goldsmith abounds. 

render the work at once most delightful 
and instructive. In addition to these 
independent contributions to literature 
and history, Mr. Forster has written 
some able articles in the Edinburgh and 
Quarterly Reviews. These articles have 
recently been collected and republished, 
with a new and elaborate paper on the 
Grand Remonstrance of 1641, in two 
volumes of Historical and Biographical 
Essays. Mr. Forster has also very re- 
cently published a volume upon the 
" Arrest of the Five Members by Ghailes 
the First." In 1856 he was appointed 
Secretary to the Lunacy Commission — • 
an office for which he possesses every 
mental fitness and legal qualification. 
Few men enjoy in so large a degree the 
esteem and confidence of those who 
know them best, as does the author of 
the ** Statesmen of the English Com- 
monwealth." That chivalrous honour 
which he has so well described as ani- 
mating the stem Republican of the 
seventeenth century, is his own guiding 
star ; its brightest influence is shed over 
his character, and on every occasion 
where the weight of his name has been 
evoked, it has been to achieve some 
Doble or beneficent purpose. 

FORTUNE, Robert, a botanist and 
author, was bom in the county of Ber- 
wick, in 1813. Being the son of a 
border farmer, his early education was 
confined to what he could glean in a 
parish schooL His taste for horticul- 
ture was strongly manifested when he 
was a mere youth ; and eventually he 
was engaged as an assistant in the 
Botanical Gardens at Edinburgh. He de - 
voted his leisure to the study of Botany, 
attending the classes of the professor of 
that branch of science. His progress in 
his profession^ was rapid; and soon at- 
tracting notice, his services were sought 
for Chiswick Gardena There he in- 
creased his knowledge of botany and his 
already extensive acquaintance with ^^'^ 
species of plants. In 1842 the Boi 




Society of London ap|K>inted him col- 
lector of plants in North China, then for 
the first time opened to European ex|)lo- 
rations. Mr. Fortune fulfilled his mis- 
sion with sagacity and zeal, wandering 
through many districts of the empire 
hitherto unknown to Europeans, and 
making himself well acquainted with 
Chinese life, without in any instance 
neglecting the main purpose of his tra- 
vels and researches. After a three 
years' sojourn in the ** flowery land," 
during which he collected and sent home 
a magnificent collection of botanical 
specimens, he returned to England, and 
in 1847 published a very interesting and 
valua})le account of his travels, .under 
the title of *' Three Years' Wanderings 
in China." He was then appointed Cu- 
rator of the Physic Garden at Chelsea, 
an office in which he gave the greatest 
satisfaction, and remained in the situa- 
tion until the East India Company re- 
quested him to procee<l once more to the 
East, to j>ur8ue investigations regarding 
the tea plant He left England in 1848, 
and only returned in 1851, when he ar- 
ranged the results of his observations, 
publishing in 1852 his ** Two Visits to 
the Tea Countries of Cliina." Soon 
after the issue of this work he left Eng- 
land for China for the third time, and 
he has since laid before the world the 
fruit of his investigations in a work en- 
titled **A Residence among the Chinese: 
Inland, on the Coast, and at Sea." 

FOULD, AcHiLLE, a French states- 
man, was bom at Paris, in October 1800. 
He is the son of a wealthy Jewish 
banker, who died in 1855. After leaving 
the LycCe Charlemagne, where he was 
educated, he travelled in Italy and the 
East In 1842 he entered on political 
life, when he entered the Chamber as 
deputy for Turbes. Having early turned 
his attention to the study of economical 
questions, his opinions on taxation, 
finances, and general as well as special 
imposts, were always received with 

respect, frequently as authoritative, by 
the Chamber. He took an active part 
in the discussions of all questions relating 
to social and political economy, and to 
the improvement of the agriculture and 
commerce of the country. In 1844 he 
was nominated Reporter for the Com- 
mission appointed to inquire into the 
operation of the Stamp Duty on News- 
papers ; and in general he sup]K>rted the 
foreign policy of M. Guizot On the 
occurrence of the Revolution of 1848 
M. Fould accepted the change as an 
accomplished fact, and his counsel and 
advice were placed at the service of the 
Provisional Government. At the elec- 
tions of July ho was returned to the 
Constituent Assembly, as repreaoutative 
for the Seine ; and about that period he 
published two brochures on the assig- 
nats, expressing the danger likely to 
bo incurred by adopting the monetary 
propositions of the parties then in ])ower. 
His remarks in the Assembly on nu- 
merous points connected with the 
finances, gained him not only the esteem 
but the confidence of a large majority 
of that body ; and he was, as a matter 
of necessity, nominated on the various 
commissions planned by government to 
regulate the internal affairs of the 
country. Under the ])rc8idency of Louis 
Napoleon he laboured to obtain and con- 
firm the confidence of capitalists, and 
proposed several measures calculated to 
efiect that end, subsequently preparing 
a considerable number of projects of law 
chiefly tending to modify the pressure of 
existing imposts. Finally, he projected 
the Bank of Algiers, and promoted the 
laws on civil pensions, the establishment 
of the penitentiary colony at Cayenne, 
and some important reforms in the com- 
mercial code, though he still adhered to 
the system of protective impoiit duties. 
Though there occasionally arose difier- 
ences between M. Fould and the Presi- 
dent, these were not of such a character 
as to prevent him, in Becember 1851, 




from acting as Mimster of Finance, but 
be resigned in January, 1852. On tbe 
25tb of the latter month be was created 
Senator, and shortly afterwards was 
recalled to power as a Minister of State. 
In this capacity be advanced various 
measures of imjwrtance, and was consti- 
tuted a Commander of tbe Legion of 
Honour in December. He was one of 
the Directors of the Paris Exhibition in 
1855, and from 1853 to 1857 much of 
bis time, attention, and judgment were 
taken up with the completion of tbe new 
Louvre. M. Fould is warmly attached 
to tbe Fine Arts. 

FOX, W. J., a politician and M.P. 
for Oldham, was bom near Wrentham, 
in Suffolk, in 1786. Although of obscure 
origin, his talents procured him a good 
education at the College belonging to 
the Independents at Homerton, but 
be subsequently embraced Unitarian 
opinions, and officiated as pastor of the 
Unitarian Chapel, Knsbury. He be- 
came one of the most powerful plat- 
form advocates for the rei)eal of the 
Corn-laws. Guizot, in bis Life of 
Peel, has honoured some of his siKecbes 
delivered during that struggle '^'ith 
selection as tbe most finished exam- 
pics of oratory which tbe great con- 
flict produced. In 1847 Mr. Fox was 
elected M.P. for Oldham. At the gene- 
ral election of 1852 be lost his seat, but 
in a few months afterwards was rein- 
stated. He is understood to have been 
a contributor to the Westminster and 
Prospective Reviews, and to be now one 
of tbe contributors to the "Weekly 
Dispatch" London newspaper. Mr. 
Fox is tbe author of " Lectures to the 
Working Classes,'' and a philosophical 
dissertation on Religious Ideas. 

AuETTRiA, Kino of Bohkmia, Hungary, 


voiriA, Gallicia, &c., eldest son of the 
Archduke Francis Charles Joseph, bom 
August 18th, 1830, ascended tbe throne 

December 2nd, 1848, on tbe abdication — 
consequent upon the revolution of that 
year — of bis uncle Ferdinand L, and the 
renunciation on the part of his father of 
all right to tbe crown. The difficulties 
of the Austrian empire were great, bat 
the new monarch was too young to have 
added to them by any unpopular acts, 
! and bis accession was hailed as tbe sal- 
vation of the country. He promised his 
])eople a free constitution, equality of 
citizenship, and a representative consti- 
tution ; but bis ability to carry his words 
into effect was tested by unprecedented 
difficulty and danger, and found insuffi- 
cient. Surrounded by evil counsellors, 
he was induced to dissolve the repre- 
sentative assembly, and to withdraw the 
charter from Hungary. Tbe Hungarians, 
imdcr the leadership of Kossuth, re- 
volted, and after a noble struggle all but 
succeeded in acquiring their inde- 
jKjndence and their liberty ; but with the 
aid of Russia he was enabled to crush 
them. The support of Russia was 
dearly bought — at tbe price of national 
humiliation. In 1851 the Emperor pub- 
licly declared himself an absolute 
monarch, after having re-conquered, by 
tbe vigorous and successful generalship 
of Radetzky, tbe revolted provinces of 
L^mbardy and Venetia. The most per- 
nicious act of his reign has been the 
Concordat with the Pope, — a humilia- 
tion even greater than his acceptance of 
Russian aid for the conquest of Hungary, 
and the evil effects of which have been 
visible alike in bis foreign and in bis 
domestic ]>olicy. In the conduct of the 
Italian war, forced upon Austria by the 
ambition of the King of Sardinia, and 
the still wider and more astutely schemed 
ambition of the Emperor of the French, 
the Emperor Francis Joseph has acted 
with more dignity than in other events 
of his reign ; and though success did not 
attend his efforts to preserve Lombardy, 
or to repel the unjustifiable interference 
of a foreign power in a matter that in no 




vise concemeil it, the govemments of | 
Europe, and such of the nations as look { 
upon French military propagandism with 
alarm and distrust, have not l>een able 
to withhold their sympathy from the| 
Austrian Emj^eror in the arduous and 
yet unended struggle for the preserva- 
tion of Ids hereditary dominions. His j 
Imperial Majesty marrie<l, on the 24th i 
of April, 1854, the Princess Elizabeth ■ 
Am^lie Eug6nie of Bavaria, by whom he ' 
has two infant children, — ^the Arch- 1 
duchess Gisella Louisa Marie, bom on ■ 
the 12th of July, 1856; and the Arch- 1 
duke Rudolph, heir aj>parent to the I 
throne, bom on the 2l8t of August, 
1868. In private life, the Em])eror and . 
his amiable Empress are models of the 
domestic virtues, and highly l^eloved and 

FRANCIS II., Marie Leopold, 
King of Naples, op the Two Sici- 
lies, AND OF Jerusalem, Duke of 
Parma, Piacexza, and Castro, was 
bom on the 16th of January, 1836, and 
succeeded his father, the late Ferdi- 
nand II. (the Bomba of an unhappy 
notoriety, and the most unpopular of | 
Euroi>ean nionarclis), on the 22nd of| 
May, 1859. He was married on the 3rd j 
of Febmary, 1859, to the Princess 
Marie Sophie Am61ie, daughter ofj 
Maximilian Joseph, Duke of Bavaria. 
His Majesty occupies a perilous throne, 
and is understootl to have ado]>ted in ' 
all essential points the retrograde j 
and arbitrary ]>olicy of his un- ! 
happy father. He has already ac 
quired among his people the too sign! 
iicant nickname of ** Bombalino," or I 
Little Bomba ! ; 

FRANCIS V. , Ferdinand Oeminif^v, | 
ex-Duke of Modena, Archduke op 
Austria, Prince op Bohemia and 
Hungary, Duke of Reggio, Miran- 


TALLA, was bom on the 1st of June, 
1819, and succeeded his father, Fran- 
qU IV., on the 2lBt of January, 1846. 

Like the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and 
every other Italian potentate connected 
by blood with the House of Hapsburg, 
and supported on his throne by Aus- 
trian bayonets, he was dcteste<l by his 
subjects ; and when the French marched 
into Italy, in 1859, the people rose in 
revolt and drove him from the throne, 
declaring their intention never again to 
submit to his rule, and voting the an- 
nexation of their state to the dominions 
of the Constitutional King of Sardinia. 
His Highness married, in 1842, the 
Duchess Adclgonde, daughter of Louis, 
ex-King of Bavaria, and sister of King 
Maximilian. The Duke and Duchess are 
both in exile. 

FRANKLIN, Lady Jane, widow of 
the celebrated Arctic navigator, was 
bom about the year 1802. She is the 
daughter of Mr. Griffin, of Bedford- 
place, London, and became the wife of 
Sir John Franklin in 1826. When 
her husband was appointed Governor of 
Van Diemen^s Land, in 1836, she ac- 
companied him to that colony. On 
the 26th of May, 1845, the gaUant and 
intrepid commander left England, on 
his third and, unhappily, his last expe- 
dition to the Northern Seas, in search of 
the impracticable North-west passage ; 
he, at the head of the expedition, 
hoisting his flag in the ** Erebus," and 
Captain Francis Crosier, second in com- 
mand, on board the " Terror." Two 
years ])assed without any intelligence 
l)eing received of the progress of the 
expedition, and alarm began to be expe- 
rienced throughout the country, regard- 
ing its probable fate. The anxiety grew 
into apprehension, and, for the first 
time. Lady Franklin came before the 
world prominently — ofiering, from her 
private means, rewards of two to three 
thousand pounds to those who should 
discover the missing ships, their officers, 
and their hands. Towards the same 
end Lady Franklin appealed to Ame- 
rica : to her the cause waa one of heart ; 




to the world it was one of Bcicnce ; and 
the United States gave a no))le reajwnae 
to her call, on both grounds. Government 
having sent out a searching ex[)e<lition, in 
1850, I^ady l<>anklin gave additional as- 
sistance by fitting out the * 'Prince All>ert, " 
at an (!X{)en8e to herself of £2,5<)0. This 
vessel returnwl, without bringing any 
tidings, in 1851. Six years had rolled 
away since Sir John Franklin had sailed 
for the North, and all hope was gone ; 
but the great-hearte<l woman was re- 
solved that though she could not save 
her husband, she would use every effort 
to ascertain his fate. Careless of per- 
sonal sacrifices, she fitted out and dis- 
])atched the ** Prince Albert," a sec<rtid 
time; but with no more satisfjvctory 
residt. Still Ijuly Franklin iiersevered. 
The lapse of time rendereil the idea of 
Sir John Franklin surviving the rigour 
of the climate for so many years im}K>s- 
sible. But this noble English la^ly left 
no stone unturned, corresjwnded with 
men of science in every quarter of 
the glol>e, incited the wavering, and 
strengthened the courage of the bold, 
rousing a genuine national spirit of sym- 
pathy with the living, and sorrc»w for 
the dea<L Dr. liac having found some 
relics of the lost expe<lition, she fitted 
out another, of which Captain M*CIin- 
t<M^k was the conmiander. He 8aile<l 
on his exploring cnteri)ri8e with a 
full exi)ectation of realizing one of 
two results : he would either discover 
the Franklin party or their remains, or 
recommend that all further Northern 
Hearch should be al>andoned. Captain 
M *Clintock's ex])edition was successfid. 
lie returned in his little vessel, the 
*' Fox," bringing with him sa«l memo- 
rials of seamen who had not hesitated 
to endanger their lives for the gh»rj' of 
their country. But for Captain M*C'lin- 
tock's search and its termination, we 
refer to his name in another place. 

ERASER, Alexander, a ]Wiinter, was 
bom in Scotland about 1796. He may 

be considered as one of the best delinea- 
tors of the scenes and daily life of his 
native country. Amongst some of his 
l>e«t Scottish subjects are the ''Laird's 
Dinner," the "Interior of a Highland 
Cottage," "Scene from the Prison of 
Edinburgh," &c. His "Robinson Ousoc," 
and the " Last Moments of Mary, Queen 
of Scotland," have gaine<l him great 
praise, and are, jterhaps, two of his Itest 
pictures. Nearly all of his i}ro<luction8 
are illustrative of homely and rural 
incidents, and he is extremely facile in 
executing them in a life-like manner. 

FREDERICK VIII., Charle-s Chrib- 
TiAN, KiN« OF Denmark, was bom 6th 
of Octf>l>er, 1808. He marricil, in 1828, 
the Princess Wilhelmina of Denmark, 
his cousin, which marriage was dis- 
solved in 1837. He married a second 
time, in June 1841, the Princess Caro- 
line, of Mecklenburg Strelitz, which 
maiTiage, pro\'ing as unhappy as the 
previous one, was dissolved in like 
manniT, in 1846. The King, nothing 
daimted by these marital reverses, was 
married a thinl time in 1850, to Louisa 
tliristine, C-ountess of Danner, a Lady 
of the Bedchamber to his previous 
Queen. This marriage, a private and 
morganatic one, and not giving the lady 
the rank of Queen, has rendered his 
Majesty excee<lingly unpopular ; and at 
one time in 1859, and again in 1860, 
tlireateuwl to leatl to insurrection in the 
streets of the ca]>ital, and to the alnli- 
cation of the King. His Majesty made 
a tour of the British isles soon after his 
accession to the throne, and inspected 
more particidarly the great eott(m and 
woollen manufactures in Lancashire and 
Yorkshire, as well as the Potteries and 
the mining districts. 

OF Pri'ssia, was born Octol)er 15th, 
1705, and succeede<l his father, Frede- 
rick William III., on the 7th of June, 
1840. Having received his education 
under the most eminent i^rofessors in 




"•**'* of 1SI3 and 1814 

Berlin and the soldiers induced exas- 
peration on both sides, and renewed 

A<- ** •* *^***^?^°* *t^ J jath of his ' bloodshed was the result. Prise iners 
f.r jfc^w* y^'*^ '*^' "iv; V was looked < were taken, but the king n4case<l them, 
^jXr. !>»•■ *^'*?^^,"i^lutiat party; follou-ing up his elemency by a general 
z •^ : V S^v of ' ^^^ to the 

«^' '" • . * |^^,v uDdei^iic a cliange. 
,»;i..vw.^i J- pii^aiire by the most 

ii ^^. ^^^ \ ,>ru8sia that he in- 

""'■■'" rTihe li^^-rnl side, and a iwhcy 

. "^ ;^;';,^^,i brinpnghis ailministration 
^"^ '^;/^,y hamiony with the national 

r^lj. iit Itf-A** ^° ®° ^*'* ** *^ foreign 
^N.i.,k. ^j^^^rncil, wliieh leane<l too 

'.y - , |lu» side of Russia to please the 

•^^^jj,. and intensely German jwirty ; 

K»*iit* to be Gorman above all 

*v ^ I'ven more than it desiretl to be 

IVia«tan> When in the fulneas of time 

V «»«»«t»to<l the throne, these hopes 

^^i on the i>oiiit of realization. He 

«in>U*'l several reforms which, though 

jj » minor character, were haileil with 

X4ii;ht as the precurs<:>r8 of a better 

M-yUMn, an^ j^rosented, in many re- 

jm»^^ a marked and favourable con- 

^jMi to his father, who had almost 

uniformly held and acted ui)ou the doc- 

Irines of a1>soIutism. The new reign 

^f^ numarked by any great event 

amnesty for political offences, and })y 
formini; a new administration from the 
ranks of men in the popidar confidence. 
Restored tranquillity was the almost 
immediate consequence of his measures. 
Shortly afterwards, and still with (mer- 
man unity as his watchword, he under- 
took to protect Schleswig-Holstein in 
opjMsition to the claims of Denmark ; 
but when the National Assemljly at 
Frankfort passed over his pretensions, 
and elected the Archduke John Lieu- 
tenaut-General of the German empire, 
Fre<.lerick William became w«ivinced to 
all apx>earances that ** (merman unity,'* 
such as is desired by the enthusiastic 
students of Germany, was a game too 
difficult for him to play ; and that as a 
king he would better consult the in- 
terests of his kingdom, by giving more 
of his attention to Prussia, and less to 
(icrmany, than he had been in the habit 
of doing. At the same time, as if fear- 
ful of the fate of Louis XVI. and other 
weak though well-meaning monarch^, 
whose sad end is rectorded in history, 
he tliought it safer to act tlie part of 

until the fatal year of 1848, when the : a conservative than that of a revolu- 
i^volutionary insiiuity of the i>eriod in- tionary monarch, and enteretl ui»u a 
fccted the jxiople of Berlin, and led to i career of reaction, which exi>osed him 
ooUiBions 1 let ween the military and the, to much ill-will, if not danger; but 
citizens. The king t«)ok measures to ', which never again eventuated in i)opuIar 
calm the tem])est of insiurection, placed insurrection. At the outbreak of the 
himself at the head of the national • Crimean war, it was confidently ex- 
party, and j)roiH>sed to fuse all the (lor- j i)ectcd that the King of Prussia would 
man states into a great feileral uuion, I have cast in his lot with Great Britain 
under a single monarch. His famous and France in support of the equili- 
BayinL^, "Prussiadi!iapj)earsand(jiennany ! brium of Europe, but witli the vacilla- 
is born,'* added fervour to the existing tiou which has marked every {>eriod of 
excitement throughout Germany. But his career, his intentions were always in 
the king's enthusiasm not only led him advance of his acts ; and the reason for 
too far for the time, but very s(K)n doing the right thing was balanceil in 
cooled. An imfortimate though acci- 1 his mind by some reason equally co- 
dcntal quarrel between the people of j gent for not doing it, or at all events for 




postponing it; and time wore on, and 
found him equally distrusted by Ruaaia 
and by the powers opposed to her. In 
the year 1857 symptoms of mental aber- 
ration were observed by the physicians 
of his Majesty, and these symptoms 
continuing to grow stronger, it was at 
length deemed necessary to establish a 
regency ; and on the 9th of October, 
1858, the king's brother. Prince Frc<le- 
rick William Louis, the heir presimiptive 
to the throne, was inducted into that 
office, and took the necessary oaths amid 
the general satisfaction of the people. 
The king was married on the 29th of 
November, 1823, to Eliza})eth Louisa, 
daughter of the late Maximilian Joseph, 
King of Bavaria. There has been no 
issue by the marriage, so that after the 
actual regent, the heir presumptive to 
the throne of Prussia is the Prince Fre- 
derick William Nicholas Charles, mar- 
ried on the 25th of January, 1858, to the 
Princess Royal of England. 

FREILIGRATH, Ferdinand, a Ger- 
man poot, was bom June 17th, 1810, 
at Detmold, capital of the German 
principality of Lippe. Receiving his 
early c<lucation from his father, he was 
employed at a mercantile, and then in 
a l)anking establifthmeut, and published 
some poems in 1838. Their success 
induced him to pursue literature as a 
professicm. In 1841 Freiligrath married, 
and removed first to Darmstadt, and 
then to St. Goar on the Rhine, receiving 
a small [lension from the Prussian go- 
vernment. This he afterwards gave up 
on his publishing some political poems 
which opposed the measures of the 
government. Owing to their great suc- 
cess, the author underwent a prosecution, 
and his work was suppressed. Compelled 
by the hostility of the government to 
cxi»atriate himself, Freiligrath in 1844 
passed from Belgium into Switzerland, 
and ultimately to that general rendez- 
vous of the oppressed of Europe — Lon- 
don, where he became a banko^s clerk. 

He snbsequently published trandatioiui 
into Grerman of the poems of Victor 
Hugo, and of the more popular English 
poets, and in the spring of 1848 visited 
the United States, whence he soon re- 
turned to Germany. During the revo- 
lution he took an active ]>art on the 
side of democracy, an<l composed a poem 
entitled ** Die Todten an die Liebenden** 
("Thc'Deadtothe Living"), for which 
he was prosecuted, but the jury would 
not convict him. The ill-will of his an- 
tagonists, however, finding fresh means 
to plague him, he, for a second time, 
emigrated in May 1851, since which 
time he has lived in London. His poeti- 
cal works, originally published in 1838, 
have passed through eighteen editions, 
besides a large reprint of his complete 
works, issued at New York in 1858. 
The poetry is original in the highest 
sense, bearing almost no resemblance to 
the works of any former German ixteL 
His translations from the English are 
numerous and excellent; the sense, spirit, 
and rhythm of the originals being most 
successfully rendered. He first intro- 
duced the songs of Robert Bums to the 
German public. 

FREMONT, John Charles, was 
bom on the 21st of January, 1813, in 
Savannah. While he was but a boy, 
his father, who was of French extrac- 
tion, died, leaving his mother in circum- 
stances far from affluent, although she 
managed to give her son a good educa- 
tion. After studying in Charleston 
College he became a teacher of mathe- 
matics, and subsequently practised sur- 
veying. As second lieutenant in the 
corps of topogra])hical engineers, he 
entered u{)on that series of explorations 
which opened to America the gates of 
her Pacific empire, and won for him- 
self the title of *' the Pathfinder of the 
Rocky Mountains," and his success at 
onco made the name of Fremont famous. 
The report of the enterprise was pub- 
lished by the American government ; the 




intrepid pathfinder was raised to the 
rank of })rcvet-ca])tain, and the Victoria 
medal of the Royal Geographical Society 
of Great Britain was awarded to him. 
Captain Fremont now entered upon an 
exploring exi)edition, intended to give an 
uninterrupted view of the route from 
Missouri to the west coast of the Ameri- 
can continent. This expedition was 
crowned with a success fully equal to 
his former enteritrisc. The task occu- 
pied many months, during which he 
complcteil a circuit of 12 degrees in 
diameter north and south, and 10 de- 
grees east and west, having travelled 
some 3,500 miles. So soon as this 
second exploration was completed, Cap- 
tain Fremont started on a thinl survey. 
The enteq>nse was one of peculiar 
difiSculty, but at length every ol)stacle 
was surmounted, and he reached Cali- 
fornia, where he found the United States 
and Mexico were at war. Captain 
Fremont acconlingly gave his country 
his energetic services. When these ser- 
vices were no longer neetled, he became 
mixed u]> in a miserable quarrel I)etween 
Stockton and Kearney, the military 
commanders, was tried l)y a court- 
marti<a], and deprived of his commission. 
Feeling keenly the injustice done him, 
he retirwi into private life. Having 
arrange<l to proceed to California, Fre- 
mont collected a strong party, and started 
in 1848 across the Rocky Mountains. 
So great were the difficulties of this 
last expedition, that even its stout- 
hearted commander began to quail. 
His mules were dead, his men began to 
droop : ten had |>erished amidst the deep 
snows of Sierra San Juan. Only after a 
series of uupreccnlented struggles, mani- 
festing the m(tst unconciuerable energy 
and the sternest resolution, did the 
shatteriMl remnant of his followers reach 
New Mexico ; thence they proceeded to 
California. Fremont was afterwards 
sent as representative to Congress, and 
alao received the Prussian gold medal aa 

a reward for his eminent services to 
science. Mr. Fremont was a candi- 
date for the presidency of the United 
States in o])i)06ition to Mr. Buchanan at 
the presidential election of 18o7. His 
principal work is entitled *' Colonel John 
Charles Fremont's Explorations'* (18o9), 
which contains an accoimt of all his ex})e- 
ditions, with annotations and additions 
by several of the most eminent men of 
science. An account of his life and ex- 
plorations by C. W. Upham (Boston, 
1856), had If remarkable success, 50,000 
copies having been sold as soon as it was 

FRERICHS, Frederic Theodore, 
a German physician, was bom at Au- 
rich, in Hanover, on the 24th of Man^h, 
1819. He proceeded in due time to 
G&ttingen, in order to study medicine, 
and the natural sciences. Being ad- 
mitted a physician in the ordinary course, 
he sucxiessively visited Berlin, Prague, 
and Vienna, devoting his attention 8j)e- 
cially to the study of jwithology and 
anatomy. He afterwards resideil for a 
time in Holland, Belgium, and France, 
but eventually settle<l down at Got- 
tingen. A Fellow of the School of 
Medicine, and attached to the Physio- 
logical Institute of Rodolph Wagner, he 
ojiened a course, which soon 1)ecame one 
of the most popular of the University. 
In 1851 he was invite<l to Kiel, to direct 
the Polyclinical and Academic Hos- 
pital ; but having taken a i)art, though 
it does not seem to have been an active 
one, in the dispute between Denmark 
and Schleswig-Holstein (1852), he found 
it necessary to return to Germany, and 
was almost immediately a])pointed Pro- 
fessor of Pathology and Therai^utics 
in the University of Brcslau. In 1854 
the King of Prussia conferred on him 
the order of the Red Eagle, and the 
King of Bavaria the order of St. MichaeL 
He contributed actively and extensively 
to the "Physiological Dictionary" of 
Wagner; to Liebig's ** Dictionary of 




Chemutiy/* and to the "Supplement'' 
of 1850-52, as well as to other jmbli- 
cations of cognate character. In 1858-9 
he went to Berlin, and succeeded to the 
chair of Clinical Me<licine on the re- 
tirement of Schunlein ; to whose large 
practice he has also in some measure 
Bucceede<L He is the author of a work 
on "Morbus Brightii," published at 
Brunswick, in 1851 ; and of another, 
on "Diseases of the Liver," published 
at Brunswick, in 1859, on which his re- 
putation as a physician and [M&thologist is 
mainly formed. It is now being trans- 
lated for the New Sydenham Society. 

FKITH, William Powell, R.A., a 
]>ainter, was lK)m at Studley, Yorkshire, 
in 1819; and, like I^awrence, was the 
son of an inn-keeper. His picture of 
"Malvolio l)efore the Countess Olivia," 
gave evidence of a future succe&sfid 
career iK'ing in store for him. This was 
8ucci»edwl by picrture after picture, all of 
which rose in estimation and value. His 
com}M)sitiou is excellent, and his colour 
a<lmirable. He throws into his works, 
occasionally, sly touches of humour, 
which prtnluce a greater effect than he 
prcjbably intends. Cervantes, Shaks- 
]>eare, Croldsmith, Addison, and the 
British Classics, have been the well- 
springs of his inspiration. " Coming of 
Age," ami "Life at the Sea-side," are 
among his l>e8t known works. In 185.3 
Mr. Frith was electe<l a R^iyal Acade- 
mioiiin. In 1855 he sent to the Paris 
Exhibition his picture of " Le Bourgeois 
CentilhoHime," with several others, for 
which he received a gold medal In 
]8r>8wa8 pnKluced the "Derby Day," for 
wliicli he received three thousand ])ounds. 

FIIOST, WiLiJAM Edward, was 
born at Wandsworth in 1810. He early 
8tu(li(Ml as an artist, and soon distin- 
guished liiniself by gaining ])rize8 at the 
lloyal Academy. His first remarkable 
picture was " I^metheus Bound," and 
in 184:^ he gained a premium for his 
cartoon of " Una alanued by Fawns 

and Satyrs," which was exhibited at 
Westminster Hall, and its success seems 
to have induce<l him to devote his efforts 
to the higher branches of art. Amongst 
his most noted productions are " Sabri- 
na," "Nymphs Dancing,** "Diana sur- 
prised by Acto^on,'* a Bacchanalian 
Dance, " CTiastity," "The Graces," &c. 
He has painted a great variety of pic- 
tures, mostly illustrative of classical 
subjects, and has been highly successful 
owing to the i)erfect execution and 
finish which he exhibits in all his pro- 
ductions. He was chosen Associate of 
the Royal Academy in 1846. 

GARIBALDI, Joseph. This dis- 
tinguished general, so well known by his 
efforts in the cause of Italian freedom, 
was bom at Ni(!e, on the 4th July, 
1807. His father l>eing a seafaring man, 
Joseph early followed the same calling, 
and soon Ix^came distinguished for his 
bravery and C(M>lness in danger. Having 
read a history of Home, and afterwanls 
visiting that city, he felt a deep interest 
in the ancient glory of Italy, and these 
incidents seem to have laid the founda- 
tion of those atteniivts which he has 
lately made in rendering his country 
once more free. He first became mixed 
up with (Htlitical matters al)out the year 
1832, and fled his country from the fear 
that his name had been includeti in a 
list of parties 8U»i)ecte<l to have l>eeu 
engagetl in a conspiraty against Charles 
Albert, then King of Sanlinia. In 
18^ he l)ecame c(mnecte«l with Mazzini, 
who made an unsuccessful descent on 
Savoy during the mimth of February. 
GaribaliU fle<l to France after this, and 
became captain (»f a French coasting 
vessel, but soon tiring of a comparatively 
inactive life he entere<l the service of 
the Bey of Tunis. Owing to the ill 
condition of the Barl)ary fleet, of which 
he then liecame an oflicer, he got dis- 
gusted with his employment, and in 
1836 proceeded to South America, and 
again engaged in the coasting trade as a 




means of obtaining a bare snbsiBtence. 
His restless spirit ill brooked this state 
of matters, and in 1837 we find him 
fighting for a Republican movement 
before Monte Video, where he was 
seriously wounded and cast into prison. 
After various fortunes he found a solace 
in his troubles in marrying a young 
lady named Annita, to whom he was 
devotedly attached, and who afterwards 
shared all his dangers and privations. 
After remaining some time in South 
America, aud showing great energy in 
the popular cause, he embarked for 
Italy in the hope of engaging in the 
salvation of his country once more. 
He offered his services to Charles Albert, 
who, however, acted evasively, and 
eventually declined to employ Garibaldi, 
who thereupon went to Milan and was 
speedily engaged in hostility to the Aus- 
triana He repaired to Rome after the 
Pope had fled to Gaeta, and thence he 
was ordered to defend a |X)sition en- 
dangered by the army of the King of 
Naples ; but soon had to return to op- 
pose the French army which was pro- 
ceeding to invest the Roman territory. 
A battle succeeding. Garibaldi at last 
drove the French from the field, and 
gained a complete victory over them. 
He was equally successful against the 
NeaiK)]itan army, but the French being 
reinforced again attacked Rome, which 
eventually fell into their hands, and 
Garibaldi and his brave volunteers took 
their departure by night, unknown to 
the besieging forces, and safely arrived 
at Tivoli on the ensuing day, July 3rd, 
1849. After enduring great hardships, 
many of his followers surrendered to 
the Austrians, and Garibaldi with his 
wife barely escaped with their Uvea 
His greatest misfortune had yet to come : 
chaseil by the Austrians, he and his 
wife were completely exhausted ; and in 
a few days, from the fatigues she had 
undergone, she expired in a hut by the 
wayside. Worn out by advene cir- 

cumstances. Garibaldi now proceeded to 
the United States and South America, 
and after remaining there some years 
returned to Europe in 1854, and took 
the command of a small merchant 
steamer, plying between Nice and Mar- 
seilles. The opportunity which Gari- 
baldi had long waited for was now 
approaching. Sardinia was menaced by 
the Austrians, and France hastening to 
her assistance, a general war in Central 
Italy commenced in the early part of 
1859. Victor Emanuel, the King of 
Sardinia, hastened to avail himself of 
Garibaldi's services; and at the head 
of a choice band of volunteers. Gari- 
baldi left Turin on the 20th of May, 
ready to meet his old and detested 
enemy. In the whole of the campaign, 
it is difficult to say which of the two 
characteristics showed by him are most 
to be admired, his courage or his strata- 
gem. Never found by the Austrians, he 
was incessantly falling on them, and by 
a guerilla warfare harassed them in 
eveiy possible direction. His l)and was 
constantly increasing ; his name became 
a proverb of strength and success ; he 
was, in fact, the terror of his enemies. 
On the hasty conclusion of the war. 
Garibaldi received high rank in the 
Sardinian army ; but being dissatisfied 
with the slight results obtained towards 
the freedom of his country, determined 
to make war on his own account, and 
being assisted with money, muskets, 
and men from Sardinia, France, Great 
Britain, and America, he started from 
Genoa in the early part of the summer 
of 1860, and landing near Palermo, in 
Sicily, took that town with a mere hand- 
ful of men. His volunteers soon in- 
creasing in nimiber, and assistance flow- 
ing in on all sides, he next succeeded 
in taking Messina, which the Neapoli- 
tan troops evacuated, and crossing the 
straits he landed in Calabria, and is 
now progressing rapidly towards Naj>Ies. 
The Neapolitan army is continually 




losing by desertions to his ranks. The 
navy stands in a similar position, and 
the King of Naples is pre])aring to 
fight a kind of forlorn hope, or to take 
flight from the kingdom which he has 
BO miserably and cruelly governed. In 
Garibaldi there are united all the quali- 
ties of a skilfid general He is bold 
yet cautious, rapid yet prudent, in all 
his plans ; his courage and energy are 
astonishing, and his successes almost 
without parallel in the history of any 
commander. Since the alxive was writ- 
ten, the following telegram has been 
received : — **JVa;i/c», SepL 9th, Gari- 
baldi has entered Naples. Great enthu- 
siasm prevails." 

GAKNIER PAGi:S, T^uis Antoine, 
a French journalist and statesman, a 
member of the Provisional Government 
and Executive Commission of 1846, was 
bom at Marseilles, in 1803. Having 
settled as an accountant in Paris, M. 
Gamier Pagi^s took a part in the revo- 
lution of July, 1830, organizing the 
barricades in the quarter of St. Avoye. 
He was retume<l to the Chamber of 
Deputies by the arrondissement of Ver- 
neuil, and took up his seat at the ex- 
treme **left," where he devoted him- 
self to finance and other political ques- 
tions. In 1844 he induced the govern- 
ment to adopt the system of public 
loans by direct sulwcription. One 
of the promoters of the Refonnatory 
agitation of 1847, M. Gamier Pagt^s 
made a conspicuous ligure at the ban- 
quets. In 1848, ajipointed by acclama- 
tion mayor of Paris, he became, under 
the Provisional Government, Minister of 
Finance, and introduced reforms which 
obtained the general assent of all par- 
ties. He forme<l Comptoirs d'£UK;ompte ; 
introduced into France the system of 
bonded warehouses and warrants ; 
saved the Bank of France, by declaring 
that its notes were not reimbursable; 
amalgamated with it the banks of de- 
partments ; and resisted the creation of | 

paper-money. He continned to hold 
various places in the government until 
he lost his seat in the Assembly, when 
he retired into private life, with an 
unsullied reputation. He is now ac- 
tively engaged in preparing a ** History 
of the Revolution of 1848." 

GASKELL, M£& L. K, a novelist, 
was bom in 1822. At the age of twenty 
she married a Unitarian minister, in 
Manchester. She is the writer of seve- 
ral works which have attained to popu- 
larity; among which the most remark- 
able is ** Mary Barton," a novel which 
aims not only at the delineation of the 
joys and sorrows, the loves and hatreds 
of our common humanity, but which 
also attempts to give a picture of the 
habits and feelings, opinions and cha- 
racter, and social condition of the work- 
ing classes of our great manufacturing 
towns. It is a work of very great literary 
merit. She has also written the ** Moor- 
land Cottage," "North and South," 
"Ruth," "Cranford," and a "Life of 
Charlotte Bronte." 

GAVARNI, otherwise Paul Chevalier, 
the most popular Uving French caricatiur- 
ist, was bom of an impoverished family at 
Paris in 1801, and became a machine 
maker. After his day's work was done, 
he attended the Free School of Design. 
He made rapid progress as an artist, but 
did not adopt the profession, and indeed 
derived no profit from his work until he 
was thirty-four years of age, when he 
got em])loyment in drawing sketches for 
"The Fashions;** that is to say, for new 
styles of male and female attire. Suc- 
cce<ling in this occu])ation, he became 
manager of the journal entitled " Lea 
Gens du Monde," to which he contri- 
buted an admirable scries of lithographs. 
His best proiluctions, however, were 
contributed to the " Charivari," which 
indeed owes its success, in a great mea- 
sure, to his contributions. In 1849 M. 
Cjavami visited London, and contributcil 
a number of characteristic drawings to 




the ** Illustrated London News." He 
also published a series of sketches, illus- 
trative of life in its lower phases in the 
English metropolis, under the title of 
"Gavarni in London." He has illus- 
trated a great number of works, among 
which may be enumerated ** Don 
Quixote," "Moli^re's Plays,** "The 
Wandering Jew *' of M. Eugene Sue, 
and the novels of Balzac. A collected 
edition of his productions was publisKe<l 
at Paris, in four volumes, in 1845, with 
letter- press by Jules Janin, ThSophile 
Gautier, and Balzac. M Gavarni has 
been pre-occupied for many years with 
an attempt to construct an aiirostat, or 
flying-machine, on which it is said that 
he has cxi)ende<l many efiforts of me- 
chanic^il ingenuity. * 

GAVAZZI, Padre Alessandro, an 
Italian priest, was born at Bologna, 
on 21st Miirch, 1809. At an early age 
he distinguished himself by the vigour 
and liberality of his discourses, and was 
at all times the champion of the })opular 
cause. During the Lombard revolution, 
Gavazzi, by his ap]x;als to the patriotism 
of his hearers, assisted in forming a 
volunteer army, wh'wh fought against 
the Austrians. He fell, however, under 
the Pope's displeasure, but eventually, 
on the flight of the latter, held a promi- 
nent position in Ilome, imder the provi- 
sional government, which ha<l then been 
forme(L The failure of the patriotic 
cause comiielled him to flee to England. 
His lectures, delivere<l in difleiient ])arts 
of this country and America, have maile 
him highly jwpular. The fervour of his 
language, and the eloquent expression of 
his sentiments, captivated his audiences, 
and drew from them that symjiathy 
which has resulted so ]>ractically in the 
a^Lstance lately given to Garibaldi, 
with whom Gavazzi has long been asso- 
ciated in attempting to obtain the free- 
dom of Italy. 

GEEFS, GuiLLAUME, a Belgian 
sculptor, was bom in 1806. After 

studying at Paris, he returned in 18,^ 
to Belgium, and settled in Brussels. His 
productions, like those of his brother, 
are more remarkable for purity than 
I)ower. While exhibiting national cha- 
racteristics, they unite largeness of style 
with much grace and poetic feeling, and 
remind the critic, to some extent, of the 
school of Canova. He is flrst sculptor to 
the King of the Belgians, and member 
of the Royal A.cademy of Science, Let- 
ters, and the Fine Arts. The most re- 
markable of his casts at the Crystal 
Palace are a monument of C(»unt Fr6d6ric 
de Merode, at Brussels ; a bust of King 
Leox>old, a Francesca di Rimini, and a 
statue of Rubens, at Antwerp. 

GEEFS, Joseph, brother of the pre- 
ceding, bom at Antwer|i, in 1808, pos- 
sesses no small re})utation as a sculptor. 
Having gained the Academy's j>rize, he 
studied for some time at Rome. He is 
a member of the Royal Belgian Ac^lemy. 
Among his best productions may be 
enumerated his "Demon," "Adonis 
starting for the Chace," and "Science, 
Art, and Literature, paying Homage to 
Charles Van Hulthem." 

GEORGE v., Frederick Alexander 
Charles Ernkht Augustus, Kino of 
Hanover, was Iwm 27th of May, 1819. 
As Prince of the BJood Royal of (ireat 
Britain, Duke of Cumberland, Duke of 
Brunswick-Luneburg, he succeeded his 
father, Ernest Augustus (Duke of Cum- 
berland in England), on the 18th of 
November, 1851. His majesty married 
on the 18th of Febmary, 1843, the 
Princess Mary, daughter of Joseph, 
Duke of Saxe Altenburg, by whom he 
has a family of three children, two sons 
and one daughter. The eldest, heir to 
the throne. Prince Ernest Augustus 
William Adolphus George Frederick, 
was l)om on the 21st of September, 
1845. The accession of his father to 
the throne of his ancestors,* dissolve<l 
the connexion subsisting since the time 
of George L between Britain and Hano- 




fer, and lessened to some extent the 
liability of this country to become in- 
Tolved in the complications and wars of 
the Continent. The king has suffered 
from his early boyhood the melancholy 
infliction of total blindness, which he 
has borne with such patient resignation 
as to have endeared himself to all who 
approach him, and which he has allevi- 
ated by the domestic affections, and by 
the cultivation of music and literature. 

GERHARD, Edward, a German 
archaeologist, was bom at Posen, No- 
vember, 1795, and educated at Breslau 
and Berlin. In 1816, he obtained a pro- 
fessorship in the Gynmasium, or High 
School of Posen, but in consequence 
of ill-health he was obliged to abandon 
the office. Proceeding to Italy, he fixed 
upon Rome as his residence, and re- 
mained in that city for fifteen years, 
devoting his mind to antiquarian study 
and research. Convinced that to ad- 
vance the cause of archiBological science, 
it was necessary to unite tiie scattered 
elements of knowledge which he knew 
to exist in Europe, he took great in- 
terest in the formation of an archaeolo- 
gical society, called the "Institute of 
Archaeological Corre^>ondence, " which 
by letters and other means was in- 
tended to systematize the results of an- 
tiquarian investigation. The project 
was conceived in 1828 by M. Gerhard, 
Baron Von Bunsen, the late M. Pa- 
nofka, and the Due de Luynes. The 
institution was placed under the pro- 
tection of the King of Prussia, Frederic 
William IV., then hereditary Prince of 
Prussia, and still exists in the capital, 
with the aid of funds supplied by the 
Prussian Government. M. Gerhard 
directed the proceedings of the institu- 
tion until 1837, when he returned to 
Prussia, and was appointed Archaeologist 
to the Royal Museum, Professor in the 
University of Berlin, and the Royal 
Academy of Sciences. During his stay 
at Rome, he aosisted in preparing a 

description of the city, embracing all its 
particular points of interest, ancient and 
modem. He has been a most volumi- 
nous author, so much so, that it would 
be impracticable to detail the titles of 
his works. As appears from what fol- 
lows, nearly all of them are profusely 
illustrated, and they thus become of 
more than ordinary value to the anti- 
quarian and student of history. His 
descriptions are graphic, his style clear, 
and his industry indefatigable. M. Ger- 
hard has published detailed descriptions 
of the ancient monuments of the Vati- 
can, of the Museum of Naples, and of 
that of Berlin. The principal works in 
which he has published inedited volumes 
are the Antike Bildwerke (Munich, 
1827, suL fcp. 140 pi. folio) ; A selection of 
Greek vases, found in Etruria (330 pL, 
in 4 vols., Berlin, 1840-4 ) ; A col- 
lection of Etruscan mirrors (240 plates, 
Berlin, 1840-4), and several publications 
descriptive of cups and vases in the 
Museum in Berlin (Berlin, 1840, folio). 
He has also published a Greek mytho- 
logy at Berlin, in 1854, in 2 volumes, 
and a great variety of papers to the 
learned societies. 

GERSTAECKER, Frederic, a Ger- 
man author, was bom on the 10th of 
May, 1816, at Hamburg. The son of an 
actor, he was intended for a commercial 
career, and apprenticed accordingly ; 
but, habituated from youth to a roving 
life, he emigrated to the United States, 
reaching New York about 1837. After 
several months passed in that city, he 
travelled on foot, first to Canada, and 
thence down to Texas, and back 
to the United States, where he was 
forced to accept any occupation that 
chance offered ; being by turns stoker 
to a steam-boat, seaman, farmer, jew< 
eller, wood-splitter, hunter, and inn- 
keeper. In these varied employments 
he travelled over a great part of Ame- 
rica ; and returning to Germany, after 
six years* absence, he published the 





results of his transatlantic observations. 
In 1849, after writing his "Pirates of 
the Mi8sissi|)pi," he projected a new 
journey to the West ; visited Rio Ja- 
neiro, Buenos Ayres, Valparaiso, Cali- 
fornia, the South Sea Islands, Australia, 
and Java, returning to Crermany in 
1852. He then produced the most suc- 
cessful of his books of travel Several 
of his works have been translated into 
English, French, and Dutch, and are 
popular because of their vivid delinea- 
tions of life. Mr. Gerstaecker is on the 
eve of starting on another voyage to 
North and South America. 

GERVINUS, Georoes Godefroid, a 
C^erman liieitorian and philosopher, was 
bom at Darmstadt, on the 20th of May, 
1805. Having l>een for some time cashier 
and book -keeper in a large Darmstadt 
house, he felt that his tastes were in- 
compatible with mercantile pursuits ; he 
therefore abandoned them for the study 
of philosophy, and eventually he was ap- 
pointed Professor of German Literature 
in the University of Gottingen. When the 
King of Hanover, by enforcing some arbi- 
trary regulations, provoked a protest from 
Gervinus, which was signed by other 
professttrs, Dohlmann among the num- 
ber, and which resulted in the sub- 
scribers K'ing expelled from the Univer- 
sity owing to political affairs, Gervinus 
went to Italy, and, returning to Ger- 
many in 1844, was named Professor in 
the University of Heidelberg, where he 
was received with the warmest enthu- 
siasm. It was at that period he began 
to publish those great works which have 
contributed so largely to his reputation. 
His political opinions being liberal, he 
united himself to the constitutional 
party — a party which received an im- 
mense accession of influence by the dis- 
covery that, in 1834, the Gennan poten- 
tates had entered into a treaty among 
themselves to the effect that none of 
tiiem should be bound by their consti- 
tutions, but that they ihoold aanst each 

other with their armies against both 
parliaments and people. Gagem was an 
active leader of the constitutionalists, 
and Gervinus was a trusted counsellor 
of the party. For the free expression of 
his political opinions he was prosecuted 
before the tribunal of Baden ; but the 
Government ultimately abandoned the 
proceedings. With the pen in his jour- 
nal and his voice in the Chamber, he 
advocated constitutional doctrines, but 
at length retired definitely from the 
IKMition he held as a Deputy. He has 
written no fewer than three works on 
the "Poetic Literature of Germany," 
which have reached several editions ; 
his latest and most important publica- 
tions being " Shakspeare" (1849), and a 
"History of German Poetry" (1853), 
in five volumes. 

GHIKA, Alexander, the cx-Hospo- 
dar of Wallachia^ was elevato<l to the 
Principality in March, 1834, and adopted 
liberal views, founding schools, and 
using the best means at his conmiand to 
promote the progress of the people. 
Under the influence of Russia two par- 
ties came into existence to thwart him, 
one composed of the liberals, and the 
other of the Boyards, whose personal 
enmity he had provoked. In 1837 he 
applied to Russia for assistance against 
the opposition in the Wallachian Assem- 
bly. It was only granted on concessions 
being made which virtually annulled the 
political and administrative independ- 
ence of the country. In 1841 he in- 
curred the resentment of Russia by 
taking measures against the i)ersons 
connected with the insurrection in 
Ibraila, with which the Russian Consul 
at Galatz had been mixed up. The 
result was that he was exposed to per- 
secutions on the part of Russia, and 
that Geoi^ges Bibesco, one of his bitterest 
foes among the Boyards, supplanted him 
as Hospodar, the Porte having been 
compelled to deprive him of his honours. 
He then went to Vienna and remained 




there till 1853, when he returned to 
Wallachia, where there was a strong 
reaction in his favour. In July, 1856, 
after Prince Stirby had ceased to act as 
Hospodar, he was restored to his old 
functions. The Roumans expected that, 
under him, an effort would be made 
to reunite the two provinces, and that 
he would ^ve strenuous support to the 
cause of Kouman nationality. But he 
did not display that energy of character 
necessary to give force to his convic- 

GIBSON, John, an English sculptor 
settled at Rome, was bom in 1790, in 
or near the town of Conway, North 
Wales. Gibson's parents, who were 
Welsh, speaking English imperfectly, 
when he was nine years old settled at 
Liverpool, where he was put to school 
At 13 years of age he was anxious to 
become an artist, but the portrait 
painters demanded a premium which his 
father could not afford, and accordingly 
he was bound apprentice to Messrs. 
Southwell and Wilson, cabinet-makers. 
By the end of the first year Gibson 
became disgusted with his occupation. 
He induced his good masters to consent 
to draw out a new indenture, and was 
apprenticed to them as an ornamental 
wood carver for the remaining six years. 
By the end of the second year he, tired 
of his new occupation, refused to work ; 
and when threatened with imprison- 
ment, declared that he was determined 
to be a sculptor, and that he woidd 
rather serve his time in prison than 
continue at wood-carving. By this time 
he had begun modelling in clay. He 
was introduced to Messrs. Frances, the 
marble-cutters, and he was enchanted 
with some sculpture which he saw at their 
works. He showed these gentlemen his 
drawings and some models in clay, and 
they were so highly satisfied with his 
talents that they purchased his inden- 
ture for the sum of £70, he rebinding 
himself to them ai an apprentice stone- 

cutter or sculptor. Gibson's new master 
presented him to Mr. Roscoe, the author 
of the Life of Lorenzo di Medici, who, 
appreciating his abilities, threw oi)en to 
him his splendid library, his extensive 
collection of prints, and fine drawings 
by the old masters. He was invited to 
AUerton Hall once a week to pass the 
day, and dine with the distinguished 
persons who met there. When his en- 
gagement with Frances was drawing 
towards a close, Mr. Roscoe advised the 
young artist to go to Rome, which he 
said was the only place in Europe where 
sculpture could )>e studied with success. 
Notwithstanding the failure of Mr. Ros- 
coe^s bank, this gentleman collected 
among his friends a siun of £250 to 
enable Gibson to go to Italy. He left 
Liverpool for London with letters from 
Mr. Roscoe to Fuseli, R.A., to Flax- 
man, to a distinguished patroness of art, 
and to Mr. Christie, the auctioneer, a 
man of great taste and learning, who 
introduced him to George Watson Tay- 
lor, who became his generous patron. 
Mr. Flaxman urged Gil)Son to proceed 
to Rome. **Go, if possible," he said, 
**to that great university of art, and 
stay there as long as possible. The 
Marquis Canova," he added, "is most 
genefous to young students of promise." 
Gibson left England on the Ist of Octo- 
ber, 1817, with letters to the Marquis 
Canova from Lord Brougham, the late 
(general d'Aguilar of Liverpool, and 
FuseU. On his arrival at Rome, Canova 
looked over his drawings with great 
care. '*If you have as much indus- 
try," said the great sculptor, **as you 
have talent, we may expect great re- 
sults." He received the young sculp- 
tor as his pupil, and pressed upon 
him a handsome offer to pay all the 
expenses necessary to enable him to 
study upon a large scale. Mr. W. Taylor 
having removed all pecuniary difficulties, 
Mr. Gibson declined the generous offer 
of the Boman artist^ whose invaluable 




inBtructioDs and advice he enjoyed up 
to the period of his death, five years 
afterwards. Gibson then placed him- 
self under the tuition of Thorwaldsen. 
Canova introduced him to the English 
nohility who came to Rome, and there- 
by secured for him the jtatronage of 
the Duke of Devonshire, Sir George 
Beaumont, and other EInglish patrons 
of art. From them he received nu- 
merous orders. For Sir George Beau- 
mont he executed his group of ** Psyche 
borne by the Zephyrs," of which he has 
since made co}>ie8 for Prince Torlonia 
and the Emi>eror of Russia. The public 
works executed by Mr. Gibson at Rome 
and erected in London are, a colossal 
sitting statue of Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria, accompanied by ** Justice and 
Clemency," placed in the Prince's Cham- 
ber in the new Houses of Parliament ; 
a statue of Sir Robert Peel in West- 
minster Abbey ; and a statue of Hus- 
kisson at Lloyd's, Royal Exchange. He 
exccuteil two statues of Huskisson and 
one of George Stephenson at Liverpool, 
and another of Kirkman Finlay at 
Glasgow. Mr. Gibson was elected an 
AssfXiiato of the Royal Aeatlemy of Lon- 
don in 1833, and R.A. in 1836, and 
decorated with the Cross of the Legion 
of Honour for his works exhibited at 
the Paris Exhibition. He has been ad- 
mitted a member of all the art academies 
of EuroiHj. With the Chevalier Tenarani 
he now holds the highest place among 
the sculptors settled at Rome. Much 
of his technical skill he owes to Canova ; 
but if he has not in excellency of tlus 
kind outstripixKl his master, he has far 
excelleil him in the power of infusing 
sentiment and expression as well as 
beauty and grace into his figures. 

GIBSON, The Right Hon. Thomas 
MiLNER, was bom in 1807, at Trinidad. 
Having studied at Cambridge, he en- 
tered Parliament in 1837 as a Con- 
servative for Ipswich; but having 
adopted the opposite class of political 

opinions, he resigned his seat in 1839, 
and was twice unsuccessful in attempt- 
ing to re-enter Parliament In 1841 he 
successfully contested Manchester on 
Free-trade principles, and in 1846 he 
took office as Vice-President of the 
Board of Trade under Lord John Rus- 
sell, but relinquished the appointment 
in 1848, from a feeling that it fettered 
his independence. He was so strongly 
opposed to the war with Russia, 
and disapproved so heartily of the 
war with China, that at the general 
election of 1857 he was rejected by 
Manchester at the same time with Mr. 
Bright, who shared his then un})opular 
opinions. Subsequently he was returned 
for Ashton-under- Ly ne. He framed the 
now famous amendment on the Con- 
spiracy Bill, which shattere«l the ad- 
ministration of Lord Palmerston. When, 
in 1859, Lord Palmerston was again 
called to form an administration, Mr. 
Gibson was appointed President of the 
Board of Trade, an office he still holds. 
GILBERT, John Graham, a i)ainter, 
was bom at Glasgow, in April, 1794. 
In inde{)endent circumstances, but lov- 
ing art for its own sake, he became 
a pupil of the Royal Academy in 
1818. In 1819 he obtained the first 
silver medal for a drawing after the 
antique, and the gold medal of the 
Academy in 1821 for an historical pic- 
ture. After two years' study in Italy, 
during which he became distinguished 
for his knowledge of the Old Masters, 
he returned to Scotland, and raj)idly 
rose to a high position as a portrait- 
I»inter. All Mr. Graham Gilbert's 
works, whether of portraiture or ima- 
gination, arc characteristic His draw- 
ing is accurate, the expression of his 
works true and graceful, his colour 
warm, and his handling spirited and re- 
fined. Few i>ainters have done more to 
propagate a taste for the Fine Arts in 
Scotland than Mr. Graham Gilbert, and 
it is no small compliment to him to 




mention that many of his woAb are 
greatly appreciated on the Continent, 
where his style is much admired. He 
has painted fewer pictures than lovers of 
art could wish, but his circumstances 
are such that the productions of his hand 
became doubly valuable, inasmuch as 
none of them are painted for the market. 
He is a member of the Rojral Academy 
of Scotland, and had he chosen might 
long since have been a Royal Aca- 

GILFILLAN, the Rev. George, was 
bom at C'Omrie, in 1813, and studied at 
the University of Glasgow, and at the 
United Secession HalL He was licensed 
in 1835, and next year ordained minister 
of the School Wynd Congregation, Dun- 
dee, where he still remains. He became 
early attached to literature, and wrote a 
series of sketches of the principal literary 
characters of the day, which were pub- 
lished in 1845, and well received. In 
1849 he published his second *' Portrait 
Gallery," which was succeeded in 1854 
by a third volume of the &ame series. 
In 1850 he published his "Baids of the 
Bible," now in its fifth edition ; in 1851 
the '^Book of British Poetry ;" in 1852 
the '* Martyrs, Heroes, and Bards of the 
Scottish Covenant,** which has gone 
through six or seven editions; in 1853 
the "Grand Discovery;** in 1856 the 
** History of a Man,** supposed to be a 
sort of autobiography; and in 1857 
'* Christianity and our Era.** He has also 
printed several of his pulpit discourses ; 
and has issued forty volumes, forming 
part of a library edition of the '* British 
Poets,** with biographical and critical 
notes. He has just published a large 
work, entitled '* Alpha and Omega; or, 
a Series of Scripture Studies.** 

GIKARDIN, Ehile de, a French 
journalist, was bom at Paris, on the 
22nd of June, 1806. A false entry of 
his name was made in the register of 
births, in which he was described as 
Emile Delamothe, the son of an un- 

known father, and ** of Demoiselle La- 
mothe, sempstress, daughter of one Sieur 
Delamothe, residing in Mans,** all of 
these names being fictitious. We need 
scarcely say that he is an illegitimate 
child. For the first eight years of his 
life he was kindly treated by his father. 
Count Alexandre de Girardin, and his 
mother, Adelaide-Marie Fagnan, the 
daughter of M. Fagnan, financial secre- 
tary under Louis XVL His father 
married ; his mother also married. She 
became the wife of M. Dupuy, a mem- 
ber of the council of the Cour Royale 
of Paris. Then an attempt was made 
to bring him up in such a way that he 
should lose all trace of his origin, by 
boarding him with a horse-breaker at 
Pin, in Normandy. While living at 
this place, he attracted the notice of 
the Viscountess of Senonnes, who ob- 
tained, in 1824, a situation for him in 
the office of her husband, who was at 
the time a Cabinet minister. This gen- 
tleman, retiring soon afterwards, De 
Girardin was again thrown out of em- 
ployment. He offered himself for enlist- 
ment in a regiment of hussars, but was 
rejected as too delicate. It was then 
that he took to authorship, and assimied 
the name of De Girardin, in defiance of 
his father and mother. In his first 
work "Emile,** he describes his own 
condition. This work was very suc- 
cessful, and was criticised by Jules 
Janin as a ditf cPonivre. On April 
5th, 1828, he started a weekly publi- 
cation, consisting of articles judiciously 
selected from the journals, to which, 
with some audacity, he gave the name 
of "The Thief." In October, 1829, 
he set on foot a new publication 
called "La Mode,** which was nearly 
as successful, and to which Balzac, 
£ug5ne Sue, and Georges Sand, con- 
tributed. In 1831, he commenced a 
third serial, under the name of the 
"Journal of Useful Knowledge,** which 
immediately attained a circulation of 




230,000 copies. It was not till the 1st 
July, 1836, that he published the first 
number of the ** Presse," a daily news- 
paper, with which his name is now asso- 
ciated. It was issued at half the price 
of newsjMipers of the same class then in 
circulation, but the success of this new 
speculation fully justified the calcula- 
tions on which he had proceeded. In 
1831 M. de Girardin married Made- 
moiselle Delphine Gay; in 1836 he 
fought a duel with M. Armand Carrel, 
the editor of the ** National,'* in which 
the latter lost his life, and in 1837 he 
defended himself successfully against 
the protest respecting his admission to 
the Chamber of Deputies, on the ground 
that he was a Swiss and not a French- 
man ; satisfactory evidence having been 
obtained on the subject of his birth by 
a conmiission appointed to inquire into 
the facts. At eight o'clock on the 
morning of the memorable 24th Febru- 
ary, 1848, he went to the Tuileries to 
advise Louis Philippe of what was going 
forward in Paris, and he then wrote the 
abdication of the king. After the ac- 
cession of Louis-Napoleon, he had many 
quarrels with the government On the 
23rd of March, 1854, he received a 
fourth ctvertissementi in consequence of 
the appearance in the ♦*Pres8e" of a 
letter from Manin, and on the 23rd of 
September he was officially warned not 
to continue a series of articles headed 
"The Track of Revolutions." In con- 
sequence he retired from the active 
editorship of the paper two years after- 
wards, selling his interest in it for 
£32,000. Madame de Girardin having 
died in June, 1855, he married towards 
the close of 1856, Mademoiselle Mina 
Brunold, Countess of Tieffenbach, the 
daughter of the widow of Prince Fre- 
deric of Nassau, uncle of the reigning 
Duke of Nassau. The limits of this 
work do not admit of any detailed 
account of the political opinions of 
M. £mile de Girardin. Suffice it to say 

that an hiB principal articles are based 
upon the thou^t: Let all come by 
civilization, nothing by revolution ; all 
by immaterial force, nothing by material 
force. Let us have neither barriers nor 
barricades ; let us not obey the people, 
but employ theuL His principal articles 
have been collected and published under 
the title of "Questions of my Time," 
in 12 volumes 8vo, 1836 to 1856. A 
pamphlet which he published under the 
title of "La Guerre," in less than a 
fortnight ran through eight editions. 
His other chief works are " Le Droit," 
"La liberty," "UEmpire non la 
liberty," "Conqufite et Nationality," 
" La Civilisation et TAlgerie." 

GLADSTONE, the Right Hon. 
William Ewabt, M.P., an English 
parliamentary orator and statesman, was 
bom on the 29th December, 1809, and 
is son of the late Sir John Gladstone, 
Bart., an eminent Liveri)ool merchant. 
He received the usual education of the 
English youth of the wealthier classes, 
passing from Eton to Oxford, where he 
took what is technically termed a 
double-first, — ^that is, gained the high- 
est excellence in classics and mathe- 
matics. On leaving the university he 
made the tour of the Continent, and on 
his return was elected member of Par- 
liament for Newark. In 1834 he was 
appointed a Lord of the Treasury imder 
Sir Robert Peel ; and on the failure of 
the Hon. S. Wortley to obtain his seat 
when appointed Under-Secretary for the 
Colonies, Mr. Gladstone was transferred 
to the vacant office, which he held until 
the resignation of his chief in the s])ring 
of 1835. In 1841 he was api)ointed Vice- 
President of the Board of Trade, and 
Master of the Mint. In this situation 
he became the right hand of the govern- 
ment. His acquaintance with mercan- 
tile affairs enabled him to enter into 
the discussion of the most complicated 
commercial questions, and his literary 
ability and oratorical talent fitted him 




to nnfold his views with a clearness and 
precision which a mere business man 
yery rarely attains to. He held office 
as President of the Board of Trade 
for two years ; as Colonial Secretary 
he supported Sir Robert Peel in 1846 in 
his Free-trade measures, and in 1847 
became Member of Parliament for Ox- 
ford University. Having held the office 
of Chancellor of Exchequer imder Lords 
Aberdeen and Palmerston, he resigneil, 
owing to the latter consenting to the 
vote for a conmiittee of inquiry into the 
state of the army during the Russian war. 
Mr. Gladstone's acceptance under Lord 
Derby of a mission to the Ionian Is- 
lands has been the topic of much com- 
ment, and some little censure. But 
whatever may be thought either of its 
policy or its success, the entire disinter- 
estedness with which it was entered 
upon and executed is unquestionable. 
Loni Derby's Government, formed in 
1858, giving way in the following year, 
Lord Palmerston was recalled to the 
helm of affairs, and in the constitution 
of his ministry api)oihted Mr. Gladstone 
once more Chancellor of the Exchequer. 
Mr. Gladstone married in 1839 the 
eldest daughter of the late Sir Stephen 
Richard Glynne, Bart. In the same 
year he published a work, " The State 
in its Relation to the Church,'* which 
Macaiday subjected to a trenchant cri- 
ticism. This book was followed by 
another, ** Church Principles Considered 
in their Results." Whatever difference 
of opinion might exist resj^ecting the 
principles of these works, their publica- 
tion 8tani|>ed their author as one of the 
few original writers of the age. Mr. 
CJla<l8tone'8 ** Letters on the State of 
the Neapolitan IVifiious," addressed to 
Lord Abenieen, gave con^Tnciug evi- 
dence, that however much he might 
sympathise with what are called High 
Church prin(;iples, a wide gulf 8eparate<l 
him from the creatures of sacerdotal 
tyranny. These letters produced a 

jMwerful sensation, and resulted in 
some little amelioration of the con- 
dition of the victims of the oppressor. 
Mr. Gladstone is one of the first orators 
in the House of Commons. His late 
speeches on the Budget and the rei)eal 
of the Paper Duties (1860) have placed 
him in the foremost position. Mr. 
Gladstone's latest work, *' Homer and 
the Homeric Age," obviously the fruit 
of solid studies, is a noble contribution 
to the elucidation of the greatest monu- 
ment of Greek literature. 

GLEIG, THB Reverexd George 
Robert, a soldier, divine, and distin- 
guished author, was bom at Stirling, 
on the 20th April, 1796. He is the 
youngest son of the Right Reverend 
George Gleig, Scottish Episcopal Bishop 
of Brechin. At the age of thirteen he 
entered the University of Glasgow ; 
whence, before he was fifteen, he was 
removed to Balliol College, Oxford. 
After keeping six terms, he evinced 
such a decided preference for the mili- 
tary profession, that a commission was 
procured for him ; and having barely 
completed his seventeenth year, he joined 
the Duke of Wellington's army, then 
engaged in the sieges of St. Sebastian 
and Pam]^>eluna, in the summer of 1813. 
At the close of the Peninsular war he 
proceeded to America, and was shot in 
the thigh while taking an American 
colour at the battle of Bladensburg. 
Returning to Europe too late for the 
battle of Waterloo, he soon began to 
grow tired of a soldier's life in i>cace ; 
and though promoted to a company, 
on his father's suggestion he again 
pnxieeded to Oxfoni He took his 
degree in 1818> and in 1819 was 
admitted into deacon's orders on tho 
curacy of Westwill, in Kent. Mr. 
Gleig had early begun to write ; while 
at Oxford he translated "Aristotle's 
Poetics." In 1820 he completed his 
first acknowledged work, ** A Narrative 
of the Campaigns of the British Army at 




WjMhlii^vii, in New Orievis.** It ob< 

liUUi^xl a fair» Imt not a large share of 
|iuUio favour. But when by and by, 
iu liJCM, the ** Subaltern"— which ap- 
)NAark\l lui^ually as a aeries of papers in 
** lUav'kwooir* — came out, attention was 
drawn to the earlier volume, which 
l^arineil within a few months through 
thivi' etlitions. In 1822 Mr. Gleig was 
pre»ent«il to the perpetual curacy of 
Ash next Sandwich; and in April, 
1823, had the rectory of Ivy Church 
like^^nse given to him ; both by Manners 
Sutton, Archbishop of Canterbury. Be- 
tween 1822 and 1834 he produced, 
besides the two volumes already speci- 
fied, '*The Life of Sir Tliomas Munro,** 
in 3 vols. ; " The History of the Bible," 
in2vols.; ** The History of India" (in 
Murray's "Family Libraiy"), in 4 vols. ; 
'*The Country Curate,'' begun like the 
"Subaltern" in "Blackwood;" '^The 
Chelsea Pensioners," &c. The "Sub- 
altern" had early obtained for him the 
friendship of the Duke of Wellington, 
who made him his frequent guest at 
Walmer Castle ; and in 1834 Lord John 
RusseU, attracted by the same work, 
made him the spontaneous offer of the 
chaplaincy of Clielsea Hospital, which 
had then become vacant. In 1846 be 
was promoted to be Chaplain-General of 
the Forces, being at the same time 
appointed Inspector-General of Military 
Schools ; and in 1850 he was presented 
to a prebendal stall in St. Paul's. His 
latest work, published in 1858 and 1859, 
is " A Life of the Great Duke of Wel- 
lington," founded on the biography of 
Captain Brialmont, of the Belgian army ; 
but much enhanced in value from pri- 
vate and public documents, necessarily 
inaccessible to a foreigner. Besides the 
books enumerated above, he has pub- 
lished, at various times, "The Life of 
Lord Clive," "The Story of the Battle 
of Waterloo," "The Leipzig Campaign," 
"Chelsea Hospital and its Traditions," 
two volumes of "Sermons," and "A 

Guide to the Hdy Sacrament" Two 
volumes of "Essays," collected chiefly 
from the "Edinburgh " and "Quarterly" 
Reviews, extending over a wide range 
of subjects, have been published sepa- 
rately, and have been well received. 
Mr. Gleig is an extempore preacher of 
acknowledged power and eloquence. 

GLENCORSE, John Ingus, Lord, 
Lord-Justice-Clerk of Scotland, bom 
about 1810, is the son of the late Rev. 
Dr. Ii^glis, long an eminent leader in 
the Scottish Church. After graduating 
at the Edinburgh University he entered 
the bar, to which he was called in 1835, 
and so unmistakeable were his general 
powers, that he could scarcely be said to 
have ever undex^ne the drudgery of a 
junior counseL For a long series of 
years he stood at the head of the 
Scottish bar, and was so much es- 
teemed by his brethren as to be elected 
Dean of Faculty. In 1852 he was 
appointed Lord Advocate of Scotland ; 
and, with the view of being in Par- 
liament, contested the borough of 
Lisbum, Ireland ; where, though a per- 
fect stranger, and opposed by powerfid 
local influence, he was only defeated by 
a majority of fourteen votes. He had 
been previously defeated in a contest for 
Orkney, by a majority of but eleven 
votes. He held the oflice of Chief 
Law Adviser of the Crown in the 
northern part of the kingdom until 
the fall of the administration of Lord 
Derby, although unable to obtain a seat 
in Parliament. When the noble lord 
returned to power in 1858, Mr. IngUs 
was again appointed Lord-Advocate, a 
seat in Parliament being found for him 
at Stamford. After a brief but highly suc- 
cessful career in the House of Commons, 
on the death of the Hon. John Hope 
Mr. Inglis was raised to the bench as 
Lord-Justice-Clerk, and assumed the 
title of Lord Glencorse. 

GODWIN, Gborok, architect, editor 
of the "Builder," was bom on 28th 




January, 1815, at Brompton, Middle- 
sex, and early embraced his father's 
profession. Possessing, however, a taste 
for literature and science, he contributed 
in 1835 to the " Litenuy Union," and 
afterwards received a medal from the 
Royal Institute of British Architects 
for his "Essay on Concrete." He is 
one of the founders of the London Art 
Union, of which he became honorary 
secretaiy in 1839, in which capacity he 
has continued to act up to the present 
time. He published his excellent and 
interesting work, "The Churches of 
London," in 1838, was elected a Fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries in 1839, 
a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1840, 
and obtained a medal from the Soci6t6 
libre des Beaux Arts of Paris. His 
contributions to the ** Art Journal," 
the ** Civil Engineer and Architect's 
Journal,** and generally to current art 
and literature, are so numerous, as to 
render a catalogue of them beyond our 
power of publication. In 1844 he 
became editor of the "Builder," and in 
1853 published his "History in Ruins;" 
in 1854, his "London Shadows," an 
inquiry into the condition of the homes 
of the poor; and since, " Town 
Swamps and Social Bridges,** " Memo- 
rials of Workers,** &c. He has designed 
and erected a number of public edifices, 
and has been appointed Surveyor under 
the Metropolitan Building Act. Mr. 
Godwin was one of the jurors at the 
Great Exhibition of 1851, is a Vice- 
President (1860) of the Institute of 
British Architects, and a member of 
many learned societies. His services 
to the advancement of architecture, 
science, and social and sanitaiy improve- 
ment, have been as untiring as merito- 

GOLDSCHMIDT, Madame (Jenny 
Lind), was bom at Stockholm on the 
6th October, 1821, and by her musical 
talents was at an early age taken notice 
of by an actress at the theatre of her 

native city, who became her best ad- 
viser and most valued friend. After 
recei\'ing instniction from eminent mas- 
ters, she eventually made her deb(it 
achieved a complete success, and con- 
tinued for some time at Stockholm. She 
afterwards proceeded to Paris, for the 
purpose of receiving lessons from Garcia^ 
but from whom she received little en- 
couragement Her talents were, how- 
ever, recognised by Meyerbeer, who 
offered her an engagement at Berlin. 
From this moment Mademoiselle Lind's 
fame became European. A constant 
series of engagements was offered to 
her, and her appearances at Berlin, 
Vienna, and at Her Majesty *s Theatre, 
in London, were so many triumphs, in 
which the audiences were comjiletely 
carried away in their enthusiastic recep- 
tion of this gifted singer. To so great 
an extent did the furore exist in London, 
that the doors of the oi>era house were 
nightly crowded for hours before the 
conmiencement of the performances, and 
tickets were often re-sold at fabulous 
prices. Proceeding to America, where 
her recex)tion was as enthusiastic and as 
profitable as she could |)06sibly have 
desired, she was married to M. Otto 
Goldschmidt, in 1851. In the following 
year they returned to Europe. Since 
then, Madame Goldschmidt has rarely 
ap|)eared in public, spending her time 
and fortune in assisting and founding 
various charitable institutions, and win- 
ning from all the highest praise for the 
benevolence of her disposition, as she 
had previously done by the exercise of 
her talents. 

GOMM, General Sir William May- 
NARD, G.C.B., was bom in 1784. He 
received his commission as Ensign in the 
9th Infantry on the 24th May, 1794. 
When but fourteen he served in Hol- 
land, with the rank of Lieutenant ; was 
present at the battles of 19th September 
and 2nd October, 1799, and ever since, 
with the exception of some time passed 

GOO 193 GOO 

in ihii B/'/ra] ^Llharj Co!le^ be ha.« lot fpeciallj dfTxHing hk 
l>b«:x. ^'.tTTfrlj eifi;^>v<?d. H« h^ tl:i= ec paring. Heha«execiifiEda 
l^^a ffixtV'Ciz j*:ars oijd'er anzis. &:>i b&r of en^rariagi for ilhuaated 
liM impt^ a« ixrach i/.-vaal eerrioe a.% azn:^ which comMOKan rsnk tiioae 
l^.riA'jj* aifv 'yu«*T BritieL officer d</» f^.r I^>gers*s " Italy," aad *'Pkaciim of 
li^-iL;;^ la I'ifJ l*t »«Ted a;: the HeMer Mem^.ry/* as tlie best. Tht gmtest of 
ULt'l*:T tL<; Duke of Yf/rk, asd in ISOl Lis wcprks, howerer. are his lai)^ line 
unrvt^l vjAffT .Sir JazEte^ PuIi«tneT. In ec;c7avingB fr-:<n Turners "CologDe'* and 
l¥i3 Le wM jT-yc^/t^d to iLe rank of ^'TivolL." and the Tarioos other en> 
ilA]AA:iL. MT%>:^1 in UanoT4rr in l^Oo, an^l grairin^ which he has exeoned ttamt 
at <>-jA;.La^'»Ti and ^traLnind in 1&07. Tnraers landsa4wa. Few cn gtaieia . 
In I y/!> he wu 'li>ftii:.i.^^JH^ in the either fast or preaent, hare more dUmefy 
0/ritii.«;r^tA] caznjxai^ of that year, in the imite«l rigour with refinemenL For the 
WaJ'.Lf^^n exi^iition, and at the sie;^e Ia£t ten years (owing to the want of en> 
of n*i.>hiii;L an/1 in ]%10 he was onhrrefl cr»uragement to landscape engraving) he 
t^>th<: IVLiifiTiJa, an'l t^^'k jArt in nearly has been ahn^^st exclnsiTefy engaged 
all th'; 'tTThki P^^ninsular en;;!ai:ementfi. ufion figure sabjects, and pnndpaUj 
He obtaiii^l his ii»ajority in Octolx-r, fn-^m the pictures of his son, Mr. F^ 
181 1, arid U,-caiue Lieut^.-naut-Colonel in derick GoodaU, among which may be 
Juiy, I >» 1 2, liein^j then thirty years of a^e. mentioned '* The Angel s WhiBpa*, " 
He W3UJ one of the vifrVfn at Waterloo, **The Soldiers D.-^eam," "An ^aaode 
where he l'^/ke*l after Pict^m's cele- of the Ha[>pier Days of Charles L," and 
}/n»U:tl division, the **Fi;;h ting Fifth," "Cranmer at the Traitor s Gate," The 
in the caf^acity of Quartermaster-Gene- last-named, remarkable for its vigorous 
raL In 1829 he l^ecame Colonel of the execution, may be considered his finest 
I3tli Li;:ht Infantry, and has since re- hist^^rical plate. 

<vA\*^\ the Grand Crr^hs of the Hath as , GOODALL, Frederick, an historical 
an svhViUmui] hon^^ur ; }>eing one of thf/se painter, was bom in London in 1822. 
officer*! tranj<f«rrre<l frr>m the I^e to the He was instructed by his father in the 
^/uanU. A Colonel in 1829, and Major- elements of art, and at an early age oh- 
Geri'-ral in 18.'^', in 184^) he was ap- tained the Lns medal from the Society 
ftf'iiiti'*! Ut iite command of the trfK^jM of Arts for a drawing of Lambeth 
in Jamaica, and after n;tuming U) Eng- Palace, and in the following year their 
land WA» cliarged with tlie command large silver medal for his first work in 
of the army in the Northern Dij*trict, oil, " Finding the Dead Body of a Miner 
from which he was removed in 1S4.>, , by Torchlight." After travelling in 
iMfinj; noniiuatcil CivU Governor and Normandy in 1838, he sent to the 
Offnmander of the Forces in Mauritius. ^ Royal Academy's Exhibition (1839) his 
In \HUthf: was elevatefl to the rank of. ** French Soldiers drinking in a Caba> 
Lieut<'nant'General, and on the rcsigna- , ret," a most remarkable work, and 
tion by Sir Charles Napier of the chief . one which manifested a peculiar talent 
command in India in 1851, was ap- , for depicting ])opular subjects. Extend- 
]Hiint4:«l hea<l of the Indian army, which , ing his travels, he soon obtained fresh 
he rr;tained till the close of the year subjects for his brush. Patrons, among 

1 Hit'}. 

GOGDALL, Edward, an eminent 

whom was William Wells of Bed- 
leaf, freely assisted the young artist. 

en;^;iv<fr, was l>r*m at Leeds in 1705. by ])urcha8ing his productions ; the 
At a very early age his mind was ." Christening " obtained him a prize 
attracted to the study of the fine arts, j from the British Institution ; and 




in 1842 Mr. Vernon purchased the 
"Tired Soldier." At twenty, Goodall 
was thua a really great artist. In 1847 
he produced his "Village Festival," 
which was immensely admired. ** Hunt 
the Slipper," "Raising the Maypole," 
and "The Swing," are admirable for their 
touches of nature and character. ' * Cran- 
mer at the Traitor's Gate," exhibited at 
Liverpool in 1858, gained the £100 prize. 
In 1852 he became an A. R. A., a position 
which he had fairly earned by his 
"Village Festival," painted some years 

GORDON, Lady Lucy Dufp, is weU 
known by her able translations of the 
works of some continental authors. Of 
these the most valuable are, Ranke's 
* * History of Prussia, " Niebuhr's * * Greek 
Legends," and Fuerbach's "Criminal 
Trials." In all her productions she is 
extremely studious to present to the 
English reader a faithful reproduction 
of the text of the originaL 

GORDON, Sir John Watson, 
P. R. S. A. , R. A. , was bom in £dinbiu>gh, 
towards the close of the last century. 
He is the eldest son of the late Captidn 
James Watson, R.N., the name of 
Gordon having been subsequently as- 
sumed. His professional life has been 
spent in Edinburgh, where he is regarded 
as the not unworthy successor of Rae- 
biun. Diu*ing his long career, Sir John 
Watson Gordon has painted almost all 
the leading men in Scotland, and latterly 
many distinguished i)er8on8 in England, 
and his portraits of his countrymen are 
thoroughly characteristic. In 1841 Gor- 
don was elected an Associate of the 
London Royal Academy, in 1850 he be- 
came President of the Scottish Academy, 
was afterwards knighted, and appointed 
painter limner to the Queen in Scotland, 
and al)out the same time also elected a 
Royal Academician. 

GORE, Mrs. Catherine Frances, a 
well-known writer of fiction, was bom 
in London in 1800. Her first produc- 

tion, "Theresa Marchmont," was highly 
successful, and o|)ened out a long and 
brilliant career for her as a clear, vivid, 
and imaginative writer. It would be 
impossible to enumerate in this slight 
sketch all the productions of Mrs. Gore's 
pen. She has succeeded most admirably 
in depicting scenes from daily life in 
her "Women as they are," "Mothers 
and Daughters," " Memoirs of a Peer- 
ess," and many similar works. In her 
"Hungarian Tales" she vividly por- 
trays the habits and customs of Hun- 
gary. As a gentle satirist we may 
name her "Cecil, or the Adventures at 
a Coxcomb," " The Woman of the 
World," "The Poimlar Member," and 
" The Sketch-book of Fashion." As a 
moralist any of her works may be ad- 
duced as an illustration. There are 
few living writers who have been so 
successful in acquiring |K)pularity, 
which perhaps may be owing to the 
life-like nature of all of Mrs. Gore's 
novels. In 1823 she was married to 
Captain Gore of the Ist Life Guards, 
and became a widow in 1846. She has 
been the mother of ten children, of 
whom two survive : Lady Edward 
Thynne, married to a son of the second 
Marquis of Bath ; and Augustus Went- 
worth Gore, A.D.C. to the Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, who served with 
distinction on the staff at Lucknow 
and in the Rohilcund campaign, and 
was repeatedly commended in des- 
patches. Mrs. Gore has for some time 
past been deprived of sight. 

GORGEI, Arthur, was born on the 
5th Feb., 1818, at Toporcz, in Upper 
Hungary. In 1832 he was sent to the 
military school at Tuln, where he re- 
mained for five years, when he entered 
the royal Hungarian life guards at 
Vienna, and ultimately l)ecame lieutenant 
of Hussars. Subsequently he quitted the 
army, and devoted himself to the study 
of science, chiefly chemistry. At the csil 
of the Hungarian committee of defence, 




GOrgci exchanged the laboratory for the 
camm and became a captain of Honveds. 
From this comparatively humble rank 
Kossuth had so high an opinion of his 
talents that he raised him to the posi- 
tion of commander-in-chief of the Hun- 
garian national army. General Moga 
being incapacitated for command. Win- 
dischgnitz was too able a general for 
Gtirgei, who was compelled to abandon 
Presburg, and only saved his army by a 
timely retreat. After being twice super- 
seded, he resumed the chief command ; 
meeting some reverses, and achieving 
some victories, he became Dictator vice 
Kossuth. Personal ambition and per- 
sonal animosities paralysed his military 
genius, and, in a moment of adverse 
fortune, he surrendered at discretion to 
the representative of Russia. Since the 
fidl of Hungary he has resided at Kla- 
genfurth. In 1852 he published at 
Leipzig a vindication of his ''treason,'* 
which has since appeared in England, 
under the title of "My Life and Acts 
in Hungary." 

GORTCHAKOFF, Prince Alex- 
ander, Russian diplomatist, cousin to 
Prince Michael, the General, bom 17^, 
was a student at Zarskoe-Selo and made 
the friendship of the poet Pouschkin. 
In 1824 he was Secretary of embassy 
to London, and in 1830 was Charge 
d*Affaires at Florence. In 1832 he 
was attached to the Russian embassy at 
Vienna, where the illness and subse- 
quent death of his chief gave him great 
influence. In 1841 he was envoy to 
Stuttgartl, with the title of Ambassador 
Extraordinary, and happily negotiated 
the marriage of the Prince Royal of 
Wurtemburg with the Russian Grand- 
duchess Olga, daughter of the Czar. 
For this service he received civil promo- 
tion corresponding to the rank of Lieu- 
tenant-General. In 1850 he proceeded 
to the Germanic Diet at Frankfort ; and 
in 1 854 succeeded Count Orloff at Vienna, 
to represent Russian interests at that 

court. He is one of the old Muscovite 
party, totally antagonistic to reform. As 
a statesman, he holds no status whatever, 
but as a diplomatist, he is looked to as 
little, if anything, inferior to Nesselrode. 
GORTCHAKOFF, Prince Michael 
Dmitkievitch, Commander-in-chief of 
the Russian army of the South, belong- 
ing to one of the great Russian houses 
descended of the stock of Rurik, the 
founder of the monarchy, was bom in 
1792. Entering the army in 1807, he 
served as an artillery officer in 1809 in. 
Persia, and was afterwards at the battles 
of Borodino, Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden, 
and Leipzig, taking part in the cam- 
paigns of the Allies against France. In 
1828 he was general of brigade, charged 
to operate against the Turks on the 
Danube, where he exhibited great 
vigour and ability in conducting the 
passage of the river, and remarkable 
skill as an engineer in conducting the 
siege of SiUstria. He served in the 
campaign against Poland, and was se- 
verely wounded on the memorable days 
of the 6th and 7th of September. In 
1846 Prince Gortchakoff was named 
military Governor-general of Warsaw, 
and from this period he devoted much 
of his attention to the improvement of 
the Polish capital He secured for it an 
ample supply of water before the i)eriod 
of the Russian war, and since then he 
has introduced gas and many improve- 
ments connected with the sanitary con- 
dition of the city. As a major-general, 
he in 1849 accompanied the Russian 
army which crippled the Hungarians in 
their stmggle for nationality. In 1852 
he attended the funeral of the Duke of 
Wellington as military representative 
of Russia ; and in the succeeding year 
Grortchakoff conmianded in the Princi- 
palities. He besieged Silistria, and 
maintained the land blockade for months, 
until at length orders were forwarded 
for the evacuation and raising the siege. 
The result of his generalship is a matter 




of contemporaneous history, which does 
not demand special exposition. ''The 
passage of the Danube, in the month 
of March, 1854," says the "Nord" of 
10th June, 1857, "the retrograde move- 
ment through the Principalities into 
Bessarabia, and the heroic defence of 
Sebastopol, are feats of arms and military 
combinations worthy of the greatest 
commanders ; but if these services con- 
fer a title to the esteem and admiration 
of military men, the operations and 
movements which followed the evacua- 
tion of Sebastopol should secure for the 
Kussian commander-in-chief the respect 
of every intelligent soldier and the gra- 
titude of his countrymen." Politically, 
he has always entertained the opinions 
of an enlightene<l Kussian. Prince 
Alexander Gortchakoff, the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, is not brother, but 
cousin to Prince Michael Grortchakoff. 

GOSSE, Philip Henky, a writer on 
natural history, was bom at Worcester, 
in 1810. His taste for his favourite 
study was early displayed. Proceeding 
in 1827 to Newfoundland, he there 
made an entomological collection. After 
some years he proceeded to Lower Ca- 
nada, afterwards travelling through the 
United States. Two works, «« The 
Canadian Naturalist," and *' Letters from 
Alabama," resulted from these travels. 
He visited Jamaica, and as the result of 
his researches, on his return to England 
published works on the ornithology 
and general zoology of that island. 
Ho has since devoted much time to 
microscopic researches, chiefly in con- 
nexion with marine zoology and the 
aqiiariimi, on which subjects he has 
published several volumes. His latest 
work (18C0), and that on which his re- 
putation will mainly rest, is "A History 
of the British Sea Anemones and Co- 

GOUGH, Hugh, Lord, a British 
soldier, was bom in November, 1779, on 
his father*8 estate of Woodstown, in the 

county of Limerick. When fourteen he 
entered the army as Lieutenant in the 
34th Foot, and in 1795 was engaged 
with his regiment at the capture of 
Cspe Town, and of the Dutch fleet in Sal- 
danha Bay. After taking part in the 
subsequent campaign in the West Indies, 
he became Major in the 87th, and went 
out to Spain in 1809, where he commanded 
his corps in the hard-fought fields of 
Talavera, Vittoria, Nivelle, Cadiz, and 
Tarifa. He was wounded in three of 
the actions, had a horse shot under him 
at Talavera, and was by the Duke of 
Wellington recommended to a commis- 
sion as Lieutenant-Colonel as a reward 
for his gallantry. In 1837 he proceeded 
to India, but shortly afterwards was 
ordered to China, where he commanded 
the troops that attacked Canton. All the 
military operations against China then 
were under his direction ; until the treaty 
of Nankin in 1842 concluded the war, 
and General Gough was raised to the 
Baronetcy, receiving at the same time 
the thanks of both Houses of Parlia- 
ment. He was also made a G.C.B. He 
returned to India in 1843, as Commander- 
in-chief of the forces there, and led his 
troops against the Mahrattas, whom he 
signally defeated at Maharajpore. In 
1845 and 1846, the Sikhs becoming in* 
veterate in their animosity to British 
rule. Sir Hugh Gough commanded in 
person our army, and obtained the vic- 
tories of Moodkee, Ferozeshah, and So- 
braon, the latter one of the most ardu- 
ously contested battles ever fought in 
the East. For his conduct, services, 
and generalship he was elevated to the 
Peerage, again receiving the thanks of 
the Houses of Lords and Commons. In 
1848-49 the Sikhs once more attempted 
to overthrow British dominion, and once 
more Lord Gough was conqueror, and 
gained the triumph of Goojcrat. For 
the third time he was thanked by Par- 
liament, and the Crown, to mark his 
merit, created him Viscount Gough, re- 


ceiving also a penaioa from Oie East 
Iiiilia Compaiiy, aail one from the 
Dfttian. In 1S54 he was promated 
ta Colonel of the 60tb lUfles, u au. 
ceuor to the Duke of Wellingtoi 
and CnloDi!! of the Boyal Horse Guorda, 
vacant by the ilesth of the Marqu 
Anglesea. In Jimo, 1S66, Lord Gough 
■waa dejiuted by her MajaaQ', a» 
repreaeotative, to present to the several 
officers of the English and French 
nmiy in the Crimea the insignia of the 
Ordi;i- of the Bath. In 18S8 ha waa 
sworn one of her Majesty's Privy CottJi- 
cil in Englaml. 

GOUGH, JiiHS B., an erainent tem- 
peniDCe lecturer, n-oa bom in 1817, at 
Sandgnte, Kent. Hia father had 
a soliher, and hia mother was the village 
Bchoolmiatrcsa. At twelve years of age 
be left ilia [lorents and accampaoied a 
famUy to Ameriua, for the purpoae of 
learuing a trade. Failing to attain tua 
object after a residence of two years 
with this family, he, witli his father's 
consent, removed to New York, for the 
purpose of learning a business there, 
lo 1833 hifl mother and aiater joined 
bim in that city — Ids fathur, remaining 
in England, seeking to commute l>is 
pension. Hia mother died in 1834, and 
■oon after Gongh, yielding to tempta- 
tion, sunk into very diasipated habits. 
In 1842 he made on energetic effort to 
reform, aufl after a hard struggle, in 
which he ivos foiled once, he obtained a 
victory, and aiace 1843 boa been ohnoBt 
constantly engaged in advocating the 
principles of the temperance reforma- 
tion, both in Great Britain au<l America. 
He hoH lately retomed to America (1860), 
after lecturing in the leading towns in 
this country during the laxt few yeot^ 

GOULD, Anocrarna AnDiaoN, »n 
American naturalist, woa bom on the 
23rd April, 1805, at New Ipswich, New 
Eamjisbire, Cuited States. Taking the 
degree of Bachelor of Arta, at the Uui- 
vetH^ of Cambridge, New England, in 

36 OOU 

1 S25, and of Doctor in Medicine ii 
be has since that time practised hia pro- 
fession in Bontoo. His principal pub- 
lished works are — an " Abridgment and 
Translation of Lamarck's Genera of 
Sheila;" " A Keport on the Invertebrat* 
of Massachuaetts " (1^1) < " Mollua» 
and Sheila of (io United States' Eiplop- 
ing Expedition, under Captain Wilkes 
4to, Washington, 1852, with an Atlaa 
of Pistes, in alt folio ;" " Sheila of the 
North Pacific Expedition," under CapL 
Kinggold and I{odg>!T3 (ready for the 
press); and numerous paiiers in medical 
and scientific periodicals. The " Fria- 
ciples of Zoology," which were written 
jointly with Agoasiz, and published in 
1848, were republished in Bohn's Scien- 
tific Library, 1851 ; and translated into 
German by Professor Brown, Stuttgard* 
1861. The "Terrestrial Air- lirea thing 
Molluscs of the Uuited States," by 
Amos Binney — a posthumoua work 
eilited, and to a considerable citent 
written by Mr. Gould — was published, 
with a biographical memoir, in 1S51-S5. 
GODLD, Benjamis Apthobp, was 
born September 27th, 1 834, in Boston, and 
graduated at Harvard College in 1844, 
and at GiiUiDgen la 1848. In 1349 be 
established the "AatrouomicalJoumal," J 
which he edits with great ability. He I 
has contributed to the " Reitorta of the 
Naval Aatronomical Expedition" (1857J, 
to the "UoaatSurvey Reports" (1852-57), 
and to various American scientific jour- 
nals and periodicAla. among others, to the 
"New York Quarterly." and the "Amo- 
Lean Journal of Scieace." 
GOULD, JoBH, P.R.S., an English 
naturalist, was bom at L3'me, in Dorset- 
shire, on the 14th September, 18M. At 
_ very early age he manifested a decidsd ' 
incUnation for the study of natural hia- 1 
tory. Mr. Gould published a description 
e hundred Inilinn birds in his work 
called "A Century of Birds from the 
Himalaya Moimtains," his accomplished 
wife being their pictorial illnsbvtor. 




This work was succeeded bj the "Birds 
of Europe." In 1838 Mr. Gould pro- 
ceeded to Australia, for the purpose of 
enabling him to publish his great works 
on the birds and mammals of that coun- 

the House. In 1834, in conjunction wiiii 
Lord Stanley, Sir James left the Grey 
cabinet, on what is known as the *'Ap- 
propriation Clause,'' and for some yean 
attached himself to no particular party. 

try. His other publications are — **The In 1841 he was Home Secretary under 
Birds of Asia,'' the <* Birds and Sir Robert PecL In 1844 he had the 
Mammals of Australia," "A Mono- misfortune to become, for a time, the 
graph of the RhamphastidsB, or Family ' most unpopular of public men. The 
of Toucans," **A Monograph of the ; tragic fate of the brothers Bandiera in- 
Trogonidffi, or Family of Trogons," ** A j duced Mazzini to suspect that his letters 

had been openedin the London post-office, 
and their secrets betrayed. By an adroit 
stratagem, suspicion was converted into 
conviction. The member for Finsbiuy, 
Mr. Duncombe, brought the subject 
birds. All these works are in imperial before the House of Commons, comment- 

Monograph of the Odontophorinfe, or 
Partridges of America," and *' A Mono- 
graph of the Trochilidae, or Humming 
Birds," the figures of which are taken 
from his unrivalled collection of these 

folio, and it may be fairly said that it 
has never fallen to the lot of any indi- 

ing uiwn the espionage in a strain of the 
most withering invective, and assailing 

vidual to carry through with such com- the Knight of Netherby with the bitterest 
plete success so fine a series of works on 
natural history. 

GRAHAM, Right Hon. Sir James 
RoBEKT George, a distinguished Eng- 

l>er8onal taunts. When Sir Robert Peel 
inaugurated his Free-trade policy. Sir 
James was found by his side combating 
with all the vigour of his trenchant 

lish statesman, was bom at Nctherby, - logic the fallacies of Protection. Sir 

in Cumberland, in June, 1792. Educated James Graham retired from office on the 

at Westminster, and at Queen's College, 

Cambridge, he entered public life as 

Secretary to Lord Montgomerie, in Sicily, 

and subsequently acted under Lord 

William Bentiuck. In 1818 he was chosen 

Mem1x>r of Parliament for Hull, on 

principles which were quite opposite to 

thoae of his father, who accordingly 

declined to assist him in pecuniary mat- 
ters. At this time Sir James was an 

eminent anil prolific pamphlet writer, 

and maintained opinions of a very liberal 

character. He became Baronet on his 

father's death, and was elected for Car- 
lisle in 1826, which city he represents 

at the present time (1860), and in 1830 

became, under Earl Grey, First Lord of 

the Admiralty, where he introduced a 

system of rigid economy, and generally 

improved the administration of his de- 
partment. In 1831 he was connected 

with the Reform Bill, and assisted 

greatly in procuring its passage through 

defeat of the Irish Coercion Bill, the 
opposition to which was led by Lord 
George Bentinck and Mr. Disraeli as a 
matter of political revenge on Sir Robert 
Peel, for carrying the repeal of the Com 
Laws. He did not again enter any gov- 
ernment until he succeeded to his old 
position as First Lord of the Admiralty, 
under Lord Aberdeen. He resigned 
office under Lord Palmerston, from not 
sharing the opinions of his chief on the 
justice of the Russian war. In the 
House of Commons, Admiral Sir Charles 
Napier assailed Sir James Graham, with 
great heat, for his mo<le of fitting out 
the Baltic fleet, when the country 
"drifted into war." Sir James denied 
some of the Admiral's allegations, but 
the latter, returning to the charge, brought 
forward undoubted evidence to prove ^at 
Sir James was actually in fault; whether 
from an inordinate desire for economy, 
or from miscalculation, or from no spe* 




cial wish that the Britiah Fleet shoTild 
take decisive action against Russia^ has 
never been clearly explained, for all 
three accusations were pref eired against 
the Sirst Lord of the Admiralty, and 
only evaded, not rebutted. In 1859, 
when Lord Derby's Reform Bill was dis- 
coBsed in the House of Commons, Sir 
James announced himself, in a speech of 
considerable ability, as holding opinions 
which verged upon advanced liberalism. 
He holds no office in the Government 
formed by Lord Palmerston in 1859, 
when Lord Derby resigned. 

GRAHAM, Thomas, F.R.S., D.C.L., 
M.A., Master of the Mint, was bom at 
Glasgow in 1805. He was educated 
first at the Glasgow Grammar School, 
and afterwards at the University, where 
he took the degree of MA. in 1826. 
After spending some time in Edinbui^h 
he returned to Glasgow, and having 
lectured successfully to the Mechanics* 
Lutitution, he was elected Professor of 
Chemistry in the Andersonian Uni- 
versity. In 18*36 he was admitted a 
Fallow of the Royal Society, and in 
1837 appointed Professor of Chemistry 
in the London University, having some 
three years before been awarded the Keith 
Prize of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
for a work on the law of the diffusion 
of gases. In the meantime he had pub- 
lished several works connected with the 
science of which he was a professor, the 
principal of which is the ** Elements of 
Chemistxy," a book which has reached 
several editions in this country, and been 
translated into the French and German 
languages. In 1855 the University of 
Oxford conferred on him the degree of 
D.C.L, and the same year, when Sir 
John Herschel retired from the Master- 
ship of the Mint, Dr. Graham was ap- 
pointed to the office. 

GRANT, Francis, KA. and Hon. 
Member R.S.A, an English portrait 
painter, was bom in Perthshire, in 
1810, and is the fourth son of Francis 

Grant, Esq., of Kilgraston. He was 
elected A.R.A. in 1842, and R.A. in 
1851. In the commencement of his 
career he painted several hunting groups, 
such as the **Meet of His Majesty's 
Stag Hounds," the engraving of which 
is familiar to most of those who take an 
interest in art This picture, which is 
now in the possession of the Earl of 
Chesterfield, was exhibited at the Paris 
Exhibition, and secured for the artist, 
with another picture sent at the same 
time, a first-class gold medaL Mr. 
Grant also painted the '* Melton Hunt,** 
a picture of the same class, which was 
purchased by the late Duke of Welling- 
ton, and is now at Apsley House. Sub- 
sequently this artist has especially de- 
voted himself to portrait painting. Some 
years ago he might have been described 
as the painter of the heau monde in 
London, the most celebrated fashionable 
beauties of the day having sat to him. 
Of late years, however, he has been 
almost exclusively occupied in painting 
eminent statesmen, soldiers, lawyers, 
and divines, among whom may be enu- 
merated several of the bishops. Lord 
Derby, Lord John Russell, Lord Har- 
dinge. Lord Gough, Sir George Grey, 
Lord Truro, and Lord Campbell The 
Queen and Prince Albert sat to him for 
an equestrian portrait, which is now in 
Christ's Hospital He subsequently 
painted another equestrian portrait of 
Her Majesty for the Army and Navy 
Club. The style of Mr. Grant has been 
compared most injudiciously with that 
of Lawrence, whose meretricious and 
affected manners h^ has always avoided 
while aiming at truth and character 
combined with refinement. He always 
succeeds in touching his pictures with a 
certain aristocratic elegance, in arrang- 
ing the various parts of his figures with 
grace, and in imparting a poetical cha- 
racter to them by the pose of the head. 

GRANT, Jabhes, a novelist, was 
bom at Edinbui^ on the 1st of Au- 




goat, 1822. He is the son of Captain 
John Grant, and at an early age went 
with his father and a detachment of 
soldiers to Newfoundland, where he con- 
tinued several years. In 1839 he re- 
turned to the mother country, when 
Lord Hill made him an Ensign in the 
62nd Regiment, the depdt of which he 
conmianded for some time. Preferring 
literary to military pursuits, he has 
since published many works, among 
which may be enumerated the "Ro- 
mance of War," "Jane Seton," "Philip 
RoUo,'* the "Adventures of an Aide- 
de-Camp," " Scottish CavaUer," "Both- 
weU," " Frank HUton," "TheYeUow 
Frigate," " Phantom Regiment," "The 
Bhick Dragoon," " HighUnders of Gle- 
nora," "Arthur Blane," "Hollywood 
Hall," and the " Legends of the Bhick 
Watch," which all bear the impress of 
his peculiar style. His " Philip RoUo** 
is well known in France as " Les Mous- 
quetaires ^cossais ;" and his " Romance 
of War" is a favourite in Germany as 
the "Hochlander in Spanien." All his 
romances have been printed repeatedly 
at Leipzig. In addition to his novels, he 
has published several historical works 
— "Memoirs of Ejrkaldy of Grange" 
(1849), "Memorials of the Castle of 
Edinburgh" (1850), "Life of Montrose" 
(1856), "Cavaliers of Fortune, or Bri- 
tish Heroes in Foreign Wars" (1858), 
&c. He describes scenes, persons, and 
incidents, so as to make them stand out 
like pictures. Almost all his military 
works, so to call them, have been pub- 
lished in a cheap form, and have also 
been translated into the French, Ger- 
man, and Swedish languages. Mr. Grant 
married, in July 1854, the eldest daugh- 
ter of James Browne, LL.D., Advocate, 
the well-known author of the " History 
of the Highlands and Highland dans," 
Ac. &c 

GRANVILLE, Gboboi Lkveson 
GowEB, Earl, was bom May 1 1th, 1815. 
After studying at Eton and Oxford he 

proceeded to Paris as aUaehi, but re- 
turned to England in 1836, when he was 
elected Member of Parliament for Mor- 
peth. He shortly afterwards nuide his 
maiden speech on the Spanish question, 
which was highly successfuL In 1840 
he married Maria, daughter of the Due 
de Dalberg, who has recently died. He 
moved the address at the beginning of 
the next session, and then resigned in 
order to become Under Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs, and was re- 
elected in 1841. He succeeded to hii 
father's title in 1846, became Master of 
her Majesty*8 Buckhounds, and after- 
wards Conmussioner of Railways and 
Vice-President of the Board of Trade. 
As Chairman of the Royal Commission 
and Finance Committee of the Great 
Exhibition, Earl Granville contributed 
largely by his amiability and manage- 
ment to the general success of the enter- 
prise. At tiie Paris Exhibition he highly 
pleased the noblesse and municipality by 
a speech spoken in the purest French 
and of the happiest allusion. At the 
close of the Exhibition he was called to 
the Cabinet, and succeeded the veteran 
diplomatist Lord Palmerston as Foreign 
Secretary. He has held office as Presi- 
dent of the Council, and Chancellor of 
the Duchy of Lancaster. In 1856 he 
was chosen to assist at the coronation 
of the Czar, Alexander IL, with the 
title of Ambassador Extraordinary. 
Lord Derby's resignation in 1859, lead- 
ing to the formation of a new govern- 
ment by Lord Palmerston, Earl Gran- 
ville was appointed President of the 
Council and leader of the House of 
Lords. In 1857 he was appointed Chan- 
cellor of the University of London and 
Knight of the Garter. 

GRATTAN, Thomas Ck)LLEY, a po- 
pular noveUst, was bom in Dublin, 
1796. Distantly connected with the 
celebrated Irish orator, Henry Grattan, 
he was set apart for the legal profession, 
but his love of books, not of the law, 




■ad his ardent temperament, led him to 
aspire to military glory. He got his 
oommiiwion, and was on the way to join 
his regiment, when he heard of the 
battle of Waterloo, and the conclusion 
of the war. He then offered himself to 
the South American army of Inde- 
pendence ; but on board the vessel that 
was to convey him to Venezuela, he met 
with a lady passenger, to whom he 
became attached, was married to her, 
prr>cecded no further in search of fame 
at the cannon's mouth, but settled in 
the south of France, as an author. 
After great success he was sent to 
America as British Consul for one of 
the States. His principal works are^ 
**Philil>ert,*' a poetical romance, pub- 
lished at Bordeaux, in 1819; ** High- 
ways and Bye Ways ; or. Tales of 
the Koadside,** 1823; "Traits of 
Travel," 1829; "The Heiress of 
Bruges," 1830; "The History of the 
Netherlands, to the Belgian Revolution," 
in 1830; "The History of Switzer- 
land," and the " Legends of the Bhine." 
While British Consul at Boston, where 
he remained from 1839 to 1853, he wrote 
a pain2)blet on the " North-Eastem 
Boundary Question, between Great 
Britain and the United States." 

GRAY, Aa^ M.D., an American 
botanist, was bom at Paris, Oneida 
County, New York, in 1810. He took 
his degeeo of M.D. from the University 
of the Stat© of New York, in 1831, 
since which time he has entirely pursued 
botanical studies. Selected as Botanist 
to the U. S. South Pacific Exploring Ex- 
pedition, in 1837« he resigned the ap- 
pointment in 1838, when chosen almost 
siuiultaneoiisly Professor of Botany in 
the University of Michigan, and Pro- 
fe8S(»r of Natural History in Harvard 
University, Massachusetts, which last si- 
tuation he actually accepted. Both before 
and since his ap]X)iutmcnt to this chair, 
he has written many valuable books and 
papers on subjects connected with bo- 

tanical scienoe, among which may be 
enumerated his "Elements of Botany," 
his "Botanical Text-book," his " Flora 
of North America," and his "Manual 
of Botany for the Northern United 
States," and numerons contributions to 
the "New York Annals," "The Trans- 
actions of the American Philosophical 
Society," and the Smithsonian "Con- 
tributions to Knowledge." 

GREELEY, Horace, American jour- 
nalist, was bom at Amhurst, New Hamp- 
shire, February 3, 1811. At the age of fif. 
teen he was indentured to a printer, in 
Vermont, who published a local joumaL 
He continued there for a few years, but 
the paper being discontinued he returned 
to his father's farm, in 1830. He had 
experienced much in city and country, 
but nothing to exceed his self -education. 
As a journeyman, he got employment 
here and there, for somewhere about 
three years, when, in 1834, he com- 
menced the * * New Yorfter, " which con- 
tinued to exist till 1841, when it became 
the "New York Tribune," a daUy 
paper, the success of which was insured 
by the character of its predecessor, and 
of the "Log Cabin," another publica- 
tion which Mr. Greeley had edited before 
changing the form of his journal The 
"Tribune" was the organ of an oinnion ; 
it was bought largely and read ; and the 
foimder gained a seat in Congress. Vi- 
siting this country in 1851, he was 
chosen Chairman of one of the Juries at 
the Great Exhibition, and he wrote to 
the "Tribune" an account of Europe, 
and of his observations. 

GREY, Henry, Eabl, a British 
statesman, eldest son of Charles, second 
Earl, bom December 28, 1802, was 
educated at Cambridge,, elected for 
Winchelsea in 1826, and in 1831 as 
member for Northumberland, and became 
Under Secretary of State for the 
Colonies. A difference of opinion on a 
plan advocated by Earl Grey, then Lord 
Howick, for complete Slave Emancipa- 




tion, led to his resignation. In January, 
1834, he was appointed Under Secretary 
of State for the Home Department, 
which he resigned in July following, on 
his father's retirement from the govern- 
ment. In 1835 he became Secretary- 
ab- War under Lord Melbourne. At the 
general election in 1841, he was elected 
for Sunderland. In 1845 he entered the 
House of Peers, and in the following 
year was Colonial Secretary under Lord 
John Russell, a position in which he 
attained a large measure of unpopula- 
rity, which led to his resignation. Like 
his father, he seems to be a strange 
combination of liberal ideas and aris- 
tocratic prepossessions. As a states- 
man. Earl Grey holds an isolated x)osi- 
tion, which would seem to arise from the 
simple fact that he makes it a rule to 
think for himself. He is consequently 
termed "crotchety," but with no more 
cause than might have been attributed 
to his father, who, except in one or two 
instances, was one of the most con- 
sistent statesmen of his era. Unlike the 
great Earl of the name, however, he has 
few if any followers, and his tempera- 
ment is described as by no means con- 
dliatoiy. Lord Grey is the author of a 
work entitled ** The Colonixd Policy of 
Lord John Russell's Administration," 
published in 1853. 

GREY, Right Hon. Sm George, 
Baboxet, cousin of Earl Grey, was bom 
at Gibraltar, in 17d9, and graduated at 
Oriel College, Oxford, in 1821, where 
he highly distinguished himself. He 
joined the legal profession in 1826, and 
was elected for Devonport in 1832. His 
political views and talents have con- 
nected him with liberal measures, and 
he has held the offices of Colonial and 
Home Secretary under various admin- 
istrations. Ho was Home Secretary 
under Lord Palmerston in 1855, but on 
that nobleman giving way to the Earl of 
Derby, Sir George necessarily resigned. 
When Lord Palmerston was again called 

upon to act in 1859, as Premier, he ap- 
pointed Sir George Grey to the office of 
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 
Sir George Grey is a G.C.B., and a 
Deputy Lieutenant for Northumberland. 
GREY, Sir George, K.C.B., Gover- 
nor of the Cape of Good Hope, son of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Grey, of the SQth 
Regiment, was bom at Lisbum, Ireland, 
on the 14th April, 1812 ; his father 
having fallen at the siege of Badajoz, 
three days before his birth. He was 
educated for the army at the Royal 
Military College, Sandhurst, where he 
studied with the highest distinction. On 
attaining the rank of Captain, in 1836, 
he offered his services to the Colonial 
Secretary, to explore Australia, in con- 
junction with Lieutenant Lushington. 
The interior of Australia was then com- 
paratively a terra incognUcL, and his offer 
being accepted by Lord Glenelg, he de- 
parted on his mission in 1837. He com- 
menced his labours in November of the 
same year, and after experiencing many 
difficulties and dangers in the enter- 
prise, returned to the Mauritius, in 
April, 1838. Resting a few months, he 
started in the September following to 
explore the Swan River district, return- 
ing in 1840 from that expedition. On 
his return to England, he conmienced 
his ** Journals of Two Exjieditions of 
Discovery in North- Western and Wes- 
tern Australia," but had to lay them 
aside on being appointed Crovemor of 
South Australia, in which office he 
showed that administrative ability 
which has since characterised his career. 
Having acquired the native language, he 
was enabled to hold friendly personal 
intercourse with them. In 1846 he 
became Governor of New Zealand, and in 
that office his tact and moderation, added 
to the knowledge he acquire<.l of the na- 
tive language, served to calm down many 
asperities. His government, wise and con- 
ciliatory, became popular, and he main- 
tained his position with advantage imtil 




lHAi Mfh»n ht WM appointed Goyemor 
IMiU ( *uimimn(U«r*in-Ciiief of the Cape of 
(AihhI Ho|mh haviuit previously, in 1848, 
Wkiii urtwttHl a K.C.B. His govem- 
IU(»iit at tht) Oa|>e displayed the same 
■atfauity aiul calm energy which had 
fDUilui^Ml his measures so popular else- 
ivhure. Fnun turbulence he produced 
onlttr. tnmx discontent, peace and grow- 
ing |iros|)erity ; but in 1858 the Home 
Government interfered with such utter 
want of discrimination, and clung to their 
unwise schemes with such pertinacity, 
that Sir George Grey perceived no other 
oourse open to him than resignation of 
his post. He returned to England, but 
■o strong was the feeling at the Cape, 
that several leading colonists followed 
him to London, waited upon Ministers, 
urged the damage that would inevitably 
ensue from his removal, and in 1859 he 
was requested by the Colonial adminis- 
tration to resume his post. Without any 
question, he is the most popular Crover- 
nor tiiat ever set foot in our South 
African possessions. Besides his *' Jour- 
nals," already noticed. Sir George Grey 
has published " Polynesian Mythology : 
an Ancient Traditional History of tiie 
New Zealand Race." 

GRIFFIN, John Joseph, an English 
chemist and writer on science, was bom 
in London, in 1802. He is the author of 
« Chemical Recreations," a work which 
has done more to popularize the study of 
chemistry in Britain than any other 
publication. Mr. Griffin is also author 
of a "Treatise on the Blowpipe," "The 
Radical Theory of Chemistiy," and of a 
*• System of Crystallography." To him 
the chemical manipulator is indebted for 
the invention of numerous cheap and 
handy articles of apparatus. 

GRIMM, Jacob Ludwio, a German 
writer, was bom at Hanau on the 4th 
January, 1785. After studying for 
some time for the legal profession, he 
turned his attention to literary pursuits, 
and eventually became librarian at 

Wilhelmshohe in Westphalia. After 
receiving an appointment at CwsbpI, lie 
went to G<$ttingen, where he was elected 
one of the professors of the university. 
Being expelled for political reasons from 
his professorship, he went to Berlin, in 
which city he still remains. He baa 
contributed many valuable works re- 
lating to the history and archaeology of 
Germany, such as his "German My- 
thology,'* " German Antiquities," with 
others relating to the characteristics of 
his countrymen, and devotee himself 
most energetically in bringing to light 
incidents and traditions of "Father- 

GRISI, GiULiA, an Italian nnger and 
operatic performer, was bom at Milan, 
in 1812. She is the daughter of an 
officer of engineers, who served in the 
army of the great Najwleon. Early re- 
marked as possessing musical talent of 
no common description, her faculty was 
first developed by Marliani, the com- 
poser. Having received a good educa- 
tion, lessons from her sister, then a 
prima donna, and other teachers of 
ability, and encouragement from her 
friends, she made her first appearance in 
the theatre of Bologna, in Rossini's 
" Zelmira." She is said to have been 
then a beautiful girl, -^only seventeen, — 
her voice a resonant contralto ; her man- 
ner graceful and winning. Rossini 
having predicted her future fame, she 
was engaged at La Scala, of Milan. 
There she met Bellini, who adapted, 
expressly with a view to her powers, the 
put of Adelgisa, in Norma, his greatest 
work. Pasta was the Norma on the 
first representation ; and Bellini's music 
fell flat upon the ears of the audience, 
until Grisi's "Deh ! conte," roused them 
into enthusiasm. The opera was per- 
formed forty nights. Pasta's wondrous 
acting ins^Hied Grisi with the ambition 
of being a great tragedienne : how she 
overcame obstacles, and tutored her voice 
into a superb soprano, is well known. She 




appeared first in England in 1834^ in 
conjunction with Rubini, a magnificent 
tenor; the musical world was enrap- 
tured. Her ambition was gratified, 
for she ultimately succeeded Pasta, 
though not until after the death of 
Malibran. In 1839 "Lucrezia Borgia" 
was produced, and since then her 
career has been uuparalleled ; and the 
recent announcement of her retirement 
from the stage has excited great regret. 
In her younger days she married M. de 
Melcy, a French gentleman; but the 
marriage has been dissolved, and she is 
now the wife of Signer Mario, the great 

GROTE, George, M.P., a politician 
and historian, was bom in 1794, at Clay- 
hill, Beckenham, Kent. He is descended 
from a German family, established in 
London during the early part of the last 
century. Receiving his education at the 
Charter-House school, he became con- 
nected with Messrs. Prescott, Grote, 
and Co.'s Bank in 1810. In 1832 
he was returned as one of the mem- 
bers for the City of London, retain- 
ing his seat till 1841, when he retired. 
His political principles are of the ad- 
vanced liberal school ; and for a number 
of years he was the zealous, though un- 
successful promoter of the Ballot Ques- 
tion in the House of Commons. It is, 
however, as a scholar and historical 
writer that Mr. Grote has earned dis- 
tinction. Besides his great work " The 
History of Greece," he is the author 
of several talented pamphlets, and con- 
tributions to Reviews. 

GUDIN, TnKODORB, a well-known 
French marine painter, was bom at Paris, 
in 1 804. After serving as an ofiicer in the 
Royal Navy, he took part in the African 
campaign of 1830, when he received on 
the field of battle the Cross of an officer 
of the Legion of Honour. Having, in 
1824, exhibited a picture at the Salon, he 
obtained the second-class medaL He was 
appointed first painter of the Royal Navy, 

by Charles X. In the execution of this 
conmiission, which bore date 1838, Gudin 
worked assiduously for ten years, when 
the revolution of February, 1848, ter- 
minated his labours. During that decade 
his facile pencil had painted a large 
number of pictures for the royal gal- 
leries. Gudin having married the daughter 
of General Lord James Hay, has fre- 
quently resided in this country, and his 
pictures of Soottish sceneiy were pro- 
duced during these visits. The Revo- 
lution of 1848 prevented twenty-seven 
of the series, painted for Versailles, 
from being placed beside the others ; 
the Emperor has, however, expressed a 
wish that the gallery should be com- 
pleted by the addition of these pic- 
tures, which, indeed, are enumerated 
in the catalogues published in 1848. 
The last works of M. Gudin are des- 
tined to perpetuate two important events 
in the history of imperial policy, the 
one being '*The Entrance of the Em- 
peror to the Roads of Brest, on the oc- 
casion of his voyage to Brittany;" and 
the other, the '* Arrival of the Queen of 
England at Cherbourg." These huge pic- 
tures, which are on the scale of pano- 
ramic views, like most of M. Gudin's 
productions, have met with high praise 
from the French art critics, and more 
particularly in * * L' Europe Artistique " of 
11th March last, where they are even 
said to be in advance of the previous 
works of the author. 

GUIZOT, FRANgois Pierre -Gim.- 
LAUME, an historian, ex-minister of 
France under Louis-Philippe, was bom 
October, 1787. His father, an advocate 
of Nismes, fell a victim to the French 
Revolution only three days after the 
triumph of Robespierre over Danton, 
Camille Desmoulins, and the men of the 
Conmiittee of Public Safety. After this 
fatal catastrophe, Madame Guizot left 
Nismes to seek at Geneva consolation 
for her great sorrow in the bosom of her 
ianuly, and in a solid education for her 





children. Guizot, plaoed at the Gym- 
nasium of Geneva, devoted himself 
ardently to study. The child had no 
childhood, his playthings were books, 
and at the end of twelve years the young 
scholar was able to read, in their respec- 
tive languages, the great masterpieces of 
the ancient and the modem world. Hav- 
ing completed his coUegiate studies with 
brilliant success, M. Guizot proceeded to 
Paris in 1805, to prepare himself for the 
bar. The law schools had disappeared 
amidst the revolutionary whirlwind, 
and the young student, not caring 
for the imperfect knowledge private 
seminaries might supply, resolved to 
master it in solitude. The serious na- 
ture of the Genevese scholar found little 
that was genial in the dissolute society 
of the metropolis of France. The first 
year of his residence in Paris was one of 
sadness and isolation. In the following 
year he became attached, as tutor, to the 
household of M. Stapfer, minister for 
Switzerland at the French Court This 
connexion introduced Guizot, not only 
to some of the most distinguished liter- 
ary persons of the time, but to the society 
of the woman who was destined to exer- 
cise so noble and beneficial an influence 
over his whole life. Bom of a distin- 
guished family that had been ruined by 
the revolution. Mademoiselle Pauline 
de Meulan had found resources in an 
education as solid as it was varied, and, 
to support herself, had entered upon the 
careerof a journalist. A serious malady, 
the result of excessive toil, obUged her 
to suspend her literary labours. Her 
situation threatened to become critical, 
hope had almost withered into despair, 
when she received an anonymous letter 
entreating her to be tranquil, and offer- 
ing to discharge her duties on the " Pub- 
liciste** during the continuance of her 
illness. The letter was accompanied by 
an admirably written article modelled 
apon her own style. The article was 
accepted — ^published, and a grmilur con- 

tribution received every week until the 
editress was convalescent. Not until 
repeatedly solicited to disclose his incog' 
nito did the yoimg student reveal him- 
self. Five years after this romantic 
episode, Mademoiselle de Meulan be- 
came Madame Guizot. During these 
five years Guizot was busily occupied in 
those historical studies from which he 
has since reaped so large a harvest of 
fame. In 1809 he published his first 
work, a ''DictionnairedesSynonymee.** 
In 1812 he became Assistant-Prof esBor 
of History in the Faculty of Letters of 
the Sorbonne, and subsequently obtained 
complete possession of that chair. Here 
it was Guizot formed that attachment 
with the then Professor of the Philo- 
sophy of History, which has so often 
associated his name with that of 
M. Royer Collard. Guizot's career, 
hitherto purely literary, was now to 
become identified with the political for- 
tunes of France. The post of Secretary- 
Greneral to the Minister of the Interior, 
was his first step in the path of poUtics. 
In this position he took part in prepar- 
ing those laws against the press which 
were, in 1814^ presented to the Cham- 
bers by the Minister of the Interior, M. 
de Montesquieu. Placed amidst con- 
tending factions, more conservative than 
satisfied the instincts of the one, and 
more constitutional than suited the 
tastes of the other, Guizot in office was 
but ill at ease. Napoleon^s return from 
Elba released him from the difficulties 
of his position, and he resumed his oc- 
cupation as Professor of History. When 
the fall of the Emperor became evident, 
Guizot repaired to Ghent to plead the 
cause of the Charter before Louis X VUL , 
and was afterwards appointed Secretary- 
General to the Minister of Justice. In 
the violent storm which shook the Cham- 
ber of 1815, the constitutionalist did his 
utmost to moderate the partisans of abso- 
lute royalty, who censured him severely 
for his constitutional principles of action. 




In 1818 he was made Councillor of State 
with an office specially formed for him. 
On the fall of l^e Ministry of Decazes, 
trampled upon as revolutionary by the 
counter revolution, Guizot accompanied 
the constitutional party into opposition, 
combating, with all the energy of his 
powerful pen, the administration of 
Vill^le. Vill^e avenged the antagonism 
of Guizot, by interdicting his lectures as 
professor. Renouncing the questions of 
the hour, Guizot now undertook that 
series of great historical works which 
have given him so distinguished a place 
in literature. At this time it was that 
the coUection of '* Memoirs Relative to 
the English Revolution." "The History 
of the English Revolution," ** Memoirs 
Relative to the History of France," and 
** Essays on Shakspeare," were succes- 
sively published. In 1827 death de- 
prived him of the companion of his 
labours — that beloved wife whose serene 
and lofty intelligence had sustained him 
amid the agitations of his career. On 
the fall of the VillMe Ministry, in 1828, 
Guizot, reinstated in his professorial 
chair, began his lectures on the " His- 
toxy of Civilization in Europe." In 1828 
he married his second wife — a niece of 
his first wife, who advised the union. 
On the formation of the Polignac Cabi- 
net, he was elected for Lisieuz, and 
voted for the address of the 221, adding 
to his vote these words : '* Truth has al- 
ready trouble enough in penetrating to 
the council of kings — let us not send it 
there pale and feeble." It was his wish 
that the throne should have one other 
chance, but the warning voice was un- 
heeiled. On the eve of the revolution, 
Guizot drew up the protest of the depu- 
ties against the ordinances of July ; and, 
on the fall of monarchy, he read in the 
Chamber the proclamation which consti- 
tuted the Duke of Orleans Lieutenant- 
General of France. Upon the accession 
of Louis-Philippe, in 1830, Guizot be- 
came Minister of the Interior, but only 

held office for a short time. In the 
Soult Cabinet, formed in 1832, he was 
Minister of Public Instruction, and in 
that capacity did much for the cause of 
education in France. He was a great 
favourite of the citizen King, and had 
the King only followed his stem counsel, 
the throne of the barricades had pro-^ 
bably still stood erect — unmoved — ^un- 
shaken. The two darkest spots on the 
fame of M. Guizot, as a statesman, are 
those which relate to the affairs of Tahiti, 
and the conduct of the Spanish marriages. 
It has been averred that the Minister 
acted only under the influence of the 
CVown in promoting the union of the 
Due de Montpensier with the Infanta* 
but in the whole matter there was an 
amount of intrigue which Guizot should 
have resisted at any risk of the King's 
displeasure, and which ultimately as- 
sisted in the downfall of both. 

GUTHRIE, THOMAa, D.D., athedo- 
logian, orator, and philanthropist, bom 
at Brechin, in 1803. After studying in 
' the University of Edinburgh, and enter- 
ing the Scottish Church, he acquired a 
knowledge of medicine at Paris, with 
the view of adding to his usefulness as 
a clergyman. In 1830 he obtained a 
living in the county of Forfar. Subse- 
quently he was appointed to the colle- 
giate church of Old Greyfriars, Edin- 
burgh; and in 1840 to a new church 
built for him. When the non-intrusion 
controversy arose, he was found by the 
side of Dr. Chalmers, combating with 
all the energy and all the earnestness of 
his nature for those principles of spiritual 
independence for which his party after- 
wards relinquished the emoluments and 
position of ministers of the National 
Church. No man exerted a wider influ- 
ence upon the popular mind in connexion 
with that great struggle ; but when the 
contest was over, scorning to sustain 
party antipathies, he betook himself to 
that career of active benevolence with 
which his name has long been so honoor- 




My AtMMki'mttMi It ia owing to his elo- 
^iuuutu aiul t^ikt^rgy that the Ragj^ed 
^bhiHilM worv flrat U^gun in Edinburgh, 
liu iiuititutiiiu which has effected much 
ill iho ri*fi»itiiation of the young Arabs 
III i»ui' gi^'Jkt uiauufacturing towns. Dr. 
1 Guthrie MA an active promoter of the tem- 
^u'auvH) luikvemcnt, *to which he has de- 
votoil a hirge amount of zealous effort. 
** The (?ity : its Sins and Sorrows,** is a 
mt)iu<»rial of his labours in that important 
walk of philanthropy. **The Gospel in 
Kisokicl,*' and ''Christ the Inheritance 
of the Saints," embody good illustrations 
of his general pulpit efforts. In illustra- 
tive and pictorial power, Dr. Guthrie is 
without a rival among the pulpit orators 
of Britain. 

HAGENBACH, Charles Rodolphe, 
a German Protestant theologian, was 
bom at Basle, in 1801. The son of a 
distinguished naturalist and professor of 
anatomy and botany, he studied first at 
Bonn, tiien at Berlin, and afterwards at 
Basle, and was, in 1828, appointed Pro- 
fessor of Theology. With ample leisure 
to study and write, he has applied his 
powers with effect. Almost all his works 
relate to ecclesiastical history and theo- 
logy; his book on the "Spirit and His- 
tory of the Reformation" being perhaps 
his most satisfactory, as it seems to be 
the most earnest, of his writings. His 
'* Guide to Christian Instruction" is an 
excellent work. His "Compendium of 
the History of Doctrines'* has been 
translated into English by Carl and 
Buck. Edinburgh : 184& 

HAG HE, Louis, a water-colour 
painter, was bom at Toumay, in Bel- 
gium in 1806, but has long resided in 
England. He started in his artistic 
career as a lithographer, his stone-draw- 
ings bringing him into great repute. 
He ntered into partnership with Mr. 
Day, and produced some of the most 
important lithographic works published 
in Britain. He has a special aptitude 
for depicting the quaint old Flemish 

streets, and the richly decorated inte- 
riors of his native country ; his pictures 
are characterized by consununate skill 
in manipulation. He holds a prominent 
position in the New Society of Painters 
in Water Colours. Those who know 
his works may be surprised to learn 
that, full and detailed though his pic- 
tures are, they are executed with the 
left hand. For some yean past he has 
devoted his time to painting in oil, 
which is now his diief study. 

HAHN-HAHN, Coumtbss Voir, a 
German poetess, was bom at Tressow, 
in 1805, and ia daughter of Count Charles 
Yon Hahn. She married her relation 
Count Frederic Von Hahn-Hahn, but 
the union was unfortunate, and it was 
dissolved by the Courts in 1829. Her 
poetic taste induced her to travel over 
most of Europe, and to visit the East 
In 1850 the Countess abjured the Lu- 
theran creed for the faith of the Roman 
Catholic Church. She now resides at 
the Convent of the Good Shepherd, 
near Mayence. She is the author of 
many works, both in prose and verse, 
the most remariuible of which are her 
novehi: "The Countess Faustina," "Ul- 
rich,** " Sigismund Forster,*' and 
"Cecil;" and her books of travel, en- 
titled "Beyond the Mountains,*' " Let- 
ters on Germany," "Reminiscences of 
France,** "A Northern Tour,** "Ori- 
ental Tales,** and "From Babylon to 

HALEVY, Jacques-ElieFromental, 
a French musical composer, was bom at 
Paris, in 1799. His original name was 
Levy, his family being Jewish by race, 
as well as of the Jewish persuasion, to 
which he himself adheres. In 1809 he 
entered the Conservatoire and made 
su(^ progress that when twelve years 
of age he carried off the prize for har- 
mony against all competitors. Having 
studied comjiosition under Cherubini, 
that great master, when he had occasion 
to visit London, left Halevey to conduct 




his dasB at the Conservatoire. Li 1819, 
after obtaining the first prize for musical 
composition at the Institute, he visited 
Italy, and remained there some years, 
and it was not till 1827 that his opera, 
**L* Artisan," was brought out at the 
0]i^ra Comique, followed, in the same 
year, at the same theatre, by *' II Dille- 
tante," and in 1829, at the Royal Italian 
Theatre, by ** Clari," which he wrote for 
the celebrated Malibran. Other works 
appeared in rapid succession, until 1835, 
when he produced **La Juive," his chef 
^caivre. He afterwards brought out 
"L'Eclair," **Guidoet Genevra," "La 
Heine de Chypre," and "Charles VI." 
In 1846 he wrote for the Comic Opera 
" Les Mousquetaires de la Reine," which 
had a great run, and in 1848, ** Le Yal 
d'Andorre," which was performed for 
165 consecutive nights. He has since 
produced **La Tomi»e8t&," "Le Juif 
Errant," "La Magicienne," &c. He 
is admitted to be one of the first 
of living composers. Ho is a Pro- 
fessor at the Conservatoire, a Com- 
mander of the Legion of Honour, a 
Member of the Institute, and perpetual 
Secretary of the Academy of the Fine 
Arts, in which capacity he has written 
several interesting notices of artistic 

HAUBURTON, Th« Honourable 
Mr. JusncE, M.P., was bom in Nova 
Scotia, on 17th Dec, 1796, his father 
belonging to an ancient Scottish family. 
He graduated at King's College in that 
province, and liecame a Barrister-at-Law 
and member of the House of Assembly. 
In 1829 he was appointed Justice of 
Common Pleas, and in 1840 Judge of 
the Supreme Court. He resigned this 
appointment in 1850, and removed to 
England. Two years afterwards the 
honorary degree of D.C.L. was con- 
ferred upon him by the University of 
Oxford, and in 1859 he was returned to 
Parliament for the borough of Launces- 
ton. He has written the following 

works ; "A General Description of 
Nova Scotia," "History of Nova 
Scotia," "Sam SHck, the Clockma- 
ker" (1st, 2nd, and 3rd Series), "The 
Letter Bag of the Great Western," 
" Bubbles of Canada," " Rule and Mis- 
rule of the English in America," "Wise 
Saws and Modem Instances," " Nature 
and Human Nature," &c The work 
by which he is most extensively known 
is "Sam SUck, the aockmaker," 
which has been translated into several 
£uro])ean languages, has passed through 
many editions in England, and has been 
republished in most of the principal 
towns of the United States, where it 
has been more extensively read than 
most works of the present century. A 
late reviewer remarks, that "Sam Slick " 
should become an immortal book from 
its wit, genuine humour, and profound 
knowledge of human nature. 

HALL, Mrs. Anna Maria Field- 
ing, a novelist and dramatic writer, 
bom in Dublin, in 1802. She is de- 
scended, on the mother's side, from an 
ancient Huguenot family, who emigrated 
to England after the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes; and on the father's 
side, from a younger branch of the 
family of Fielding, to which the great 
English novelist belonged. She quitted 
Ireland at the early age of fifteen ; but 
her impressions were so vivid, and her 
recollections so permanent, that in her 
first works she could paint with the 
utmost freshness the scenes of her 
youth. In 1824 she married Mr. S. C. 
Hall ; and naturally desiring to co-ope- 
rate with him in his literary labours, 
devoted the energies of her mind to 
literature. In 1826 she wrote her 
"Sketches of Irish Character." Her 
first novel, " The Buccaneer," was pub- 
lished in 1832. "The Outlaw," "Uncle 
Horace," "Marian," " The Whiteboy," 
and "A Woman's Story," — novels — ^fol- 
lowed in succession. But, probably, the 
works on which her reputation mainly 




TCfltB, are the " Talcs of Woman's 
Tmln," and "Pilgrimages to English 
Shrines." These were first printed, 
as was alK> her story of "Midsummer 
Eve," in the " Art Journal," — a work 
conducted l)y her husband, and to which 
she has 1)een a continual and valuable 
contributor. She is also the author of 
throe successful ilramas : — ** The French 
R<ifugee," performed without intermis- 
sir)n, seventy nights, at the St. Jameses 
Theatre, under Braham*s management ; 
"The Groves of Blarney," in which 
Power sustained the three principal 
parts during a whole season, at the 
Adcl])hi; and "Mabel's Curse," dra- 
matize<l from one of her own stories. 
Another of her plays was loHt with the 
lamented actor, when he iM^rishcd in the 
" President." Mrs. Hall has also writ- 
ten many books for cliildren; among 
others, "Uncle Sam*s Money Box," 
which has obtained a very Large circula- 
tion 1)oth at home and abroad Mrs. 
Hall has enjoycil that kiml of reputa- 
tion of which a woman is ever most 
justly proud : a desire to extend the 
influence of religion, \'irtuc, and loy- 
alty, without any admixture of secta- 
rian 1)ias ; while in all her books on 
Ireland, she has la1>oured, an<l not im- 
succtcssfiilly, to lesson or remove the pre- 
judices which have lon^ existed against 
our fellow-subjects of the sister isle. 

HALL, Samuel Carteii, was bom 
at Topham, in 1801. He entered the 
Temple in 1824, and wasaftenvards calle<l 
to the bar. Turning his attention to lite- 
rature, he became e<litor of the " Now 
Monthly Magazine" in 1830. He was at 
the same time employed as a political 
writer for newspaiK'rs, l>oth in London 
and in the provinces. When the " An- 
nuals" were at the height of their suc- 
cess, he editofl one of the best, under 
the name of "The Amulet." He was 
also the editor of "The Book of Gems 
«.f British Poets and Painters," "The 
Book of British Ballads," "The Baro- 

nial Halls of EngUnd,* and oilier fl- 
lustrated works, whidi obtained hrga 
pojmlarity. The work to wbidi he is 
mainly indebted for reputation, how- 
ever, "Lreland: its Scenery and CSia- 
racter," was the joint prodoction of 
Mr. and Mn. a C. HalL The statis- 
tics, political inquiries, and the descrip- 
tive and heavy parts of the book were 
written by him, while the illustratiTe 
and characteristic sketches with which 
the work abounds, were sapplied by the 
airy and fertile pen of Mrs. HmSL In 1839 
Mr. Hall commenced the poblioation of 
* ' The Art- Union Jouma], " sabaeqaoitly 
entitled "The Art Journal," and that 
work he has ever since conducted; hav- 
ing su]>eriutended the issue to twenty- 
one yearly volumes ; a rare circmn- 
stance in ])eriodical literatore. It is the 
only publication in Europe by which 
Art is a<lequately represented; and it 
has exerci8e<l a great and veiy beneficial 
influence on the fine arts in this coun- 
try, as well as on British industiy. 
Mr. Hall is a Fellow of various learned 
IxNlicfs. Of late years he has deliverod 
a num1)er of public lectures, the most 
attractive of his series l)eing that which 
he terms "Written Portraits of the 
Authors of the Age, fn)m Personal Ac- 
quaintance ;" the list comprising nearly 
every name of note during the last 
forty years. Circumstances having 
bnnight Mr. Hall into relationship, more 
or less, with Scott, Southey, Hannah 
Moore, Thomas Moore, Mrs. Opie, Words- 
worth, CJoleridge, Montgomery, Miss 
Mitford, Miss Edgeworth, Mrs. Hemans, 
Theodore Hook, Thomas Campbell, Miss 
Landon, Lady Morgan, Thomas Hood, 
and many other "celebrities'* of his 
time ; he is enabled to give personal 
sketches and reminiscences of a deeply 
interesting character. 

HALLECK, Fitz-Greene, an Ame- 
rican i)oet, was lx)m at Guilford, Con- 
necticut, in August, 1795. He became con- 
nected with a bank in New Yotk in 1813, 




and remded in that city for many yean, 
as confidential agent for the American 
Rothschild, John Jacob Astor. Mr. 
Halleck commenced contributing to the 
journals of the day at an early age; 
and, when settled in New York, was 
known as an associate of the wits about 
town. In 1821 Mr. Halleck published 
his largest poem, "Fanny,** a satire 
ui)on the literature and politics of the 
time, in the measure of '*Don Juan.** 
In 1822-23 he visited Europe ; and the 
reflections suggested by his travels are 
embodic<l in his poems on Bums and on 
Alnwick castle, which, with some other 
pieces, were published in 1827. The 
"Bums** poem is one of the finest tri- 
butes to the memory of the bard the 
Muses have ever offered at his shrine. 

HALLIWELL, James Orchard, an 
author and editor, chiefly distinguished 
as a Shakspcrian critic, was bom in 
Sloane-street, Chelsea, in 1821. He 
commenced his literary career about 
1838, and in the following year was 
elected a Fellow of the Roy^ Society, 
and afterwards of many other scientific 
and literary associations. His first work 
of much importance was a "Dictionary 
of Archaic and Provincial Words** (1847), 
a glossary of upwards of fifty thousand 
words of obsolete and provincial English, 
with numerous references and examples 
from recondite books. He has edited 
many of the works issued by the Cam- 
den, Percy, and Shakspcrian Societies, 
})etwecn 1839 and 1850 ; amongst which 
may be noticed ** Warkworth's Chro- 
nicle,** "The Chronicle of William de 
Rishangcr,** "The First Sketch of 
Shakspeare*s * Merry Wives of Wind- 
sor,"* "Tarlton*s Works,** the "First 
Sketches of Henry the Sixth,** and the 
"Thomton Romances.*' In 1848 ap- 
peared his "Life of Shakspeare,** in the 
preparation of which he had the ad- 
vantage of the imrestricted use of the 
records of Stratford-on-Avon. This 
biography, remodelled and partly re- 

written, has been introdnoed into his 
folio edition of Shakspeare, now in pro- 
gress, nine volumes of which have ap- 
peared. This large work, commenced 
in 1853, aims at a greater elaboration of 
Shakspcrian criticism, than has hitherto 
been attempted; a thick folio volume 
suflicing to include no more than two 
plays, with the editor*s copious introduc- 
tions and annotations. Amongst Mr. 
Halliwell*s miscellaneous writings may 
be noticed, "An Introduction to the 
'Midsummer Night*s Dream,*** 8vo, 
1841 ; "An Essay on the Character of 
Sir John Falstaff;'* 12mo, 1841 ; "Po- 
pular Rhymes and Nursery Tales,** 8vo, 
1849; and "An Introduction to the 
Evidences of Christianity,** 8vo, 1859. 

HAMILTON, The Rev. James, D. D. , 
minister of the English Presbyterian 
Church, Regent Square, London, was 
bom in 1814, his father being the 
Rev. William Hamilton, minister of 
Strathblane. From a small parish in 
Perthshire, where he acted as assistant- 
minister he was called to a chapel-of- 
ease in Edinbui^gh, and in 1841 to the 
National Scotch Church, London, for- 
merly presided over by the Rev. Edwd. 
Irving. He has published several works, 
among which the l)est known are " Life 
in Eamest,** "The Mount of Olives," 
"The Happy Home,** and the "Me- 
moirs of liady Colquhoun.** He also 
edited " Excelsior,** a periodical in- 
tended to promote the religious and 
intellectual progress of yoimg men, and 
has published under the title of " Our 
Christian Classics,*' four volumes of 
"Readings from English Divines, with 
Biographical and Critical Sketches of 
the principal authors.** 

HAMPDEN, Remt Dickson, D.D., 
bishop of Hereford, bom in 1792, in Bar- 
badoes, of an old English family. He en- 
tered Oriel College, Oxford, in 1810. Hav- 
ing been successively fellow and tutor; 
public examiner in classics; Bampton 
lecturer ; professor of moral philosophy ; 




WM :^>^ ycv>^M«^v' «^ dirinitj, in 1847 

■;'* :^%«^xi.-« ^i^ *i»|HHnted bishop of 

)^.^«^^N% X'^tt* *i»iKnntmcnt caused 

% »s^\\ ^>'*strv»xvr»y in the English 

st^>.V IV MAn»|*i!en'8 contributions 

^» .O. ^^'i^\SN>dJ liu*niture are numerous 

♦.V-, X *\;jiiNKv Hia articles on Socrates, 

i*^^>v\ jukI ArwtotK in the "Encyclo- 

y»Axi.* I^tiannii^" and the review of 

^' wVsUittio philosophy in the " Ency- 

x<^,'4>a\)m Motn4H>litana," have elicited 

itks' ^'xaiiiut^iulAtion of all comjietent 

\N|«U\^ Witli reforenco to his review of 

ll^t phiU^dphy of the schoolmen, Hallam 

I^A* UkUM sjKikcn : — **Dr. Hamixlen has 

Iho uirrit of having been the only Eng- 

|i«liuiaii, {Mist or present, since the re- 

vivtil of letters, who has penetrated far 

into the wilderness of scholasticism." 

Kir William Hamilton, however, says of 

hiiu: **Dr. Whately's errors relative 

Ui Induction are, however, surpassed by 
iliiMO of another able writer, Mr. Hamp- 
dtfu, in regard both to that process itself, 
Mid to the Aristotelian exposition of its 
uatura Southoy condemned the ap- 
pointment of Dr. Hami>den as insulting 
to the University of Oxford, and not 
better than the conduct of James 11. in 
obtruding a Romish president upon 
Magdalen, while the ** Edinburgh Ke- 
Yiew" alleges that the Doctor was per- 
secuted by blind consciences, corrupted 
by the habitual indulgence of evil 
passions. Among his principal works 
are "The Scholastic Philosophy con- 
sidered in its relation to Christian Theo- 
logy," preached in 1832 (Oxford, 1832) ; 
** Philosophical Evidences of Chris- 
tianity;" ** Lectures on Moral Philo- 
sophy ;" "Parochial Sermons ;" and four 
other Sermons (183C) ; " Sermons before 
the University of Oxford" (1848). 

HANNAY, James, an author and 
journalist, was bom at Dumfries in 
February, 1827. Descended from a good 
Scotch family, he was educated in Eng- 
lan<l, entered the Royal Navy in March, 
1840, and served under various com- 

manders untilJoly, 1845. Then reHn- 
quishing the profession and devoting 
himself to literary pursuits, he became 
contributor to the leading journals and 
periodicals, his first sustained work 
being "Singleton Fontenoy," published 
in 1850, which immediately gave him a 
position among men of letters. He 
delivered, in 1853, a course of lectures 
on "Satire and Satirists," issued in a 
volume the year after, and published in 
1855 the remarkably clever novel of 
"Eustace Cony era," which has been 
translated into German. In 1857 he 
was induced to stand for Dumfries, but 
though the mass of the people were in 
his favour, he was defeated — polling 185 
votes. He is the author of a collection 
of fugitive naval pieces under the title 
of " Sketches in Ultramarine.** Mr. 
Hannay has recently removed to Edin- 
burgh to edit the "Courant" newspaper. 

HANOVER, King of. See George V. 

HARDWICKE, Charles Philip 
YoREE, Earl of, an English states- 
man, late Privy Seal in the ministry 
of Lord Derby, and eldest son of the 
late Admiral Sir J. S. Yorke, was 
bom on the 2nd of April, 1799. Eldu- 
catcd at Harrow and the Royal Naval 
College, Portsmouth, he entered the 
navy early, and assisted at the bombard- 
ment of Algiers, when serving in the 
Queen Charlotte. He was returned 
member of Parliament for Reigate, in 
1831, and in 1834, on the death of his 
uncle, was calleil to the House of Lords. 
He was a Lord in Waiting under Sir 
Robert Peel in 1841, Postmaster-General 
under Lord Derby in 1852, and Lord 
Privy Seal under the same premier in 
1858. In 1854 he was promoted to be 
Rear- Admiral on the reserve list 

HARRIS, Sir Wiluam Snow, a dis- 
tinguished English physicist, member of 
the Royal College of Surgeons, and 
Fellow of the Royal Society, was bom 
at Plymouth in 1792. He has devoted 
himself through life to researches in 




physical science, especially in electricity, 
magnetLsm, and meteorology. In June, 
1831, he was admitted a Fellow of the 
Royal Society ; in 1835 he received the 
Coyley Medal, one of the highest honours 
this body can award ; in 1841 he received 
an acknowledgment from the Civil List 
for his scientific discoveries; and in 
1845 he received two honorary presents 
from the £mperor of Russia as a recog- 
nition of the practical value of his inven- 
tions. He was knighted by Her Majesty 
in 1847. The value of the researches of 
Sir William Snow Harris are, perhaps, 
not so vddely known as they ought to 
be. He has the merit of having placed 
upon an intelligible and satisfactory 
basis the great question of the protection 
of ships and buUdings by metallic con- 
ductors, a problem which for the best 
part of a century had divided the opinion 
of the eminent scieutiiic men of Europe. 
The disputes as to whether metaUic 
conductors attracted lightning, whether 
painted conductors were preferable or not 
to conductors terminating in rounded or 
spherical surfaces, whether a lightning 
conductor was liable to draw down upon 
a building more electricity than it could 
transmit, and so bring upon it that 
destruction it was intended to obviate, 
have been by Sir William Snow Harris 
completely set at rest, and that too by a 
course of laborious inductive observa- 
tions and czj>eriments. He has suc- 
ceeded, by a general and comprehensive 
system of metallic conductors carried out 
on the hulls and masts of Her Majesty's 
ships, in placing the vessels of the royal 
navy l>eyoud the reach of the destructive 
agency of lightning. During the great 
war Great Britain lost upwards of 
£10,000 a^year by damage done to the 
navy by thunder storms. Within five 
years forty sail of the line and thirty- 
five frigates and 8loo]>s were placed hors 
de combat from the same cause. Since 
the views of Sir W. Snow Harris have 
been acted upon not one vessel has been 

damaged during a period of fully thirfy 
years. His principles have been carried 
out in buildings on shore — such as the 
new Houses of Parliament, the Queen's 
palaces, the Government gunpowder 
magazines, the royal gunpowder works, 
&C. In this way Sir W. Snow Harris has 
given security to above ten millions of 
public property in storms of lightning. 
He \b the inventor of various electrical 
instruments, and of a valuable new 
binnacle and steering compass. From 
what we have said the reader will un- 
derstand the eulogium of Baron Charles 
Dupin when he said, in 1851, **Let 
governments, science, and humanity, 
proclaim the merits of Snow Harris." 
The scientific papers of Sir W. S. Harris, 
are very numerous, and will be found 
in '* The Philosophical Transactions," 
** The Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh,*^ the "Nautical Maga- 
zine," and the ** British Association Re- 
ports. " He is, besides, the author of a 
work on ** Thunderstorms," one volume, 
8vo, Parker, London; and an '* Ele- 
mentary Treatise on Electricity," pub- 
lished by Weale, and translated into 
French, by M. Gamault. 

HART, Solomon Alexander, R.A., 
a painter, was bom at Plymouth, in 
April, 1806. After being some time at 
an engraver's in London, he studied in 
the Royal Academy, and turned his at- 
tention to miniature painting. He soon 
afterwanls determined to pursue the 
higher branches of his profession, and 
accordingly undertook the illustration of 
historical subjects. His picture, "The 
Elevation of the Law," soon gained him 
considerable reputation, and in 1835 he 
became an Associate of the Royal Aca- 
demy. Mr. Hart has been a most inde- 
fatigable |)ainter, and amongst his nume- 
rous productions the following have been 
much admired — "Interior of a Jewish 
Synagogue at the time of the Reading of 
the Law," now in the South Kensington 
Museum, "Wolsey and Buckingham,' 

HAR a 

''Milton Visiting Galileo in de time 
of the Inquisitinn. "TLe PsHing of Sir 
Thomas Mofc and his Danghter, "Read- 
ing for Hononra," and "ReaJiog (or 
Pluck," &c In 1840 Mr. Hart, in wrae- 
quence of the pihibitiuQ of a large pic- 
ture of "Lady Jane firef at the Place of 
her Execution," waapromotedto the rank 
of a Royal Academician, and he ia now 
Professor of Painting in that Iiutitution. 

HARVEY, Geoeob, a Scottish 
painter, liom at St. Ninian's, near Stir- 
ling, in 180G. He was appreoticod to a 
bookseller, but be devoted hiuiaelt enthu- 
siasticaDy to his favourite study. At 
the age of ci^hturn, he entered the draw- 
ing school of the Tnistees' Academy, 
Edinburgh, and Boon attracted special 
attention hy his superior powers. When, 
in 1826, the Scottish artuts agr^l to 
establish an academy, George HarVoy 
joined the new institution, and siDco then 
he has zcaloualy devoted himself to its 
interests. George Harvey is pre-emi- 
nently a Scottish jiainter ; and among 
the small band uf artists who have cod- 
secrat<'d thi^ir geniua to Scottish sub- 
jects, is unquestionably the most hi^y 
gifted. Hia beat known works are 
" Covenantem Preaching," "The Cove- 
nanters' Baptism," " The Battle of 
Dnimclog," " The Covenanters' Com- 
monion," " Curlera," " First Reading of 
the Bible in the Ciypt of old St Panl's," 
"A Highland Funeral," "Quitting tbe 
Manse." An intense sympathy with 
whatever ia noble in Scottish ntory ani- 
mates the pninter, giving depth, power, 
and truthful owa tn all his productions, 

American writer, was Imrn at Salem, 
Massachusetts, about 1807. and gradu- 
ated at Bowiloin College, Maine, in I82A. 
His first literary production was a 
romance, published anonymously at 
Boston in iat2, and followed in 1837 l>y 
his "Twice-told Tales." of which he 
gave a seccnd seriea in 1842. These 
had already. Fi.;ipcared in " The Token," 



and in other periodicals. After pnbl 
ing a collection emtjtled "Moases Ei 
an Old Manse," he received a gnvemmeid'^ 
appointment, and in his leiaure houn 
concaved some of he most cbanning 
productions. In ISSOhepnblished "The 
Scarlet Letter," a romance of deep 
int«»t, and written with grcAt jioirer. 
In the following year " The Hoiue with 
the Seven Gables" appeared, and in 18SS 
" The Blithedale Romanee," wherein 
be expresses his eipcriences as a membw J 
of tbe Brook Farm Oommuni^. In &m ■ 
next year he was made A merican Con- I 
sol at Liverpool Mr. Hawthorne haii | 
pubbshed several works besides those 
already named, amon^ which are hia 
" Life of Henry Pierce, President of the 
United Stat*B," "TheWondor Book Ear 
Girls and Boys, " " ' True Stories froia I 
History and Biography." and othot ■ 
minor productions. He ranks as one J J 
the most popular of American wriber^l 
and his works have been extensively : 
read and admired in this country. 

HAYE.S, Mks. Cathebrtb. ICm 
Hayes, one of the most celebrated to- 
calisb of the ."kge, was iKim in Lun^ 
rick, in 1820. Her taste for music and 
talent for its acquirement wore e«rlj 
displayed, and, taken nndcr the patron- ' 
ago of tbe Bishop of the dioceaa, the 
was placed as a pupil with Signor 
Sapio, then an eminent teacher of murict 
in I>ubUn. The progress of Miss Hayea 
was remarkable. She afterwards studied 
under Viardot Garcia at Paris, aai 
Ronconi at Klilao. Her linrt appearaaoe 
was at Marseilles, in " I Puritani," in 
1S45, where her anccess was so great 
that no one knew her to be a dibtittaitt. 
She was afterwards engaged for Ia 
Scala, at Milan, where the beauty of her 
voice and the purity and simplioi^ of 
hur style, at once oommanded a taocan 
beyoud even the eicpect^tions of ^~ 
frieads. Id the following sprinfr ' 
Hayes visited Vieona, where sb 
equally suoceastul. She than 




Venice, returned to Vienna, and visited 
Borne, Florence, and Gknoa, adding 
to her fame by each performance. In 
1849 she entered into an engagement at 
the Italian Opera, Corent Garden. She 
came before the London public with 
a reputation scarcely inferior to that 
which heralded Jenny Lind. Her suc- 
cess in London was decided. At the 
close of the season she sang in the 
*' Messiah,'* and with such success as to 
establish her reputation as one of the 
greatest living interpreters of sacred 
music After visiting Ireland, where 
her reception was enthusiastic, she ac- 
cepted an engagement in the United 
States in 1851. She travelled and per- 
formed in all the great cities of the 
United States, and then proceeded to 
Califomia and South America. After 
performing in Australia and India, and 
Singapore and Batavia, she returned 
to London in 1855, when she appeared 
at Covent Garden with still greater 
favour than before. She returned to 
America in 1856, and subsequently was 
married to an American gentleman ; 
since then her appearances have not 
been so frequent. Mrs. Catherine Hayes 
has not, and perhaps never has had, a 
rival in rendering with deep sensibility, 
mournful pathos, and heart-speaking 
expression, the ancient melodies of her 
native country. 

HAYTER, Sir Gboroe, known as 
the "Court painter in ordinary," was 
bom in London, 1792, and after having 
studied in the Royal Academy, passed 
some years in Italy. On his return, his 
works were so much admired for their 
delicacy of finish and poetical expres- 
sion, that he was named first painter to 
the Queen, and teacher of drawing to 
the Royal Princesses. He was knighted 
in 1842. His finest picture, as a work 
of art, and the one that best develops 
the characteristics of his style, is '* The 
Queen Taking the Coronation Oath." 
The details are elaborate, the coloui 

hannonious, and the drawing unexcep- 
tionable. This picture is widely known 
by the engraving, but the plate affords 
little idea of the artist* s treatment of the 
subject His next best work is **The 
Marriage of Queen Victoria and Prince 
Albert," also well known by the prints, 
which, however, in this case, also, fail to 
convey the many beauties of the originaL 
HEAD, Sift Francis Bond, Bart., 
K.C.H., was bom in 1793, near Ro- 
Chester. He entered the army, and was 
a Captain of Engineers, in Edinburgh, 
in 1825, when he accepte<l a proposal 
from an association to work the gold 
and silver mines of Rio de la Plata. 
In the prosecution of his engagement he 
crossed the Pampas, from Buenos Ayres 
to Chili, in what may be termed flying 
journeys, during which he suffered many 
hardships. Returning to London, in 
1826, he published his ** Rough Notes of 
a Journey across the Pampas," which 
X>roved a successful work. In 1828 he 
was promoted to the rank of Major in the 
army, and in 1835 he was appointed 
Governor of Upper Canada, a post 
which, it is only fair to say, he accepted 
with much reluctance, and at the press- 
ing instance of Lord Glenelg, then Mi- 
nister for the ColoniesL His measures 
while holding that responsible position, 
resulted in his being able to dismiss from 
Up|)er Canada the whole of the Queen's 
troops, and, supported only by the people, 
to suppress an insurrection. Sir Francis 
is one of the alarmists about a French 
invasion of Britain, and has conse- 
quently written copiously upon the 
defenceless state of the coimtry. Many 
of his statements are perfectly true, and 
his suggestions are now being paid 
full attention to. Besides the work 
already mentioned, his chief works are 
**A Fagot of French Sticks," "A 
Visit to Ireland," and "Bubbles from 
the Brunnens of Nassau." In 1838 he 
was created a baronet, and receives a pen- 
sion of £100 a year from Government 




HEADLEY, Joel Tylkr, an Ame- 
rican author, was bom at Walton, in 
the state of New York, on the 3rd of 
December, 1814 He graduated at Union 
Collie, in 1839, and studied theology at 
the Auburn Seminary. For upwards of 
two years he officiated as pastor of a 
church in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. 
Failing health compelled him to travel, 
and in 1842-43 he visited Europe. Re- 
turning to the United States, he gave to 
the world the residt of his observations, 
in a work which was so favourably re- 
ceived as to lead him to embrace au- 
thorship as a profession. In 1854 he 
was elected a member of the New York 
legislature, and in the year following, 
Secretary of State for two years. He is 
the author of numerous biographies and 
works of travel. 

HELPS, Arthur, an historian, was 
bom in 1817. After studying at Cam- 
bridge, he entered the public service, in 
which he has risen to the high office of 
Secretary to the Privy Council His 
leisure he has devoted to literature. 
The first publication from the pen 
of Mr. Helps was "Essays Written in 
the Intervals of Business" (1841), which 
has passed through numerous editions ; 
two dramas, "Henry II." and "Cathe- 
rine Douglas," followed ; they appeared 
in 184a The "Claims of Labour,** a 
thoughtful and earnest book, treating of 
the reciprocal relations of employers and 
employed, came out in 1845; but the 
work which first established the posi- 
tion of Mr. Helps, was "Friends in 
Council," published in 1847. It is one 
of the most pleasant and readable books 
of the age, exhibiting great subtlety of 
thought and the utmost ability as an 
author. In 1851 appeared "Compa- 
nions of my Solitude," a thoughtful 
book, full of wisdom, gentleness, and 
beauty. " The Conquerors of the New 
World, and their Bondsmen," &c., ap- 
peared in 1848-52; and "The Spanish 
Conquest of America," in 1855. He has 

written other vohunea, but the aboT« 
are the most interesting. As an aathor, 
the first modem critics have pronounced 
Mr. Helps equal to the task " of being 
of infinite use to his generation." A 
second series of "Friends in Council " 
appeared in 1859, which ably m<LinfMn« 
the character of the first portion of the 

liam, a German theologian, was bom »t 
Frccndenberg, in October, 1802. He is 
the son of a Protestant minister, and 
was educated at the University of Bonn, 
where he devoted himaAlf chiefly to the 
study of the Oriental languages, and the 
study of philosophy. In 1824 he pub- 
lished the first volume of a tranalatian 
of "Aristotle's Metaphysics,'* having 
previously received honours from the 
Academy of Bonn, for his translation 
of an Arab work of the sixth century. 
In the same year ho qualified himnftlf aa 
a private teacher in the Faculty of Phi- 
losophy in Berlin ; and in the following 
year, as private teacher in the Faculty 
of Theology. He was appointed Joint 
Professor of Theology in 1826, and 
Ordinary Professor in 1829, obtaining 
at the same time the distinction of 
Doctor in Theology. The publication 
of the " Evangclische Kirchenzeitong," 
considered the ablest organ of the evan- 
gelical orthodox party in Prussia, waa 
! begun in 1827. His principal works 
arc " Christologie dcs A.F., Commentar 
ueber die Psalmen;" and "Beitraege sur 
Einleitung ins A.F., Commentar ueber 
die Apocalypse." Professor Hengsten- 
berg is employed at present in writing 
a "Conmientary on the Gospel of St. 
John." The son of Professor Heng- 
stenberg has also risen to distinction aa 
a theological writer. He is the pastor 
at Interbag, and is perhaps best known 
by a scries of articles which he pub- 
lished on the "Evangelical Alliance,'* 
after a long residence in Great Bri- 




HENLEY, The Right Hon. Joseph 
Warner, M.P., late President of the 
Board of Trade, under Lord Derby, was 
bom in 1793. Educated at Oxford^ he 
graduated as a B. A. in 1816 ; twenty 
years afterwards took his degree as 
M.A. ; and again, after an interval of 
another twenty years, received from his 
alma maier the honorary degree of 
D.C.L. At the general election of 1841, 
Mr. Henley was first returned to that 
seat in the House of Commons which he 
has ever since occupied — ^viz. as one of 
the three representatives of Oxford- 
shire. Chairman of the Sessions, since 
1846, he has taken a great interest in 
local affairs. In 1852 he was selected 
by Lord Derby as President of the 
Board of Trade. The Refoim Bill of the 
noble Lord not being satisfactory, he re- 
tired, in conjunction with Mr. WaljMle, 
from his position in the cabinet. 

HERAPATH, Wiluam, F.C.a, an 
English chemist, was bom at Bristol, in 
May, 1796. His father was a maltster 
and brewer, and dying suddenly, yoimg 
Herapath was called to conduct the 
business. His leisure hours were given 
up to the study of Natural Philosophy 
and Chemistry, and such became his 
proficiency and skill in these sciences, 
that he began to be consulted profes- 
sionally. His reputation increasing, he 
abandoned malting and devoted himself 
exclusively to his favourite pursuits, 
taking up, among others, the subject of 
toxicology, in which he made discove- 
ries of the utmost importance. He is 
one of the fourteen who originated the 
Chemical Society of London, and also 

was one of the originators of the Bristol 
Medical School, which was founded in 
1828. He became its first teacher of 
chemistry, a position which he still holds 
as Lecturer on Ceneral and Practical 
Chemistry and Toxicology. He has re-' 
oeived various municipal honours from 
his native city, of which he is now the 
senior magistrate. 

HERBERT, John Rogers, R.A., 
was bom in 1810, at Maldon, in Essex. 
He studied in the Royal Academy, and 
was for some time a portrait painter. 
His first attractive work, out of the 
portrait line, was "The Appointed 
Hour," which told a story of itself, and 
was very successful He visited Italy, 
and painted numerous pictures, the sub- 
jects of which were cMefly drawn from 
Venetian history, not, however, con- 
fining himself to that class of works. 
Owing, it is said, to the influence of the 
late Mr. Pugin, the architect, Mr. Her- 
bert conformed to the Roman Catholic 
religion, a circumstance which has con- 
siderably influenced his choice of sub- 
jects, and has led him to adopt the 
church to which he adheres, as the 
stand-point from which he paints his 
illustrations of Scripture history. He was 
elected an Academician in 1846; and 
soon after he was called on to assist 
in decorating the New Palace at West- 
minster. His efforts were so successful, 
that he was appointed to execute nine 
frescoes for the robing-room of the 
House of Lords. Mr. Herbert, not- 
withstanding occasional eccentricities 
of manner, wiainfaina a high plaos 
among the artists of the day. 

HERBERT, Right Hon. Sidnet, 
MP., an English statesman, is the son 
of the eleventh Earl of Pembroke, and 
was bom in 1810. He was educated at 
Harrow, and graduated at Oxford, in 
1831, being elected member for South 
Wilts in the following year. Commenc- 
ing public life as a strong Conservative, 
he j^udually acquired more liberal views. 

and was among the earliest supporters of 
Sir Robert Peel on the latter ^'hanyug 
his conmiercial policy in 1841. He held 
office in the Peel ministry, and also 
under Lord Aberdeen, as Secretary at 
War. He relinquished a subsequent 
connexion with the Palmerston adminis- 
tration, owing to a Committee being 
moved to inquire into the state of ths 




army then at SebastopoL Though he 
gave up from a sense of honour the 
position he held under Lord Palmer- 
ston, because of the censure he sup- 
posed implied in that appointment 
towards the government of Lord Aber- 
deen, no member of the House of 
Commons has given greater atten- 
tion to army reform. Some of the 
ablest papers upon the question that 
have appeared in the reviews of the day, 
have proceeded from his pen. Mr. 
Herbert is not only an able statesman ; 
he is also a singularly benevolent man. 
Much of his time and talent are devoted 
to the prosecution of schemes of social 
and general good. Li 1846 Mr. Herbert 
married a daughter of General A*Court, 
a lady ever deserving honourable 
mention for her devoted exertions on 
behalf of the sick and wounded Crimean 
heroes. On the fall of Lord Derby's 
administration (his second unsuccessful 
eflfort), in 1859, Lord Palmerston ap- 
pointed Mr. Sidney Herbert to the office 
of Secretary of State for War, which 
office he now holds. Mr. Herbert is 
heir presumptive to his brother the Earl 
of Pembroke. 

HERRING, John Fredkrick, an 
eminent painter of animal life, was bom 
in Surrey, in 1795. His family was 
originally Dutch; but his father was 
bom in America, whenoe he came to 
settle in London. Mr. Herring is essen- 
tially a self-taught artist. On the look- 
out for employment, he made his way 
to Doncaster, where he remained for 
eighteen years, principally employed as 
a coach-driver, but devoting his leisure 
to painting horses. His talent became 
known, and ho was induced to exchange 
the reins for the palette. Mr. Herring 
progressed with astonishing rapidity in 
art. He '* hit" the portraits of favourite 
horses and hounds with wonderful 
skill; and what is more surprising, he 
came to tmderstand colour as though he 
had attended lecturw at the Academy. 

Once on the road, his idea waa ''for- 
ward." From horses, Mr. Herring 
turned his hand to the depiction of ereiy 
other animal that came within familiar 
notice. His paintings appear to conTey 
the idea of sympathy with the living 
beings he depicts, whether horses, oowb, 
pigs, or dogs ; while his close h^nHling 
and minute attention to details, render 
his works extremely valuable as tran- 
scripts of things as they are. His 
** Members of the Temperance Society," 
"The Country Bait," "Feeding," 
" Straw Yard," " Roadside," and other 
well-known pictures, are unsurpaaaed 
in their special line. He has painted 
one or two ideal subjects, but in point 
of strength they have not matched hia 

HERSCHEL, Sir John Fredkricx 
William, Bart., K.H, was bom at 
Slough, in 1 792, and is the son of the great 
astronomer, Sir William HerscheL Pro- 
ceeding to Cambridge, after gradu- 
ating, he became senior wrangler, and 
Smith's prizeman, and subsequently de- 
voted himself to the study of mathema- 
tical and physical science. His first 
work was a paper communicated to the 
Royal Society in 1812, and printed 
in the Transactions of that body for 
1813, on a remarkable application of 
Cotes*s Theorem. It was followed by 
several others on mathematical subjects 
in the years 1815, 16, 17, aod 18, which 
will be found in the same collection, in 
the " Edinburgh Cyclopsedia," and in the 
posthumous edition of |"Spence's Ma- 
thematical Essays," edited by him in 
1819. In 1820 was published at Cam- 
bridge his " Collection of Examples of 
the Application of the Calculus of Finite 
Differences," forming a supplement to 
a translation of " Lacroix*s Treatise, " exe- 
cuted by him in 1816, in conjunction 
with Messrs. Peacock and Babbage. Hia 
first contribution to physical science waa 
his discovery of the hyposiUphurous add, 
and its salts (since become so uaeful in 




photography, and whose application to 
photographical purposes he was the first 
to point out). He wrote a series of 
papers in ** Brewster's and Jamieson*s 
Edinburgh Philosophical Journal," in 
1819, followed in that and subsequent 
years by various memoirs, chiefly on 
optical, chemical, and electrical science, 
published in the ** Transactions of the 
Royal Society " and other scientific col- 
lections. On the death of his father he 
devoted himself to the continuance of 
that great work of astronomical investi- 
gation around which his illustrious pa- 
rent had shed so much renown. In 
1825 he began an independent series of 
investigations of the sidereal heavens. 
He afterwards received the Royal Medal 
of 1833 for his researches on the orbits 
of double stars. As regards nebula) and 
clusters of stars, a record of 2,306 obser- 
vations was laid before the Royal So- 
ciety, together with somewhere between 
three and four thousand observations 
uxx>n double stars, and was again re- 
warded by that body with their Royal 
Medal for 1836. The Royal Astronomical 
Society voted him a gold medal for his 
eminent services to science. In 1830 he 
contributed a treatise on Sound to the 
''Encyclopaedia Metropolitana;" and in 
the year following, a treatise on 
"Light" was furnished by him to the 
same work. Shortly subsequent to 
these contributions, his ** Preliminary 
Discourse on the Study of Natural Phi- 
losophy" ap{>eared. This last work ex- 
hibited its author as capable of sustain- 
ing a high reputation in scientific litera- 
ture. In 1 836 * * A Treatise on Astronomy ' * 
added greatly to HerscheFs xx>pularity. 
He now resolved upon what has proved 
the greatest of his tasks as a practical 
astronomer, the survey of the southern 
hemisphere, hitherto all but utterly 
unknown to science. In the execution 
of this great design he sailed, with his 
family, for the Cape of Good Hope. The 
Yoyage proved quite propitious. On 

the 15th January, 1834^ he arrived 
at the Cape, with all his instruments 
in admirable condition. After some 
search he selected a site for his 
improved observatory, about six miles 
from Table Bay, in a beautiful and 
shaded district of country. Here he 
set up his instruments. From March, 
-1834, until May, 1838, he continued 
his investigations; having, during these 
four years, swept the whole southern 
heavens. The scientific world in Europe 
and America waited with intense inter- 
est the results of the sublime labours of 
this solitary watcher. At distant inter- 
vals, this . interest was gratified by 
glimpses of the progress that had been 
made. Complete results were published in 
regular form, in a work the cost of which 
was liberally defrayed by his Grace the 
Duke of Northumberland, and which 
the Royal Society distinguished by the 
grant of their Copley Medal for that 
year. Herschel suggested a plan of 
simultaneous meteorological observa- 
tions, which he subsequentiy explained 
in a fonnal publication. It was carried 
out under military authority in 1844. 
On Herschel's return to England 
every honour was paid him, being 
made a baronet at the coronation of 
the Queen, and created a D.C.L. by 
the University of Oxford. In 1855 he 
was elected by the French Academy of 
Sciences one of the eight Foreign mem- 
bers of the Institute, of which, as well 
of most of the principal Scientific 
Academies of Europe, he had long been 
a corresponding Associate. Among his 
later publications may be mentioned 
a series of communications in the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society on the 
Photographic and Calorific properties of 
the Prismatic rays of the Spectrum, 
which were rewarded with the Royal 
Medal of that body; several memoirs 
on mathematical subjects ; a work enti- 
tied * * OutUnes of Astronomy," which has 
passed through five editions, and been 




recently translated into the Chinese 
language, and published in that empire ; 
a volume of Essays on a variety of sub- 
jects, published in 1857, and a series of 
articles on Meteorology, Physical Geog- 
raphy, &c, in the Encyclopesdia Britan- 
nica now in course of publication. In 1 850 
Sir John received the appointment of 
Master of the Mint, but faiUng health 
induced him to retire, when Professor 
Graham, the eminent chemist, was nomi- 
nated. Sir John Herschel has ever taken 
the greatest interest in the diffusion of 
knowledge, occasionally lecturing to 
large mixed audiences. He married in 
1829 Margaret Brodie, eldest dau^ter 
of the Bev. Blexandon Stewart, D.D., 
by whom he has a numerous family. 

HERZEN (sometimes, but errone- 
ously, spelled Hertzen), Alexander, a 
Russian journalist and political writer, 
was bom at Moscow on the 25th of 
March, 1812. Having terminated a bril- 
liant university career, he was suddenly 
arrested on the ground of entertaining 
sentiments hostile to the government. 
After remaining in prison nearly a year, 
he was exiled to Perm and afterwards 
to Matra, for a period of five years. He 
was then set at large, but in 1840 he was 
again apprehended at Petersburg, and 
sent to Novogorod, being there detained 
during the years 1841 and 1842. On 
the surveillance being removed he left 
Russia for Paris, and opened bold 
warfare with the Muscovite despotism. 
While the government of Louis-Philippe 
still existed, he left France for Italy, 
where he collected materials for a 
series of letters subsequently published. 
After the Revolution of February 
he returned to Paris, and published 
various books in French and German, 
but his connexion with Proudhon and 
the ** Voices of the People*' resulted in 
his expulsion from the country in 1850. 
From Paris he went to Nice, and thence, 
in 1852, to London. Here a new career 
wae opened to his activity. In the 

English metropolis he founded a RunoAn 
printing establishment, which has been 
in constant operation ever since. Up to 
the death of the Emperor Nicholas, 
Russian books were printed at this 
establishment without it being possible 
to sell a single copy in the empire of the 
Czar, but after his death a change took 
place. The following books were pub- 
lished in Russian by Herzen, at Lon- 
don : — 1. "Letters on Italy and France ;*• 
2. " On Despotism ;" a "Storiee Half 
Told.*' In 1855 he commenced the Re- 
view called the "Polar Star," and in 
1856 a newspaper named "The Bull" 
(Kolokol), appearing once a fortnight. 
This journal has acquired great im- 
Xx>rtance in Russia by exhibiting the 
evils of functionaryism. 

HIEN FUNG, Emperor of Chika, 
of the Ta Tsing, or great Pun dynasty, 
was bom about 1830. The fourth son 
of the Emperor Taou Kwang, he as* 
cended the throne in 1851. He found 
the country at that time in a melancholy 
position, the result of the war with 
Great Britain on account of the opium 
traffic ; and the successes of the British 
arms in various parts of the empire had 
compelled the signature of the Treaty of 
Nanking. Within the empire all was 
disorganization, and the state of the 
population was such as to presage a 
general dissolution of the established 
: authority. Two parties were engaged 
in a hard struggle. One of these, which 
J was to a certain extent progressive, 
seeking the overthrow of the Manchoo 
conquerors, but hitherto finding no sup- 
port from the respectable classes of the 
Chinese, obtained influence with a small 
party of the friends of the Imperial 
family, and exhibited sounder views of the 
strength of western nations than those 
generally maintained in China, and had 
for a short time the ascendancy, but 
ultimately the reactionary party became 
successful, the standard of revolt was 
raised in many of the provinces, and an 




inflorrection broke out wliich iproad 
from K wang-si, having Hung Tsen Tseaen 
as its leader. The rapid progress of the 
ciyil war filled with consternation the 
court of Peking. It was said that 
an attempt was made to assassinate 
the Emperor in the palace gardens; 
disturbances multiplied; the finances 
of the Emperor became deranged; 
trouble succeeded trouble; but the 
Emperor probably kept in ignorance of 
the real state of affairs, was at the 
mercy of his ministers. A period of 
comparative tranquillity, however, at 
last came, but it was short-lived. The 
measures of Sir John Bowring for the 
protection of the British flag, burst on 
the quiet of Peking, and led to a war 
which terminated in a treaty signed by 
the Imperial Conmiissioners, authorizing 
the admission of a British plenipo- 
tentiary to the court of Peking. How 
it was violated is known to every reader. 
The Hon. W. Bruce, the British repre- 
sentative, relying on the treaty, was 
passing the mouth of the Tien Tien river, 
when the ships of war which formed his 
escort were assailed by masked batteries 
firom forts on shore, and a heavy loss of life, 
as well as a loss of vessels, was the conse- 
quence. For this attack, Britain, sup- 
ported by France, is now making reprisals. 
It rests with political philosophers to 
judge how far the Emperor of China, or 
those who make use of his name in our 
diplomatic intercourse with the empire, 
should be allowed to prohibit or restrain 
European intercourse with four hundred 
millions of the human race. The 
Emperor's family consists of four sons 
and a daughter : he has also two brothers 

HILDKETH, Richaikd, an American 
author, was bom at Deerfield, Massa- 
chusetts, on the 28th of June, 1807. 
His father was a Unitarian minister. 
He graduated at Harvard College, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1830. He 
became^ in 1832, editor of the Boston 

''Atlas," a daily paper, and afterwards 
filled similar situations in various cities 
of the Union. He has published several 
educational works ; but his name is best 
known by his works in opposition to 
slavery, and his '* History of the United 
States of America." The latter work 
is a plain, unpretending, chronological 
narrative, useful for reference, but, 
perhaps, rather meagre and uninterest- 
ing in style — ample though not ani- 

HILL, Sib Rowland, KCB., origi- 
nator of the penny-postage system, and 
Secretary to the General Post Office, 
was born at Kidderminster, on the 3rd 
December, 1795. His father conducted 
a seminary near Birmingham, in the 
mathematical department of which the 
subject of this notice assisted, until 
in consequence of bad health he was 
obliged in 1833 to withdraw from that 
occupation. He subsequently received 
the appointment of Secretary to the 
South Australian Commission. For a 
considerable period his mind had been 
occupied with the consideration of the 
errors and abuses of the postal system, 
as it stood a quarter of a century since, 
and in 1837 he published a pamphlet on 
Post-office Reform, which aroused the 
feeling of the country in favour of his 
plans. In 1838 a committee of the 
House of Commons recommended the 
adoption of his proposals for reform ; 
and, aided by the zeal and ability of Mr. 
Charles Knight, and the late Mr. Wal- 
lace, Member for Greenock, he perse- 
vered, until in 1840 he had the gratifica- 
tion of witnessing a practical recognition 
of his views, by the establishment of a 
uniform rate of postage, the charge for a 
short time being fourpence for a letter 
inland, to whatever distance conveyed. 
In 1842, much to the discredit of the 
Government of the day, he felt him- 
self obliged to leave Ms post without 
having completed his changes ; and in 
1846 he became Chairman of th^ 





Brighton Railway Company. In 1846 
the country so warmly appreciated the 
merits of his system that he was pre- 
sentiti with a money testimonial of 
£ 1 X (KH). On a chan^ of ministers in the 
same year, he reoeiveil the appointment 
of pi'nnancnt Secrotan\ and that of sole 
Stx'n*tar\- to the Ptwt -office when Colonel 
MalH.»rlv retinnl in 1S.>4. For his ser- 
victv^ in the cause of postal reform he 
WA9 nindo a Knight Commander of the 
lUth in Man'h, 1800. One of his brothers 
ai'tji a.^ at»istant-8t>cretar3' ; a second is 
sur%*eyor of fctamps ; and a third, the 
KiH^oriler of Bimiingham. 

HINO, John Russell, an eminent 
atitit)nonier, was bom at Nottingham, 
on the 12th May, 1823. He is the son 
of tlie introducer of the Jacquanl 
loi^nu now so much im])rovt'd u)K>n, and 
so extensively ustnL Mr. Hind was for 
some time assistant in the Greenwich 
Ol^»r\\itt>ry. He is Foreign Secretary 
t4> the Royal Astronomical iSociety, and 
sui»erint4.'ndent of the "Nautical Al- 
manack ." He is the discoverer of a large 
nunil)cr of planets. The gold medal of the 
Astronomical Society was awarded to 
him in 18>'>2 for his eminent services to 
science, and a ])cn8ion of i!200 a-year was 
granttnl him by Government for impor- 
tant a>«trononiical discoveries. He is 
the author of several works on astrono- 
mical 8u}»jects, among which are — ** The 
Solar SysUm (1846), " "The Expected 
Return f»f the Great Comet of 1264 and 
imy (1848)," "An Astronomical Voca- 
bular>' (1852)," and "Comets: a De- 
scrii>tive Treatise (1852)." Mr. Hind 
has Iwen long engageti in Mr. Bishop's 
Obsenatorj' in Regent's Park. 

HINDS, Rkjiit Rev. Samcel. ex- 
Bishop of Norwich, was l)om in 17W^ 
in Barljad'X'S. He came to England 
when a boy, was educated at Oxford, 
and onlaintni in 1822. He was pro- 
motcil to the see of Norwich in 1849, 
and was one of the few who, on the 
£pL9coi)al benches of the House of 

Lords, attached themselves to the 
Liberal party. The revenue of the 
diocese is estimated at about £4,500 « 
year. This he resigned tit tcto in 1857. 
The learned prelate has published 
numerous writings on religious subjects, 
the principal of which is the " Rise and 
Progress of Christianity," which, sinoe 
1853, has passed through several edi- 

HOLLAND, Sir Henrt, Bart., « 
physician, was bom 1788. Eilucated *t 
the London Medical School, and at the 
University of E^nburgh, he graduated 
at the latter as M.D. in 1811, and after 
traveUing three or four years in various 
parts of Europe, settled in London, 
where he rapidly grew into repute as « 
physician. Rising gradually to the 
highest eminence as a practitioner, he 
was appointed physician in ordinaiy to 
H.R.H. Prince Albert in 1^10, and to 
Her Majesty in 1852. Early in life he 
published his travels in Albania, Thee- 
saly, and Greece; but the work by 
which he is best known is his "Medical 
Notes and Reflexions." He was created 
a Baronet in 185.% and is a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, D.C.L. of Oxford, and a 
Fellow of the Royal College of Phya- 
cians in London. He married a daughter 
of the celebrated Rev. Sydney Smith, 
canon of St. Paul's, the brilliant and 
accomplished ^-riter of her father's 

HOLMES, Oltvee Wendell, M.D., 
an American jihysician and poet, was 
bom at Cambridge, in Massachu- 
setts, on the 20th August, ISOft. He 
graduated at Har\'ard University in 
1829, and devoted the next year to 
the study of law. In 18;W he visited 
Euro])e, and, having already exchanged 
Coke and Blackstoue for Galen and Esca- 
lajiius, attended the hospitals of Paris for 
some two or three years. In 1835 he 
returned to Boston, took his medical 
degree at Cambridge, United States, ia 
1836, was elected Professor of Anatomy 




and Physiology in Dartmouth College in Church Dictionary; " " On the Means of 

1838, and succeeded Dr. Warren, in Har 
vard University, in 1847. Two years 
after this appointment, Dr. Holmes 
relinquished general practice. The 
Doctor has been a frequent contributor 
to the medical literature of the United 
States, and is the author of a volume of 
excellent poetry, which has been repub- 
lished in Britain. To the pages of the 
"Atlantic Monthly," Mr. Holmes has 
lately contributed a series of excellent 
papers, entitled '* The Autocrat of the 
Breakfast Table." These have been re- 
printed in England as well as in Ame- 
rica, and proved highly successfuL Dr. 
Holmes is, according to the estimate of 
his countrymen, the most effective ])oet 
of the school of Pope that America has 
produced. His poem on the 'Burns 
Centenary ' is incomparably the finest of 
the countless rhymes that celebration 
has called forth. 

HOOK, The very Rev. Walter 
Farqudar, D.D., Dean of Chichester 
and theological writer, is the son of the 
late Rev. Dr. James Hook, Dean of 
Worcester. He was bom in London in 
1798, and was educated at Winchester, 
and Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
graduated in 1821. He was apjxjinted 
chaplain to George IV. in 1827, Vicar 
of Coventry in 1829, Vicar of Leeds in 
1837, and Dean of Chichester in 1859. 
Untiring energy in the cause of church 
extension, and a zealous devotion to 
ecclesiastical literature, are the leading 
characteristics of this eminent divine. 
In 185(5 Dr. Longley, Bishop of 
Durham, on taking leave of the clergy 
of the diocese of Ripon, mentioned that 
no fewer than twenty churches and 
thirty schools had been built in Leeds 
through the exertions of Dr. Hook. 
The dean belongs to the high -church 
party in the English Church, and is the 
author of *' An Ecclesiastical Biography, 
containing the lives of the Ancient 
Fathers and Modem Divines; " "A 

rendering more eflFectual the Education 
of the People ; " and ** The Three 
Reformations. " He has also published 
numerous sermons. 

HOOKER, Sir Willam Jackson, 
K. H. , D. C. L. , a botanist, Director of the 
Royal Gardens at Kew, and formerly 
Professor of Botany in the University of 
Glasgow, was bom at Exeter. Ha\'ing 
terminated his university studies, and 
prompted by a strong predilection for 
the study of natural science, he joined a 
memorable expedition to Iceland, of 
which he, on his return, published an 
account under the title of ** Journal of 
a Tour to Iceland" (Yarmouth, 1811). 
The flora of the island described in this 
volume, and a "Monograph of the 
British Jungermannise," published in 
1813, having established his reputation 
as a botanist, he was offered the profes- 
sorship of his favourite science at Glas- 
gow, and which he accepted. Althou;,'h 
in independent circumstances, he la- 
})0ured most zealously in the discharge 
of his academical duties, j^ublishing in 
1818 the **Muscologia Britannica," the 
first complete treatise on British mosses, 
and also the **Mu8ci Exotici," in 1821 
"Flora Scotica," and in 1823 tlie 
"Exotic Flora," a work at the time 
much praised for the description it con- 
tained of new plants, susceptible of cid- 
tivation in this coimtry, and for the 
care and finish with which it was got 
up. From 1830 to 1833, he published 
the "Botanical Miscellany," and from 
1826 to 1837 the **Icoues Filiciun," 
which consisted of plates and relative 
descriptions of ferns. In the mean time 
he extended his " Flora Scotica" to the 
whole of the United Kingdom, and pub- 
lished in 1830 tlie extended work as 
the "British Flora." In 1836 he pul>- 
lishcd a new e«lition of " Smith's Intro- 
duction to Physiological and Systematic 
Botany ; " and in the same year re- 
ceived the honour of knighthood, as a 




rewaid for bM scientific bboan. From 

Gbagow, Sir William Hooker removed 

Uy Kew, to become Director of the 

Royal rwaniens. a situaHon for which he 

was well qualifietl having previously 

managed the Botanic Oardena at Ghw- 

iww In 1S47 he published a useful 

iittl' work, the "Guide to Kew 

Gaidens," roperintcnded the erection 

o the gw«* conservatory and new 

museum, and obtained for the pabllo 

facilitii's of admission which were not 

known before his time. Sir William 

Hi^^ker, as editor of the "Journal of 

Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany,*' 

baa. since the period of his appointment 

at Kew, described a very great number 

of {tlants, and fully sustained his high 

reiHitation as a systematic botanist 

HOOKER, Joseph Dalton, M.D., 
a botanist, son of Sir William Jackson 
Hooker, was bom at Halesworth, in 
Suffolk, in 1817. He completed his 
medical studies and took the degree 
of M.I>. at the University of Glasgow. 
He accompanied Sir James Roes on his 
expedition to the Antarctic regions in 
IS**^* in the capacity of assistant- 
surgeon and naturalist. On his return, 
ill 1843, he was directed by the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty to 
publish the fruits of his researches, a 
work which has been completed in six 
quarto volumes, comprising the ** flora 
Antarctica, " and those of New Zealand 
and Tasmania; to the two latter of 
which ' are essays appended, adding 
much to our knowledge of the laws 
which govern the distribution of plants 
over the earth. In 1847 Dr. Hooker 
proceeded on a botanical mission to 
the Eastern Himalaya, and other little 
known districts of India; whence he 
returned in 1851, having amassed a rich 
harvest of botanical observations, draw- 
ings, and living and dried plants, many 
from countries never before visited by a 
European, and where travelling was 
both difficult and dangerous. His 

adventures were recorded and pabliahed 
under the title of "Himalayan Jour- 
nals,** the botanical and scientific 
results being consigned to the "Flora 
Indica,** a treatise on the Rhododen- 
drons of the Sikkim Himalaya. In 
1855 Dr. Hooker was appointed Assist- 
ant-Director of the Royal Gardens at 

HOPE, George William, M. P., 
was bom at Bhickheath, Kent, in 1808. 
He is the son of General the Hon. Sir 
Alexander Ho|>e, who was fourth son 
of the Earl of Hojietoun. He waa 
educated at Christ Church College, 
Oxford, and called to the bar at Lin- 
ooln*8-inn, in June, 1831. Some time 
after, he entered Parliament, and held 
the office of Under-Secretaiy of State 
for the Colonies, in Sir Robert Peel's 
government, from September 1841, to 
December 1845. He at present repre- 
sents the borough of Windsor, for which 
he was first elected in 1859. Hia poli- 
tical principles are laberal-Consenra- 
tive. He docs not oppose rational 
changes, but resists any sweeping de- 
mocratic measure which would render 
mere numbers predominant over pro- 
perty and intelligence. 

HORNE, Richard Henby, an author 
and dramatist, was bom in 1807. After 
leaving the Military College of Sand- 
hurst, he devoted himself to hard study 
at home in philosophy, poetry, and 
metaphysics. During this period be 
endeavoured to get a commission in the 
Polish Cavalry, but without success. 
He obtained about this time a medal 
from the Society of Arts for a pen-and- 
ink copy of an etching by Rembrandt. 
He then took a voyage to Vera Cniz, 
and on landing there was appointed 
interpreter and translator of the civil 
correspondence On a second cruise he 
was mate of the gun deck, and assisted 
in taking a prize, was present at the 
bombardment of Vera Cruz and the 
taking of San Juan Ulloa» bat caught 




the yellow fever, and proceeded, on his 
recovery, to New York, thence through 
different parts of Canada to England. 
He there devoted himself to literature, 
and produced a tragedy, which he never 
published, with other works, which 
were rejected by the publishers on ac- 
count of the peculiarity of their subjects. 
His first published production was a 
series of articles on the Mexican Expedi- 
tion, which appeared in the "London 
Journal" He afterwards brought out 
his ^'Exjiosition of the False Medium 
and the Barriers excluding Men of 
CTenius from the Public." This was 
followed by the "Spirit of Peers and 
People," the "Death of Marlowe," 
which was very successful, and appeared 
in 1837, "Cosmo de' Medici," "Gregory 
VII.," and "Judas Iscariot" Mr. 
Home also revised numerous works 
for the press, and contrilmted to the 
"Westminster Review," the "Monthly 
Chronicle," the "New Quarterly," 
"Eraser's Magazine," "Tait's," "House- 
hold Wonls," &c Mr. Home is chiefly 
known by his " Orion," of which it was 
his intention to give away the first three 
editions. An edition of this work has 
been published in Australia, and is to be 
sold, in the first instance, for a farthing 
per copy. Mr. Home is at present in 
that country, and is occupied as a gold 
commissioner at Melbourne. He has 
lately taken great interest in the art of 
swinmiing, on which some years ago he 
wrote articles in the Penny Cyclopsedia 
and Eraser's Magazine. He is also 
engaged in getting up a Wine-growing 
Comi)any on the Goldbum River, in 
Victoria, which, he has hopes, will be 
very successful, and prove another source 
of wealth to that flourishing colony. 

HORSLEY, John Callcott, a 
painter, was bom in London, on the 29th 
January, 1817. He studied at the 
Royal Academy, and at the early age of 
eighteen exhibited his " Rent Day at 
Haddon Hall in the Sixteenth Centoiy," 

His next great picture was " The Pride 
of the Village." At the Westminste: 
Hall exhibition of 1843 he gained one 
of the three prizes of £200 for his cartoon 
of ** St Augustine Preaching." He 
followed up his success by painting the 
fine fresco of "Religion," which forms 
one of the decorations of the House of 
Lords. In 1847 he obtained a i>rize 
for his well-kBown work "Prince Henry, 
believing the King his father dead, 
assumes the Crown. " These and several 
other works in the historical style were, 
however skilfully painted, out of Mr. 
Horsley's exact department, and he now 
confines himself tb-the treatment of more 
congenial subj ects. Hia pictures * * F Alle- 
gro and H Penseroso," painted for the 
Prince Consort, "The Madrigal," "Lady 
Jane Grey and Roger Ascham," and "A 
Scene from Don Quixote," indicate his 
I)eculiar powers. Several of his pictures 
have been engraved, and these display 
great variety of thought and aptitude to 
turn from grave to gay. 

HOUDIN, Robert JsAN-EuokNE, 
a celebrated sleight-of-hand professor, 
was bom at Blois, in 1805. The son of 
a watchmaker, he studied at the College 
of Orleans, and, at his father's instance, 
went into the office of a notary. He 
was not, however, destined to follow 
the profession of the law. Endowed 
with a talent for mechanical invention, 
in 1830 he produced a number of auto- 
mata and deceptive instruments, which 
caught public attention at once. He 
became an itinerant lecturer or show- 
man, and exhibited his curicvs and 
often inexplicable contrivances through- 
out Europe, for some years, ^^nih suc- 
cess. In 1856 he received a mission 
from government to go to Algeria, where 
he beat the Eastern magicians on their 
own ground, and so increased the pres- 
tige of the French. On his return he 
published (1859) a work containing his 
professional confessions, mingled with 
I sketches of men and manners, which 




if not very instnictive, is at 


least M. Houssaye, dow editor in 

of **L* Artiste,'* a newspaper ipecially 
devoted to the fine arts, has no aupeiiar 
Lu Palis 

HOUSTON, Samuxl, an Amerieaa 
general, was bom at Rockbridge, Vir- 
ginia, in 1793. His early edacation WM 
scxinty, and after paasing tliroog)^ 
various vicissitudea, he <»nH«t<»«^ aai 
serveil under Greneral Jackson. Hii 
energy of character soon bmnght him 
into notice, and eventually turning hii 

HOl'SSAVE, AitSKNE, a French pf»€t^ 
was born at Bruyeres, near La^m, in 
1815, of an old family in that neigh- 
b(»iirh<.MKl. His education was liljcral, 
and he iinprovwl it by self-cidtivation. 
He joiaed the French army in 1830, when 
a more boy, but the maiiial spirit was 
kindled, and he could not resist its 
force. Alter the siege of Antwerp 
j>eace was pK>claimed, and M. Hous- 

saye returned to n.'side with his father, ; atti'ntion to political matters, he 
until 1832, when he made up his mind . electoil a member of Congresa After 
to remi>ve to Paris, as the gieat central | Inking made Governor of Tennessee^ he 
point from which fame and fortune radi- 
atetl. His first literary appearance was in 
183(5, when he publishi^l two romances, 
*'La Couro'ine de Bluets," and **La 
Pecheresse," neither of which then at- 
tiiined to nmch celebrity, though they 
have since W-vn higldy praised. Aideil 
by the friendship of The<»phile Gautier 
and Jules Sandeau, M. Houssayu pub- 
lished varif»us works, besi<les contri- 
buting ]»apers to the **Re\'ne <le 
Parw." He was accuscMl of plagiarism, 
but without foundation, for he only 
drew his incidents or descrijitions from 
sources c«»mmon to all i"ca<lers of books 
and students of the world and its 
ways. At the Revolution of 1848 he 
was an active 2>^^hticiiin of the demo- 
cratic order, and in 1849 was ap- 
]K)inted Director of the Theatre Fran- 
9ais, which he bnmght into a con<lition 
of almost unprecedented prosperity, 
though when he accepted the con- 
trol of that estabhshment its for- 
tunes were at the lowest ebb. He 
resigned the app<»iutment in 185C, on 
his nomination by the Emperor as 
Inspector-General of the Fine Arts. 
Among liis works may \>e enumerated 
** Philosophers and Actresses," the 
**Histor>' of Dutch and Flemish Paiat- 
in.-,"and "COiarlottcCordaye," "I^lloi 
Voltaire," and *'The Forty-first Chair 
of the Academy." As an art critic 

Nisited, in 1829, the Indians »n%nnff± 
whom he had spent his early days, aiid 
endeavoured to relieve them of burdens 
from which they had suffered, by pro- 
cetnliug to Washington. Having also 
assisted in the affairs of Texa^ he 
undertook the command of an anny in 
183C, wliich had been raised to oppose 
the Mexicans, and was completdy 
successful He has been twice elected 
President of the Texican Republic, and 
since the annexation has represented 
Texas in the Senate of the United 

HOWITT, Mary, a poet and 
novelist, wife of William Howitt^ and 
the daughter of Mr. Botham, a monher 
of the Society of Friends, was bom 
at Uttoxeter, in 1804. She received 
an excellent education, and was at an 
early age well acquainted not only with the 
usiuil course of sciences taught in 8choola» 
but \ntli ancient and modem literatuxe. 
Her reflective character and love of 
natiu^ arc evidenced in '*My Own 
St<.>r>%" After her marriage, her Ute- 
rar>' career became in some degree 
blfn<ie<l with that of her husband, buthei* 
individual works are far the most nume- 
rous. Among these may be numbered, 
*'Tho Seven Temptations,*' a ilramatic 
poem, ''Ballads and other Poems,** 
"Wood Leighton," and "The Heir of 
Wast Way land,*' two admirably told 




stories, not only developing country 
life and character, but pointing an excel- 
lent moral Mrs. Hewitt's works for 
the young, vmtten originally for her 
own children, amount to upwards of 
twenty volumes, and are at once 
instructive and entertaining, and full of 
maternal love and wisdonL Amongst 
these may be mentioned "Strive and 
Thrive," "Hope on, Hope ever," "Alice 
Franklin," "Little Coin, much Care," 
"Work and Wages," ''Stedfast 
Gabriel," "The Children's Year," 
"Sketches of Natural History," &c. &c. 
Mrs. Hoivitt has translated the whole 
of the works of Fredrika Bremer from 
the Swedish ; several of Hans Cliristian 
Andersen s and others, from the Danish ; 
besides translations from the German, 
both in prose and poetry. Apart from 
this great amount of hterary labour, 
Mrs. Howitt has contributed largely to 
magazines and serials, and it is only 
justice to add, that her powers have ever 
been directed to the advocacy of the 
true, the useful, and the good — the 
alleviation of suffering, and the educa- 
tion of the youthful mind. 

HOWITT, William, an historian and 
novelist, was bom in 1795, at Heanor, 
in Derbyshire, of an old Quaker family. 
Receiving his education in various 
schools connected with the society, he 
studied hard, and became well ac- 
quainted with science, without neglecting 
the languages. When twenty-eight years 
of age he married Miss Botham, of Ut- 
toxeter, a la<ly of kindred taste. In 1823 
their joint work appeared, "The Forest 
Minstrel, ''which, being highly approved 
of, made its way rapidly. Annuals — 
as they were called in those days — were 
growing into fashion, and to the earliest 
of the number the "Literary Souvenir," 
and the "Amulet," William Howitt was 
a contributor. In 1831 his * * Book of the 
Seasons" was published; in 1833 his 
" History of Priestcraft in all Ages;" in 
1837, '* Kural Life in England," and 

" Visits to Remarkable Places. " About 
this time he removed to Germany, where 
he resided for some time, writing there 
his "Student Life in Germany," and on 
his return publishing his "Homes and 
Haunts of the British Poets. " The most 
unfortunate part of his career was his 
purchase of a share in the "People*s 
Journal " in 1846, by which he was in- 
volved in much trouble and pecuniary 
loss. In 1847 he started "Howitt's 
Journal," but his capital being sunk, he 
found it impossible to proceed. In 1852; 
in conjunction with Mrs. Howitt, he 
published a " History of the Literature 
of Scandinavia," unquestionably the 
only complete account of that interestr 
ing literature in any language, no entire 
history of it yet existing in any of the 
Scandinavian dialects. In the same 
year, Mr. Howitt departed for Australia, 
to witness for himself the unparalleled 
progress of the colony. He returned in 
1854, and published "Land, Labour, 
and Gold," an account of his expe- 
riences in the country. The works of 
Mr. Howitt have been so numerous, and 
are so well known, that a recapitulation 
of their titles is needless in a slight 
sketch of his life. His " Man of the 
Peox)le," a novel, published recently, is 
designed to show the amazing progress 
of England in the last forty years. Mr. 
Howitt is now engaged in writing "Cas- 
sell's Illustrated History of England," 
of which he has already eomplete<l four 
large 8vo volumes, there being still two 
in progress. 

HUGO, Victor Marie, Vicomte, a 
French poet and writer, was bom at 
Besangon, on 26th Februaiy, 1802. His 
early education was of the most desul- 
tory description. Before he was eight 
years old, he had been obliged to ac- 
company his father through part of 
Italy, into Spain, to reside in Elba, and 
fintdly to journey from Madrid to Paris. 
Between 1813 and 1822 he produced a 
poem on the "Advantages of Study." 



^ 'in ISS b« «toUiahed the 

Zc^ U- coDtr^n^ r«sed between the 
"j^li^ a«i w«»tic Bchoola, Victor 
«*^^ with aU the impetuosity 
w!/^ «•«««• '^ became the head of 
the fomaatk •chool, in France. Under 
,^ induence he produced a variety of 
^1^ «moag which was " Notre Dame 
. |Vi«." which still holds its place 
„^y Ihe best novels which have been 
Ijyji^ in France. In 1841 Victor 
HofiO became a member of the French 
K<ddtmyt '^^ ^^^ created a peer in 
l<;43^ In 1848 he was twice returned 
|^<ir the Assemble Rationale as a demo- 
^gf^ In December, 1852, he was placed 
1,0 the list for extradition, and being 
«xUed from France, took up lus resi- 
dence in Jersey, and afterwards, in 
185^ in Guernsey. From Jersey, he 
]iA8» on more than one occasion, launched 
the lightning of his eloquence and scorn, 
l^oth in prose and verse, against the 
pi«sent occupant of the French throne. 
The most telling of lus productions being 
his "Napoleon the Little," which ap- 
pears, from the date on the preface, 
to have been written prior to his leaving 
France. He also published the '* Chftti- 
mens," a volume of poems composed in 
the same spirit which dictated ** Napo- 
leon the Little." He has been a prolific 
writer both of dramas and novels, the 
French critics placing him at the head 
of the romantic schooL His '* Last 
Days of a Condemned Criminal " is a 
very extraordinary cfibrt of imagination, 
scarcely however consistent in doctrine 
with some of his other works. The per- 
manent fame of Victor Hugo wiU rest 
upon his poetical works, which con- 
tain passages, perhaps, unsuipassed in 
the whole range of French literature for 
all the qualities which constitute true 



HULLAH, John, a composer and 
popular musical instructor, was bom in 
1812, at Worcester. His musical educa- 
tion was originally defective, and it was 
not until he was seventeen, when he be- 
came the pupil of the late Mr. Horsley, 
Bachelor of Music, that he received any 
regular instruction. In 1832 he entered 
the Eoyal Academy of Music, for the 
purpose of studying singing under Ore- 
vellL He became first known as a com- 
poser by writing the music for Mr. 
Dickens's comic opera, "The Village 
Coquettes." He produced one or two 
other operas, when lus attention was 
directed to the formation of popular 
singing classes, »iTnila.r to those estab- 
lished in Paris. He commenced the 
foundation of such schools in London, 
in 1840 ; and was |)erfectiy snccessfoL 
His system is so widely ramified as to 
require no description ; but it may be 
safely said that no man has done more, 
few so much, to extend and cultivate the 
musical genius of the country as Mr. 
HuUah. His system is recognised every- 
where, and has always been found to 

HUNT, Robert, F.RS., a physicist, 
and writer on physics, was bom 6th Sep- 
tember, 1807, at Dcvon[x>rt Mr. Hunt 
originally was apprenticed to a suigeon, 
but after a few years left tins profession, 
and was brought up to the business of a 
druggist. His general attainments at- 
tracted the attention of the Cornwall 
Polytechnic Society, of which he was 
secretary for five years. Through Sir 
Henry De la Beche, who proved a steady 
friend, Mr. Hunt was appointed Keeper 
of Mining Records in the Museum of 
Practical Geology — which office he now 
fills — and in connexion with which he 
has organized and regularly published a 
system of ** Mineral Statistics," the 
value of which is proved by the fact, 
that the mining interests have presented 
him with a handsome testimoniaL In 
1851 he assisted in the arrangement of 

HUN 217 

the Great Exlubition, having written 
the '* Synopsis and Hand-book" of the 
great gathering. He is an admirable lec- 
turer, and a vigorous and lucid scientific 
writer. His best known works are ' * Re- 
searches on Light," the Poetry of Sci- 
ence," **Panthea; or, the Spirit of Na- 
ture," *' Elementary Physics," and a 
' * Manual of Photography. " His labours 
and researches on light, heat, and actin- 
ism are very valuable. These inquiries 
secured him admission to the Royal 

HUNT, Thornton, an English 
journalist, eldest son of Leigh Hunt, was 
bom in September, I8I0. After being 
educated as an artist, he spent a part 
of his early life in Italy, but the studio, 
ill suited to his peculiar temperament, 
was Wion abandoned for the more conge- 
nial field of literature and politics. For 
a short time he was connected with a 
London morning paper, called the 
*' Constitutional," afterwards becoming 
editor of the *' Glasgow Argus.*' In 
1840 he returned to London, publishing 
five years afterwards the ** Foster 
Brothers," an historical romance, the 
scene of which is laid in Italy. Mr. 
Hunt, as a political writer, is liberal in 
the truest sense. Superior to i^arty, he 
has ever devoted himself to the discus- 
sion of poUtical questions in that broad 
and comprehensive spirit which alone 
l>cfits the thinker. Mr. Hunt has been 
connected with s<»me of the most im{)ort- 
ant political organs, and at present is 
underHtoo<l to be the conductor of the 

HUNT, William Holman, an Eng- 
lish painter, was bom in London, 1827. 
He was a pupil in the Royal Academy, 
and exhibited his first picture in 184d. 
Between then and 1850 he di8|)layed 
nothing striking in style or manner, and 
even his subjects were not taken from 
sources above the ordinary level ; but in 
1849-50, a peculiarity in art sprung up 
in Germany, and it caught the tastes of 


some young artists in Great Britain, as 
it promised to lead to a school of sim- 
plicity, beauty, and truth, which had 
been lost from before the days of Ra- 
phaeL It was a dogma of those enthu- 
siasts, that the refinement of Raphael, 
the power of Michael Angelo, the 
warmth of Titian, and the chiaroscuro 
of Correggio, were subversive of the 
depth and earnestness of Giotto, Pem- 
ginq, and other previous masters. Thus 
some of the cleverest of this ** Young 
England" school of painting banded 
themselves together as "Pre-Raphaelite 
Brethren. " Mr. Hunt, if not exactly their 
leader, yet stood the most tenaciously 
of all by the principles on which 
the confederation was founded. How 
many soever the defections from the 
ranks, he maintained his allegiance, and 
painted in perfect accordance with the 
school's assertion of the rules of truth 
and nature. Too minute in detail to be 
other than a cause of confusion in a pic- 
ture — ^too mediaeval in conception and 
dravdng to be perfectly harmonious as a 
whole — yet too exquisite in colour not 
to display the x)owers of the artists in a 
special direction, the Pre-RaphaeHtes 
divided opinion, and excited contro- 
versy. Mr. Hunt has clung by his own 
standard of artistic faith, and has pro- 
duced pictures, that for accurate draw- 
ing and colour could not be surpassed ; 
but he has fallen into a cLiss of sub- 
jects — those of symbolism, which detract 
from his power and attractiveness. His 
latest picture, " Finding of the Saviour 
in the Temple," has excited profound 
attention and admiration. 

INGEMANN, Bernard Skvxbin, a 
Danish poet and writer, was bom in 
May, 1789. He studied in the Univer- 
sity of Coi)enhagen, and in 1812 ob- 
tained the first prize for an ** Essay on 
Poetry and Eloquence." The year be- 
fore he had a[)pearcd as a poet, and in 
1813 he published a collection of lyric 
poems. These were followed by works 




in many departments of literature, in- 
cluding a number of good tragedies, 
which have been translated into various 
languages. After travelling over a great 
part of Euroi)e, he returned to Coi)en- 
hagon, and published in 1843 and 1845 
hia "Collected Works," in thirty-eight 
Tolumcs, which have been enthusi- 
astically received by the Danish pub- 
lic. They are divided into (1), Dra- 
matic Poems, in six volumes ; (2), 
Historical Poems and Romances, in 
twelve volumes, consisting chiefly of two 
Epic Poems, **Waldemar the Great," 
and '* Queen Margaret," and of four 
Historical Romances, descriptive of the 
Middle Ages in Denmark; (3), Fairy 
Legends and Tales, in twelve volmnes, 
the four last of which contain a novel 
entitled **The Children of the Village," 
the characters and descriptions in which 
belong to modem life; (4), Romantic 
Ballads, Traditions, and Fairy Legends 
in verse, in eight volumes, among 
which are the epic poem, **The Black 
Knights, " and a volume of Psalms, and 
other religious poems ; a "Gift for Cate- 
chumens" (1854), "Imaginary Letters 
from a Person Deceased" (1855), and the 
"Golden Apple," a fairytale, in twelve 
cantos (1856), have been published since. 
INGERSOLL, Charles Jared, an 
American author, was bom at Philadel- 
phia on 3rd October, 1782. He was 
elected a member of the National House 
of Representatives in 1812, and until 
within the last seven or eight years, has 
been actively engaged in public life in 
various capacities. His earliest literary 
work was a jH>cm called "Chiomara," 
which was publishe<l in 1800, in the 
"Portfolio." In 1801 he produced a 
tragedy, entitled "E<lwy and Elgiva," 
which was performed at the principal 
Philadelphia theatre. Afterwards, he 
wrote in succession * * Rights and Wrongs, 
Power and Policy of the United States," 
the "Inchiquin, Letters of a Jesuit," 
which explain American literature and 

politics, "Julian,** a' tragic x>oem, and 
" History of the War of 1812-15, be- 
tween Great Britain and the United 
States," together with numerous con- 
tributions to the democratic press, 
"Speeches Relating to the War with 
England," "Discourses and Orations,** 
and a translation of a French work, * ' On 
the Freedom of Navigation, and the 
Conmierce of Neutral Ships in Time of 
War.*' He has likewise published a 
large number of pamphlets ; but his 
chief work is the " History of the War 
of 1812-15, between Great Britain and 
the United States. 

INGRES, JkanDominiquk Auouste, 
a French painter, bom at Montauban, 
in 1781. His father being a musician, 
endeavoured to cast his son's tastes in a 
similar mould, but seeing that he would 
be a painter, sent him to Paris, where 
he became a pupil of David. In 1800 
he obtained the second prize from the 
Academic des Beaux Arts, and subse- 
quently he took the first prize. He then 
went to Italy, where he remained for 
many years. In 1808 he painted the 
picture of Napoleon, now in the H6tel 
des Invalides, and in 1824 appeared his 
chief work, "The Vow of Louis XIV.;** 
during that year he returned to France. 
Appointed Director of the French Aca- 
demy at Rome, he painted several ix)r- 
traits, but which were not equal in 
merit to his historical compositions. In 
1834 he was made Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour, and in 1845 Com- 
mander. His works are invariably 
chaste in outline, and graceful in ex- 
pression, and he ranks as one of the 
first artists of France. 

ISABEL n., Maria Isabel Luisa, 
Queen of Spain, eldest daughter of Fer- 
dinand VII., by his fourth wife Maria 
Christina, now married to Munoz, duke 
of Rianzares, was bom on 10th October, 
1830, in the city of Madrid, and suc- 
ceeded to the Spanish throne on the 
death of her father in 1833. She was 




proclaimed Queen on the 2nd of October, 
1833 ; and was placed under the guar- 
dianship of her mother during her mi- 
nority. Although the Ck)rte8 met at 
Madrid, and took the oath of allegiance 
to the Infanta, the King's brother, Don 
Carlos refused to do so, asserting his 
claim to the throne, under the Salic 
law, by which a male heir had a right 
to the throne, and denying the power of 
the Cortes to annul or abrogate it. A 
civil war was the result of the assertion 
of this claim, and after varied fortune, 
Don Carlos was at last defeated, his 

genius. His first picture was exhibited 
in 1824, when he gained a medaL In 
1855 he was awarded a medal of the 
first class for his picture ** Le Depart de 
Chasse sous Louis XIII.,'' sent to the 
Paris Exhibition. His other works have 
been much admired, and he is held in 
much esteem as a painter. 

ISTUiaTZ, Don Xavibb dk, a 
Spanish statesman, bom at Cadiz, in 
1790, and the son of a merchant resid- 
ing in that town. He was elected to 
the Cortes in 1812. Proceeding to Ma- 
drid, he took a very active part in poll- 

party broken up, and ^iwiMAlf compelled tical matters, but to such an extent did 

to flee the kingdom. In October, 1846, 
Isabel IL was married to her cousin, 
Don Francisco de Assis, and on the 
same day her sister, the Infanta, though 
only fourteen, was married to the Duke 
de Montpensier, youngest son of Louis- 
Philipi)e — unions which were offensive 
to the feelings of the £uroi)ean courts, 
but which the King of the French in- 
tended should secure to his family the suc- 
cession to the Spanish throne. The rule 
of Isabel IL has shown marked signs 
of retrogression. Railways, the great 
instruments of civilization, have scarcely 
l)euetrated her dominions. The financial 
system is in a deranged state, and a 
nation, that seventy or eighty years ago 
ranked among the greatest in the world, 
has rapidly descended to that of a 
third-rate power. With a view to re- 
gain some portion of her vanishing pres- 
tige, Sjiain in 1859 declared war against 
Monicco, amid the general enthusiasm 
of the Spanish ])eople, and which has 
terminated successfully. Isabel has 
two children, a princess, who was bom 
in 1851, and the Prince of Asturiaa^ 
born 1857, and heir to the throne. 

ISABEY, EugIne Louis Oabbikl, 
an historical painter, was bom at Paris, 
on the 22nd Jul>, 1804. His life pre- 
sents few incidents. Son to the cele- 
brated Jean Baptiste Isabey, he inherits 
his father's taste, and a portion of his 

he compromise himself with the govern- 
ment, as to compel him to take refuge 
in England, where he became connected 
with mercantile afiairs. In 1834 he re- 
turned to Spain, and was appointed 
** Procurador," to the Cortes. Disa- 
greeing with his colleagues, he was again 
forced to flee to England. Returning 
once more to Spain, he was elected by 
Cadiz to the Cortes in 1838, and became 
President in 1839. After many political 
changes he retired into private life^ 
which was chiefly owing to an adversa 
vote of the Cort^. 

JANIN, Jules Gabriei^ a French 
critic and feuilletonist, was bom at St. 
Etienne, on the 11th December, 1804. 
His initiatory steps in learning were 
taken at a school in Lyons, from which 
he went to Paris, and entered the 
College of Louis le Grand, where he 
acquired a sound classical and gene- 
ral education. He finished his stu- 
dies, and adopted the profession of a 
teacher, his principal occupation being 
the preparation of young men for the 
literary and scientific examinations of 
the University of France. Soon, how- 
ever, he abandoned this professional 
mode of existence. He began to write 
for *'Le Figaro," a theatrical paper, 
and his success in this line being almost 
immediate, he was s(x>n installed as 
theatrical critic for the official news- 




paper, the " JounuJ dee D^bats." M. 
Janin has published few separate works, 
his principal writings being scattered 
throughout a long series of newspapers 
and periodicals. He is the author of a 
novel, **L*Ane mort et la Femme guillo- 
tin6e.'' Several collections of his tales, 
essays, and sketches have been published. 

JASMIN, Jacx^ubs, a Gascon poet, 
was bom at Agen, in the department 
of Lot-et-Oaronne, on the 6th March, 
1798. His kindred belonging to the 
poorest peasantry of France, the education 
he received was in consequence but scanty. 
Whilea very young man he began business 
as a hairdresser, which he yet follows. 
His poetry, written in the Romance lan- 
guage, is admired over the whole of 
Southern France. It would be tedious 
to enumerate the presentations he has 
received, and the popular demonstrations 
made in his favour. Suffice it to say 
that he had handed over not less than 
£24,000 before the end 9f last year to 
various charitable and religious societies, 
from the proceeds of his tiancea^ and 
that more than thirty towns of Southern 
France, from Bordeaux to Marseilles, have 
conferred upon him the rights of citizen- 
ship. In 1852 the French Academy 
crowned his three volumes of poetry in 
the Romance dialect, and bestowed upon 
him their great special prize of £200, 
Bumaming him at the same time, ** Jas- 
min, the Moral and Popular Poet." His 
countrymen, the representatives of an 
almost extinct nationality, who are 
proud of him, say that he is the last of 
the Troubadours, and that no poet of the 
day equals him in art, pathos, and deli- 
cacy. The poet has now a pension of 
£72 a year, from the French department 
of public instruction, as a national re- 
compense. He draws no revenues from 
his recitations, charging merely his coach 
hire and railway fares, and other ex- 
pense^ against those who get them up. 

JELLACHICH, Joseph Babon Von, 
Marshal in the Austrian serrioe, and 

Ban of Croatia^ was bom October 16, 
1801. He was educated in the Military 
Academy at Vienna ; entered the Aus- 
trian army as Sub- Lieutenant in 1819, 
and was promoted to be Lieutenant in 
1825. In 1830 he held a temporary 
command; in 1837 was a Major of 
Infantiy ; and 1842 was Colonel of the 
First Banat Regiment The Hunga- 
rians had, temporarily, accomplished 
their national independence in 1848 ; 
and Austria, having induced the Croats, 
&e., to make war on emancipated Hon- 
gaiy, the Emperor, at their request^ 
appointed Jellachich "Ban" or Com- 
mander-in-chief of the Croat forces. It 
is now notorious, that the deputies who 
waited on the Emperor at Vienna were 
Jellachich's own purchased instruments. 
Ban Jellachich collected his army, and 
had 40,000 men, independent of a 
considerable force from the Austrian 
** regulars," besides arms and ammuni- 
tion sufficient for every purpose. He 
fought a battie near Siotok, and re- 
treated ; and during the night he with- 
drew his troops to fight again, in a most 
treacherous manner. His courage, how- 
ever, did not fail, and he continued to 
take the field until Gorgei*s surrender 
and the subjugation of Hungary, Hay- 
nau bein^ part of the time, his com- 
mander-in-chief. The latest employment 
of the Ban was in 1853, when a dispute 
arising between Austria and Montenegro, 
he was appointed commander of the corps 
of observation on the Danube. 

JERDAN, William, a journalist, was 
bom at Kdso, on the 16th April, 
1782, and became connected with the 
press in 1806. After contributing to and 
editing several newspapers, he estab- 
lished the ** Literary Gazette" in 1817. 
Continuing its editor for many years, he 
did much, to render both literature and 
science acccessible to the masses. He 
retired from its management in 1850, 
and in 1853 published his "Autobio- 
graphy," which contains a great variety 




of interestixig remioiBcences of his con- 

JERROLD, William Blanchard, 
an author and journalist, was bom in 
London, in December, 1826. He is the 
son of the late Douglas Jerrold, and 
godson of the late Tjaman Blanchard. 
He was educated at the Grammar School 
at Brompton, and subsequently in France, 
wiiere he spent several years. He 
contributed articles and illustrations 
to the ''Illustrated News" in his seren- 
teenth year. When about nineteen he 
was employed as a reporter on the 
"Daily News," afterwards, joining the 
staff of "Douglas Jerrold's Weekly 
Newspaper," as a regular contributor. 
His first attractive work was *' The Dis- 
grace to the Family," published in 
monthly numbers, commencing in 1847. 
He married, in 1849, Lavinia Blanchard, 
daughter of his godfather. In 1852 he 
published "Swedish Sketches," written 
from notes taken during a journey as 
Commissioner for the Crystal Palace 
Company, and in 1855, his "Imperial 
Paris" appeared, a book much and 
properly appreciated for its graphic 
delineations of Parisian life, from the 
palace to the haunts of the un- 
washed. He was appointed Commissioner 
for the "Daily News" to the Paris 
Exhibition of 1855; and editor of the 
Official English Catalogue of this exhibi- 
tion. On his father's death in 1857, he 
was called to edit "Lloyd's Weekly 
Newspaper," where he continues. He 
wrote "Tutors of the Young Idea" 
(1857) in the "Dublin University Maga- 
zine." He has written "Cool as a 
Cucumber," a farce; "Beau Brummel," 
and the "Chatterbox," both two-act 
comedies ; and also an excellent litUe 
vaudeville. His contributions to the 
"Athenaeum" are characterized by 
genuine acumen; his political writing 
is true and manly, and his books are 
always entertaining. He has contri- 
buted interesting sketches to "Household 

Woids" and "All the Year Round." 
In 1869 he published his "Life and 
Remains of Douglas Jerrold ; " also 
a collection of Douglas Jerrold's "Wit- 
ticisms." He is a member of the Reform 
Club, and one of the Council of the Ballot 

JEWSBURY, Miss GiRALDnrx End- 
SOR, an English authoress, was bom 
at Manchester in 1824 Her first work 
was "Zo6, or the History of Two 
Lives," published in 1845. "The Half 
Sisters" appeared pn 1848, and obtained 
immediate and merited success. Chang- 
ing her choice of subjects, Miss Jewsbury 
drew the materials for her next story, 
"Marian Withers," from the middle 
classes. "Constance Herbert," pub- 
hshed in 1854 adds to Miss Jewsbury's 
reputation as an earnest thinker. The 
"Sorrows of Grentility," published in 
1856, though not equal in merit to some 
of her works, is still worthy of a place 
among those books which, in their 
pages, narrate a story and convey a 
moraL The tendencies of Miss Jews- 
bury's works are of an elevating kind, 
and they are always written in a pleas- 
ing and easy style. 

JOHNSTON, Alkxander Keith, 
was bom at Kirkhill, Scotland, Decem- 
ber 28th, 1804, and entered the High 
School, Edinburgh, with the intention 
of following the medical profession. He, 
however, was apprenticed to Kirkwood, 
the engraver, and eventually devoted 
himself to the study of geography, and 
also, to extend his information, learned 
the German, French, and other conti- 
nental languages. His first work, the 
"National Atlas," was published in 
1843, and shortly afterwards he pro- 
duced " The Physical Atlas." He is a 
Fellow of most of the European Geogra- 
phical Societies, and was elected Fellow 
of the Royal Society of Edinbui^ in 
1850L He published the " Dictionary of 
Geography" in 1851, the last edition of 
which appeared in 1859. His present 




HXs4-K vv A^^vIvnI tv^ the preparation of 
♦ .S...S* ,H u\ >'',vrr*rx iiup* of the great 
^lj\wMv«.» ,'.L ^V ^vv-JSiv aiKi on four sheets 
g**,v4».v;^ i^v >•< which, Europe and 
Vs».»«i.4!s%v^V V*xv TVNX^ntly appeared ; and 
li^^. ^'> AtU» of General Geogra- 
^^\x vA 'Av^xv wow (1860) in course of 
w^'Ov^^fjN'M. His minor works comprise 
A^ *%:%« |\» the History of Europe, and 
vKtuN\*Ms\»iAl atlases of general, physical, 
^w,^ olAAjiii al geography, and astronomy. 

v»OMlNI, Henri, Baron, a French 
hiatoriau, lM)m at Payerne, Canton de 
V»ud. March 1779, served in one of the 
8wiiui n^gimcnts as a soldier of France, 
but the cori»8 being disbanded, he turned 
hi^ attention to mercantile pursuits. 
Some years after he became a colonel 
of militu^ and Military Secretary in 
Switzerland. In 1804 he was a colonel 
in the French army, and served under 
Marshal Ney. In 1811 he was promoted 
to be General of Brigade. Napoleon, 
however, having taxed him with malver- 
sations, Jomini abandoned the French 
flag, and attached himself to the Russian 
service, was Aide-de-Camp to the Em 
peror Alexander L, and in 1822 was 
tutor to the late Emperor Nicholas. 
Since 1855 he has resided at Brussels. He 
has written various historical works, 
principally relating to the affairs of his 
own time, and concerning matters that 
came under his own observation. 

JORDAN, Sylvester, a German po- 
litician, was bom at Omer, near Ins- 
pruck, in December, 1792. Belonging 
to a hard-working family, with the as- 
sistance of his uncle, a popular poet and 
shoemaker, in the Tyrol, and the pastor 
of Axam, he, in 1806, proceeded to the 
College of Inspruck, then to Munich, 
and afterwards studied law at Landshut. 
Owing to the i)eculiarity of his opinions, 
he was obliged to leave the Tyrol, to 
which he had returned, and from 1815 
to 1821 resided at Landshut, Heidel- 
berg, Fraukfort-on-the-Maine, and Mu- 
nich. The merits of his works on 

Jurisprudence procured him the appoint- 
ment, in 1821, of Assistant -Professor, 
and in 1822, Titular Prof essor, of Law in 
the University of Marburg, and of being 
called subsequently to represent the 
same institution in the States Assembly 
of Hease-CasseL ELis principles being 
too liberal for the Government of the 
day, in 1833 he was accused of aflSliat- 
ing with secret societies, and after being 
under surveillance for a long period, 
was at length, in 1843, formally arrested, 
tried, and condenmed to five years' im- 
prisonment. He appealed, but two years 
elapsed before the case was entirely dis- 
posed of ; on which he was acquitted. He 
was sent, in 1848, by almost unanimous 
consent, to the Parliament of Frankfort, 
where he joined the moderate party, 
and in 1849 was re-appointed Professor in 
the Marburg University. His principal 
works are an ** fissay on General 
Criminal Law," a ** Manual of German 
Criminal Law," and a "Defence" of 
himself against the accusations of 
government. He has also contributed 
papers to various periodical publications. 

JOSIKA, Nicx)LAS, Baron, an Hun- 
garian novelist and author, was bom at 
Torda, in Transylvania, on 28th Septem- 
ber, 1796. His family was of ancient 
hncage and rich, and he was well edu- 
cate(L He entered the Austrian army, 
was a Lieutenant of Dragoons in 1813, and 
afterwards a Captain. Five 3'ear8 passed, 
and he threw up the profession of arms ; 
made an unhappy marriage ; learned 
several languages ; and became an 
author. He has been styled the Walter 
Scott of his country. By the Hunga- 
rians, whether as regards style, man- 
ners, character, or observation, he is 
accepted as their greatest genius. Hii 
works arc certainly remarkable for well- 
drawn character, and great descriptive 
powers. He married, the second time, 
in 1847, more hai)pily than before. His 
works extend to about ninety volumes. 

JUNGflUHN, Fbank Wilhklm, 




a OeimaD physician, natmaliBt and tra- 
reller, was bom at Mansf ekl, in Prussia, 
October 26th, 1812. He studied in the 
Universities of Halle and Berlin, and 
afterwards entered the Prussian army in 
a professional capacity. Engaging un- 
happily in a duel, he was condemned to 
twenty years* imprisonment, but after 
about eighteen months' incarceration, 
escaped to Paris. From Paris he pro- 
ceeded to Algiers, where he joined the 
French army as an Officer of Health to 
the Foreign Legion. Obtaining the par- 
don of the Prussian King, he started 
from Holland for the Sunda Islands, in 
1835, and after having remained a year 
in Batavia, he explored the Islands of 
Java and Sumatra. This expedition 
occupic<l him about six years, which he 
passed in ethnographical, statistical, and 
scientific study of the people and coun- 
tries which he visited. Retaming to 
Batavia in 1842, he continued his scien- 
tiiic excursions in Java, and in 1845, the 
Government of Holland named him a 
Member of the Scientific Conmussion. 
In 1849 he reached Holland in ill health, 
and published the observations he had 
collected during his travels. His most 
imiK>rtant work is "Java, from a Topo- 
graphical, Geological, and Botanical 
Point of View." a work pronounced 
by competent authorities to he the best 
existing in reference to the natural 
history of that island. 

KANE, Sir Robert, M.D., was bom 
in Dublin in 1810, and after receiving a 
medical education, entered the Meath 
Hospital, eventually becoming Professor 
of Chemistry at the Apothecaries* Hall, 
Dublin. He gained a prize for his w^ork 
on " Typhus Fever, "and in 1832 founded 
the ** Dublin Journal of Medical Sci- 
ence." He is a member of the Royal 
Irish Academy, and was knighted in 
1846. His measures for the formation 
of an Industrial Museum in Ireland, 
were adopted by Sir Robert Peel, and 
resulted in the establishment of that 

institution. He is the President of 
Queen's College, Cork, and has published 
many valuable works, amongst which 
may be specially named " The Elementi 
of Chemistry," which was very favour- 
ably received by the scientific world, 
and generally adopted as a text book. 
He has taken an active part in the or- 
ganization of the system of United Edu- 
cation in Ireland, and especially in its 
higher branches, and has sustained its 
defence against the partisans of ** secta- 
rarian" instruction. His time and atten- 
tion have consequently been of late 
years taken away from his earlier scien- 
tific pursuits. 

KARR, Jkan Baftiotb Alphonsb, a 
French writer, was bom in 1808, at 
Paris. He was educated at the ColK^e 
Bourbon, and became a teacher there, 
occasionally writing poetry. He wrote 
rapidly and incessantly, often turning 
his |)en to romances, in more than one 
of which his own personal life is sup- 
posed to be portrayed. He contributed 
to all kinds of periodicals, and was once 
stabbed in the back by a lady who felt 
aggrieved by the freedom of his satire. 
LouiB-Phili])pe created him a Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honour. His domestic 
tales are smartly told, and exhibit both 
originality and power. 

KAULBACH, William, a German 
painter and Director of the Academy of 
Arts, at Munich, was bom at Arolsen, in 
the principality of Waldeck, October 
15th, 1805. He went to Dusseldorf in 
his sixteenth year to study, and the ex- 
perience gained in the Academy of 
Arts there was never forgotten. His 
progress, under his master Cornelius, 
was rapid ; and in 1829 he painted the 
** Madhouse," which forthwith placed 
him on a level with the first German 
artistsofthe **iK)sitive" school, indeed of 
every or any school Since then he has 
been an earnest artist. Hogarth seems 
to be his master or guide, and Goethe 
and Schiller his inspiration. 




KAVANAGH, Miss JiruA, an Irish 
authoress, is descended from an ancient 
Irish family, and was bom at Thurles, 
coimty Tipperary, in 1824 Proceeding 
to the Continent in early life, she was 
educated at Paris, where she acquired 
that exact knowledge of French society 
and manners which she afterwards 
turned to such excellent account in her 
literary compositions. Returning to 
London in 1844, Miss Kavanagh con- 
tributed numerous papers to the periodi- 
cals for two or three years before trying 
her strength on any more decided effort. 
Her first book, ' ' The Three Paths, " was 
published in 1847, and in 1848 " Ma- 
deleine*' appeared; both works being 
well received by the reading and think- 
ing portion of the public In 1850 Miss 
Kavanagh published her ''Women in 
France of the Eighteenth Century," a 
most agreeable work of its class, illus- 
trative of what may be termed the arti- 
ficial life of that period of French history. 
Next year her ''Nathalie," depicting 
the manners and mode of existence in 
the less known districts of France was 
given to the world, and no picture could 
be more faithfully or artistically drawn. 
She afterwards wrote " Women of 
Christianity," published in 1852, and in 
1853, "Daisy Bum" issued from the 
press. After the latter publication Miss 
Kavanagh travelled through France, 
Switzerland, and Italy, and published 
"Grace Lee," and "Rachel Grey," 
two tales descriptive of the English life 
of the present day. Of Miss Kavanagh's 
writings it has been correctly said that 
they unite the accuracy of English ob- 
servation to the grace of French vivacity. 

KEAN, Chaslks, only surviving son 
of Edmund Kean, was bom at Water- 
ford, in January, 1811, and after being 
educated at Eton, where he greatly dis- 
tinguished himself, entered on the thea- 
trical profession, chiefly owing to do- 
mestic misfortunes. His earliest appear- 
anoes on the gtage were not sncceiiiful. 

but by the exercise of patience and 
earnest attention he has obtained a high 
position, and in many instances , extraor- 
dinary success. He visited America in 
1830, and also in 1839, and after return- 
ing to England married Miss Ellen Tree, 
in 1842. After playing at various places 
in Great Britain he again visited Ame- 
rica, and altogether was comparatively 
successful. In 1850 he rented the 
Princess's Theatre, and for a long time 
had the utmost success as a reward of his 
spirited management. Since relinquish- 
ing the lesseeship of the Princess's, Mr. 
and Mrs. Kean have made tours through 
the provinces, and have been universally 
well received. He has for several years 
conducted the jmvate theatricals at 
Windsor, and her Majesty has marked 
her sense of his exertions by many 
royal favours. 

KEAN, Mrs., wife of the above, pre- 
viously Miss Ellen Tree, has long been 
esteemed as one of the leading actresses 
in England, and during Mr. Kean's con- 
nexion with the Princess's, assisted veiy 
materially in promoting the success of 
the undertaking. 

KEBLE, Thb Rev. John, M.A., 
vicar of Hursley, was bom in 1800. He 
obtained high honours at Oxford, and 
was appointed Professor of Poetry. 
His various works, * * The Christian Year, " 
"The Cathedral," "The Baptistery," 
&c, have achieved a well-deserved popu- 

KELLY, Sir Fitzrot, an English 
lawyer, was bom in London, in 1796. 
After being called to the bar, in 1824^ 
he attended the Norfolk Circuit, where 
he soon acquired distinction in his 
profession. In 1835 he became king's 
counseL He was afterwards elected 
Member for Ipswich, which borough he 
sat for till 1841, with the exception of 
a short time during which a petition 
was presented against him. Having 
lost Ipswich, he was elected as Member 
for Cambridge in 1843, and was mads 




Solicitor-General, under Sir Robert Peel, 
the honour of knighthood being conferred 
on him. He subsequently held office 
under Lord Derby in 1852, and was 
again Solicitor-General, having been 
elected Member for East Suffolk. He 
joined Lord Derby in 1858, and was 
Attorney-General during that noble 
lord's short administration of affairs. 
As a lawyer Sir Fitzroy Kelly has long 
stood foremost at the bar, and has been 
a consistent supporter of Conservative 
principles as a politician. 

KEMBLE, Mrs. Fanny, or more 
correctly Frances Anne, eldest daughter 
of the late Charles Kemble, tragedian 
and examiner of plays, was bom in 
London, in 1811. Her first appearance 
was in the character of "Juliet," at 
Covent-garden Theatre, in October, 
1829. Her father was the "Romeo," 
and her mother, the once celebrated and 
beautiful Miss dc Camp played the 
"Nurse." For three or four years 
Miss Kemble took leading rOIes in 
tragedy and comedy, her natural ability 
and anxious study placing her eventu- 
ally among the first actresses of the 
time. In 1832 Mr. Kemble visited 
America professionally with his 
daughter, who there married Mr. 
Butler, of Philadelphia, a man of pro- 
jKjrty, but owing to domestic differences 
a 8C]>aration took place in 1849. Since 
then Mrs. Fanny Kemble, the name of 
Butler l)eing dropped by her after the 
divorce, has not returned to the stage, but 
exerci8e<l her undoubted talents in giving 
]mblic readings of Shakspeare, throughout 
this country, and in America. Mrs. 
Kem})le is the author of " Francis the 
First, " a tragedy, in which she acted the 
part of " Louise," at Covent-garden ; of a 
'* Journal " of her American experiences 
(1835) ; the " Star of Seville," a drama ; 
•* Poems" (1842) ; and " A Year of Con- 
solation,'' the latter being her reminis- 
cences of a visit paid to her sister, Mrs. 
Sartoris, in Italy. Mrs. Kemble is at 

present residing in Boston, Manachu- 

KERN, J. Conrad, a Swiss statefonan, 
was bom at Berlingen, near Arenen- 
berg, in 1808. Diessenhofen and Zurich 
contributed to his earlier education, and 
after leaving the latter city he com- 
menced a course of theology at Basle 
University, but turning to the legal 
profession he studied at Berlin, Heidel- 
berg, and Paris. On returning to Switz- 
erland, he chose his own path of public 
duty, and became, in 1837, President of 
the Supreme Tribunal for the Canton of 
Thurgo\'ia, and of the Council of PubUc 
Instruction. In the capacity of Educa- 
tional Minister, he displayed those 
qualities which render a statesman in- 
fluential at once with his colleagues and 
the people. Distinguished as an orator, 
he was chosen to represent his canton 
before and after the settlement of 
the new Federal Constitution. In 
1838, when the French Government 
demanded peremptorily that Louis 
Na{)olcon should be expelled from 
SiT^Htzerland, M. Kern, with an honest 
heart and the lx)lde8t eloquence, resisted 
the claims of Louis-Philippe, and the 
Council of Thurgovia, without a dissen- 
tient voice, adopted his views. In 1848 he 
went to Vienna, and afterwards, in con- 
cert with M. Druey, he was one of the 
most judicious of reformers, assisting to 
frame the new constitution, and after- 
wards identifying hiniMclf with the 
measures of the government. He has 
held other offices, and three years ago, 
when a contest arose between Prussia 
and Switzerland regarding the Canton 
of Neufchlltel, M. Kem was the senator 
specially chosen to uphold the liberties 
of his country, and the authority of the 
republic. M. Kern has since acted as 
Swiss Ambassador to the French court. 
His devotion to the interests of his coim- 
try, whether in a political or social point 
of view, causes him to rank as one of the 
most eminent patriots in Switzerland. 





KENGLAKE, Alexander William, 
M.P., was born at Taunton, in 1809. 
He was educated at Taunton, Ottery St. 
Mary, and subsequently at Eton, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge. Having 
taken his degree he entered as a student 
in Lincoln' s-inn, and was called to the 
bar in 1837. Soon after leaving the 
university, Mr. Kinglake went to the 
East. On his retiun, in 1844, he deter- 
mined that he would put his impressions 
in print, but not being able to find any 
publisher who would undertake the 
risk, he agreed with Mr. Olivier, of 
Pall Mall, to publish the book, and 
guaranteed him against loss. The work 
proved highly successful, was trans- 
lated into nearly all the languages 
of the Continent, and reprinted in 
America. This was '* Eothen," a word 
meaning ** Fn)m the East." Mr. King- 
lake has never published any other 
book. Many years ago he wrote two 
articles in the "Quarterly Review," 
but with that exception he has never 
contributed to any periodicals. He 
accompanic<l the English army when it 
landed on the coast of the Crimea in 
1854, and was present with Lord 
Raglan at the battle of the Alma, 
and during the flank march and the 
seizure of Balaklava. He remained at 
the British head-quarters during the 
first bombartlment of SebastoiK)!, and 
being then attacked with fever, was 
obliged to return home. In 1856 he 
quitted the bar, and in 1857 was 
returned to the House of Commons 
as Member for Bridge^'ater, which seat 
he continues to hold. He is at present 
engaged upoD a " History of the Crimean 

KINOSLEY, The Rev. Charles, 
Rector of Eversley, Hants, Canon of 
Middleham, and Cliaplain in Ordinary 
to the Queen, Professor of Modem 
History in the University of Cambridge, 
was bom at Holne vicarage, near Dart- 
moor, Devonshire, in June, 1819. After 

a preliminary home education, at the 
age of twelve he became a pupil of the 
Rev. J. Knight, then, of the Rev. 
Derwent Coleridge, and subsequently, a 
student at King's College, Jx>ndon; 
he then entered Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, attaining distinguished 
honours, and holding a scholarship in 
that university. Mr. Kingsley at first 
contemplated the law, but he changed 
his mind and entered the church. His 
first cure was Eversley, a i>ari8h in 
Hampshire, and subsequently he was 
presented to the rectorship. In the 
literary world he is known as one of the 
boldest and ablest of the writers of our 
time. In conjunction with the Rev. F. 
D. Maurice, and some kindred spirits, 
he has largely interested biwiaplf in 
what Carlyle has called the condition-of- 
England question, esi)ecially on Social 
Science and Sanitary Reform. Mr. 
Kingsley's principal works are "The 
Saints' Tragedy," ••Alton Locke," 
** Westward Ho ! " ** Hypatia," •• Two 
Years Ago," ••Glaucus," ••Alexandria 
and her Schools," •• Phaethon," and 
several volumes of sermons. In all his 
works, philosophical thought is, as it were, 
instinctively blended with imaginative 
and descriptive power ; they exhibit a 
broad liberality of sentiment, and are 
pervaded by the one great idea — the 
intellectual and social omni])otence of 
' the Christian religion. He is an admi- 
rable poet, many of the verses introduced 
: throiigh his various works being perfect 
gems. As an earnest and persevering 
philanthropist, he stands second to no 
; man who with voice, pen, and means, 
assists in ameliorating the condition of 
suffering hiunanity. In 1860 Mr. 
Kingsley was api)ointed Professor of 
Modern History in the University of 

KINKEL, Gottfried, a German 
ix)et and art critic, was bom in 1815, 
at Obercassel, on the Rhine. He was 
educated by his father, a Protestant 




minister, and afterwards entered the 
Gymnasiom, and then the University of 
Bonn, where he greatly distinguished 
himself. In 1837 he travelled through 
Italy as a student, and on his return 
became a lecturer on divinity, especially 
on ecclesiastical history, for nine years. 
He urged with more boldness than was 
agreeable to the Prussian Grovemment, 
a separation of church and state, and in 
consequence M. Eichhom openly ex- 
pressed his hostility to KinkeL The 
young professor, seeing his career thus 
checked, surrendered theology and de- 
voted his talents to literature, modem 
civilization, and the fine arts. He was at 
length, in 1846, regularly appointed as 
Professor in the University, receiving 
at the same time the degree of Doctor 
in Philosophy. He lived quietly, until 
the revolution of 1848 drew him from 
retirement into the bustle of public life, 
when, as a democrat, he gave great 
offence to the court party in Prussia, 
especiaUy in 1849^ by his oppo6iti(»n to 
the Manteuffel Ministry, in his capacity 
of Member of the Lower House of Le- 
gislature of Prussia. In June, 1849, he 
entered a volunteer corps for the defence 
of the Frankfort constitution, was 
wounded in the field, taken prisoner by 
the Prussian troops in the Grand Duchy 
of Baden, and condemned by court- 
martial to imprisonment for life ; he was 
confined in a house of correction, and 
treated in the most cruel and inhuman 
manner. In 1850 he made his esca|>e 
from the fortress of Spandau, proceeded 
to Edinburgh, ultimately removing to 
London, where he now lives as a Pro- 1 
f essor of the German language and litera- 
ture, and a Lecturer on the Histoiy of 
the Fine Arts. 

KINNAIRD, George William Fox, 
Lord, b(»m in 1807, is the ninth 
baron of the title. He succeeded to his 
father's honours in 1826, and was 
elevated to the rank of a British peer, 
under the title of Baron Kossie, by 

Lord Grey in 1831. He filled the office 
of Master of the Buckhounds in 1840-41, 
and is a member of the Privy CounciL 
His politics are of the liberal order ; but 
his name is most associated with an act 
of parliament repressive of the spirit 
trade in Scotland, generally recognized 
as * * Forbes Mackenzie's Act. " Though 
Lord Kinnaird and Mr. Mackenzie 
differed on many party questions, 
they agreed on the wisdom of adopt- 
ing measures to arrest the spread of 
intemperance among the people of 
Scotland They abandoned their dis- 
tinctions as whig and conservative, 
and lent themselves to carry the re- 
strictive enactment as it now stands. 
Lord Kinnaird has lately been created a 
Baron of the United Kingdom. 

KISS, AuousTUS, a Prussian sculptor, 
was bom at Pless in Upi)er Silesia, in 
1802. He was educated in the School 
of Gleiwitz, and afterwards proceedetl 
to Berlin, where he placed himself 
under Kauch and Tieck, and produced 
various works for a fountain at Char- 
lottenhof, near Potsdam. He after- 
wards finished ** The Mounted Amazon 
attacked by a Tiger," which was much 
admired and eventually cast in bronze. 
That production placed Kiss on his 
pr()|>er platform, and since then his re- 
putation has steadily increased. He ex- 
ecuted three colossal equestrian statues 
of Fre<lerick the Great, and two of 
Frederick William III., which were 
cast in bronze ; and the statues of four 
heroes of the Seven Years' War — ^viz. the 
Prince of Anhalt- Dessau, the Generals 
Schwerin, Winterfeld, and Seydlitz, also 
cast in bronze, destined for the sciuaro 
called Wilhehns-Platz, at Berlin. 

KISSELEFF, Paul Dmitrevitch, 
a Russian general and diplomatist, was 
bom at Moscow, 1788. He entertnl 
the army at an early age, and having 
obtained various grades, became a 
trusted aide-de-camp to the Em]>eror 
Alexander I., whom he accompanied to 




the Congress of Vienna, and afterwards 
to the second entry of the Allies into 
Paris. His success in various missions 
8e<Mired him the favour of Alexander, 
and of his successor the Emi»eror 
Nicholas. In 1828 he distinguished 
himself in the war against the Turks, 
and was create<l Lieutenant-G^neraL 
He tume<l his attention to diplomacy 
in the Principalities, and exercised art 
and influence to render Moldavia and 
Wallachia subservient to Russia. On 
Bis recall to St Petersburg he was 
hiijhly ffitod, and at length was made 
first officer under the crown. He was 
aj>iKiinto<l Russian minister at Paris 
aftor the Crimean war. 

KLAPKA, General George, was 
born at Temesvar in Hungary, on the 
7th April, 1820. After receiving a 
military e<lucation he was apjwinted to 
the let Royal Hungarian Life Guards. 
On the revolution breaking out he 
joined the patriotic party, and by his 
encr^ry and skill obtained rapid pro- 
motifm. Having gained an advantage 
over the Austrians, he was prejjaring to hia results still further, but was 
])n'V(»nted by the disastrous events 
wliich occurre<l to Georgei and Kossuth. 
After Burrendering the fortress of Ko- 
morn he proceeded to England, and sub- 
sequently published a work entitled 
** Memoirs of the War of Independence 
in Hungary." He now resides in 
Geneva, where he has been naturalized. 

KMETY, General George, a Hun- 
garian soldier, was born at Pokoragy, 
Hungary, in 1813. He entered the 
19th Regiment of Hungarian Infantry 
in 183.3, and in 1840 was promoted to 
the rank of sub- Lieutenant and Regi- 
ment-Adjutant. In 1848 he was named 
to the command of a company in a 
battalion of his regiment which was 
serving against the Croats and Servians. 
Soon afterwards, on the breaking out of 
hostilities between Austria and Him- 
gary, he received the command of a 

Honved battalion, and devoted himBelf 
to the service of his native oonntry. 
During the battle of Isaszegh he found 
himself in the same poedtion as Gera^l 
under Grouchy during the battle of 
Waterloo, unable to induce his com- 
mander Gaspar to overlook the strict 
letter of his orders and fall upon the 
rear and flank of the army of Windisch- 
gratz, which would have decided that 
campaign. At the taking of Bude on 
the 21st May, he, at the head of his 
division, stormed the entrenchments 
near the bridge, and was wounded. 
Named General and appointed to the 
conmiand of a detached division, he 
beat the Austrians signally at Osoma, 
13th June, where their oommander 
General Wiess was killed. On the 27th 
June he had a combat at Thaszi, after 
which he was sent with his division to 
the Lower Danube, where, on the 16th 
July, he forced the Austrians to raise 
the siege of Peterwardein. In the 
unfortunate battle of Temesvar, 9th 
August, he commanded the extreme 
left wing, and alone retired in good 
order, so that on the 15th August, that 
is to say two days after the surrender of 
Gorgei, he fought on the heights of 
Lugos, the last battle of the Hungarian 
war, which secured the retreat of the 
refugees into Turkey. The remaining 
forces of the general being reduced to 
the utmost distress he disbanded them, 
and made his way into Turkey, and 
was *4ntem^" at Aleppo till the end of 
the year 1851. Having fled to Eng- 
land he published a refutation of the 
misstatements of G($igei, which appeared 
in his memoirs. At the b^;inning of 
the Russian war, in 1853, he returned to 
Turkey, offered his services, and was 
sent to the army of Anatolia. Dnhng 
the blockade of Kars, he commanded a 
Turkish division under the name of 
'' Madjar Ismail Pasha." In the great 
battle of the 29th September, 1855, he 
saved Kara for the moment by 




defeating a Russian anny of 30,000 
men, which attacked the heights of 
Takmass. In front of this position the 
enemy left 6,000 dead bodies, which 
fact shows this to have been one of the 
most bloody battles of modem times. 
At the surrender of Kara, General 
Kmety, not wishing to fall into the 
hands of the Russians, received i)ermis- 
sion to leave the army, and accomi>anied 
by a small escort of Kurds, cut his way 
through the enemy's lines. Those who 

ment, in 1S23, of '' Knight^s Quarterly 
Magazine," and his removal to London. 
There, as a member of the Society for 
the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, ho 
projected and submitted to the society 
the plan of the *' British Almanack," 
and the ** Companion to the Almanack." 
The plan 1)eing approved, its execution 
and the responsibihty were left to Mr. 
Knight. These works proved a great 
success, and had the effect of expurgating 
much of the astronomical trash which 

kne^' Kmety, at Kan invariably B[)eak of previously had disgraced this class of 
him as ' * Dear old Kmety, * 'for he {K>8He88ed books. In the same way, and under the 
an intuitive power of winning affection. > same responsibility, he edited the** Penny 
In the ill -organized army which ' Magazine." The same may be said of the 
defended the fort, there was scarcely " ** Library of Entertaining Knowledge," 
a man that would not have died to - of which the volume on ** The Elephant" 
preserve the general There is hardly ' was written by Mr. Knight. ** The Penny 
an example on record of one man mak- . Cycloi)eedia," says the ** Companion to 
iug so much good out of such bad j the Almanack " for 1858, p. 15, **was 
materials. His men were badly provi- ; projected by the same publisher to form 
sioned, worse clad, were in arrear of ' a moderate-sized book of eight volumes, 
pay, and even short of ammunition ; The plan was i)erhaps unavoidably 
yet he kept them together, and held out departed from. The committee had 
until the arrival of General Williams. | the honour of the work in its extended 
KNIGHT, C*HARL£8, an English form, but without incurring any of the 

risk, or contributing one shilling to the 
cost, the literary expenditure alone 
having reached nearly £40,000. Upon 
the completion of the Cyclopaedia the 
l>alance upon the outlay above the 
receipts was £30,788." In a second 
great undertaking of the society, 
*' The Biographical Dictionary," it t<x)k 
upon itself the financial resiK)nsibility, 
and broke down after completing the 
letter A. In 1830, during a time of mis- 
chievous agitation against the use of ma- 
chinery, Mr. Knight wrote and published 
** The Results of Machinery," which had 
an almost unprecedented sale, and must 
have produced most beneficial effects. His 
chief publications since then have been, 
in 1831, **The Rights of Industry, 
Capital, and Labour;" in 1839, ••The 
Pictorial Shakspeare; " in 1843, '* WU- 
liam Shaksiicare," a biography ; in 1841, 

author and publisher, was born at 
Windsor, in 1791. His father was a 
lx)okseller, printer, and publisher in 
the town, into whose business the sub- 
ject of this memoir was introduced at 
the age of sixteen. In 1812 he went 
to London to acquire skill in reporting, 
and experience in the general man- 
agement of a newspaper. On his 
return he started the •' Windsor 
Express," a paper which still exists, 
although Mr. Knight's connexion with 
it ceased in 1826. From 1820 to 1822, 
in conjunction with Mr. C. H. Locker, 
he wlited **The Plain Englishman," 
which was perhaps the first of the cheap 
miscellanies destined to drive out of the 
market the foolish and mischievous 
tracts which then formed thecheaplitera- 
ture of the ])eople. In 1820 he also began 
the publication of the ••Etonian," the 
success of which led to the establish- [ and following years, ••London;" iu 




1843, and following years, **The Shil- 
ling Weekly Volumes, extending to 126 
numbers, for which he wrote the " Life 
of Caxton;" in 1856, "The Popular 
History of England," of which six 
vohmies have been publishecL Mr. 
Knight is now editing the English 
Cyclopaedia based upon the Penny 
C'yclojMBdia, but enlarged and separated 
into divisions, of which the Geogra- 
phical, Natural History, and Biographical 
Sections have already appeared. 

KNOWLES, Jam£8 Sheridan, a 
dramatist and author, was born at 
Cork, in 1784. About the year 1792 
his father removed to London, taking 
with him his son James, then about 
eight years of age. Four years later 
his passion for the drama had displayed 
itself, and at that early age he wrote a 
play for a company of juvenile actors, 
of which he was himself the chief. At 
the age of fourteen he wrote the 
ballad of the " Welsh Harper ; " he was 
soon after introduced to Mr. Hazlitt, 
whom he always mentioned with 
jiloasure for his continuous kindness to 
him, and through Charles Lcomb he made 
thy acquaintance of the leading literary 
celebrities of the metropolis. After 
residing in London for some years he 
exchanged the English for the Irish 
metropolis as his residence; and in 
Dublin it was that his d^fmt as an actor 
was made. The success of the eflfort 
was not very promising, and for a time 
the stage was abandoned ; though after- 
wards resumed at Waterford, where he 
was an actor and singer in the same 
c()mi)any as Edmund Kean, for whom 
he wrote a tragedy entitled '* Leo, or 
the Gipsy," but which has not been pre- 
served. Some yeai's afterwards, having 
repaired to Belfast, in the theatre of 
%vhich his first tragedy, Caius Gracchus, 
^^as produced, he was induced to ojKin 
an academy as a teacher of elocution 
and grammar. Subsequently he settled 

first standard drama, *' Virginias,'* was 
produced and played with great success. 
In 1820 this fine play was brought out 
at Oovent-garden, with Macready as 
"Virginius," and, in the great centre of 
criticism, established Knowles* reputa- 
tion as the first of living dramatists. He 
afterwards wrote the "Hunchback,** the 
"Wife," the "Love Chase," "Women's 
Wit, "" Love," &c. &c , all ranking among 
the highest efforts of dramatic genius. 
Mr. Knowles acted for years in his own 
plays, both in London and the provinces, 
and some of his personations, such as 
" Master Walter," in the " Hunch- 
back," could not be excelled for their 
development of character. About ten 
years ago a pension of £200 was con- 
ferred upon him. In 1858 his health 
giving way he proceeded to the Con- 
tinent, remaining there for six months, 
and returning in 1859 with renewed 
strength. Mr. Knowles has written 
one or two theological works, which 
display a far more extensive acquaint- 
ance with doctrine and the laws of con- 
troversy than could have been expected 
from his early training. 

KOBELL, Franz Von, a German 
poet and man of science, was bom at 
Munich, in July 1803. He studied in his 
native city, and at the age of twenty- 
three became one of the professors of mine- 
ralogy. He has written numerous works 
on this branch of natural history. For his 
services to the cause of science he has been 
decorated with a number of orders, is 
member of the Bavarian Academy of 
Sciences, and has the princi|)al charge 
of the mineralogical collection at 
Mimich, besides holding other situa- 
tions of profit and honour. He is also 
the author of several i>oetical works, 
chiefly popular in Bavaria, as they are 
written in the dialect or patois of tK ^t 
part of Germany. 

KOCK, Charles Henri Emmanuel^ 
a German naturalist and traveller, bom 

for some years in Glasgow, where his | in 1809, at Weimar, and educated 




at WUrtzbourg. In 1836 he undertook 
a scientific expedition through a portion 
of RuBsia, publishing his observations in 
1842, which were chiefly relating to the 
Caucasus. In 1843 he departed from 
Germany to the East, proceeding 
through most part of Turkey, Armenia, 
and along the shores of the Caspian 
Sea. This journey supplied him with 
materials for his ** Travels in the Ektst," a 
work of considerable merit, published in 
1846. His works are very voluminous, 
principally relating to the scientific and 
social asjiects of the various countries 
which he has visited. 

KOCK, CnARLB) Paul De, a 
French novelist, lK)m at Passy, 1794, 
received an imperfect education, and 
was intended for a commercial life, but 
his attachment to literature was such 
that he dismissed every other thought 
and embraced the profession of letters. 
At an early age he finished his first 
novel ** KEnfant de ma Femme." The 
effort was not successful, and he turned 
his attention to writing for the theatres, 
labouring diligently in that department 
of literature imtil 1820, when he re- 
sumed novel writing. ** Les Enfants de 
Maltre Pierre" (1825), and "Le Camp 
du Drap d'Or" (1828), placed him in 
the first rank, and he has since main- 
tained his reputation. In a moral sense 
some of his productions are very excep- 
tionable, but his inventive genius and 
skill in the depiction of character are 
unquestionable. He is one of the most 
voluminous writers of the age. 

KOSSUTH, Lajos db Kossuth 
Faxva, ex-Governor of Hungary, was 
born in September 1802, at Monok, in 
the county of 2&mplin, in Hungary, of 
an ancient though not wealthy family. 
He was educated at the IVotestant 
College of Saros Patak, and afterward 
studying law, took high honours on ob- 
taining his diploma as an Advocate in 
1822. For the following eight years he 
practised at the bar, and became an in- 

fluential member of the liberal party 
in his native country. He particularly 
distinguished himself at the time of the 
cholera riots in 1831, by the cool deter- 
mination with which he faced the 
rioters. In December 1832 he went to 
Presbuig to the Diet, and, for the first 
time in Hungary, reported correctly 
the proceedings of both Houses in a 
M.S. JoumaL The Government throw 
difficulties in his way, prevented him 
from using a lithographic press, and 
restricted the circulation of his news- 
letters, which, however, soon acquired 
important {K)litical influence. In 1836 
Kossuth, who had removed to Pesth, and 
edited these ^L S. news-letters reporting 
the proceedings of the county meetings 
all over the country, took an active part 
in the defence of prisoners prosecuted at 
the time for political offences, and 
roused the majority of the counties to a 
protest against the illegalities of the 
Koyal Court of Justice. He was 
arrested in 1837, and sentenced in 1838 
to three years' im])risonment. Forbidden 
to communicate with his friends, to write 
letters or even to read any papers or 
political books, the prisoner was allowed 
to have an English Grammar, Walker's 
Pronouncing Dictionary, and Shaks- 
peare's works in his solitary cell, and it 
was during this confinement that he 
acquired that mastery of the English 
language, which, at a later period, 
enabled him in England to denounce 
the tyranny of the House of Hapsburg- 
Lorraine. In May 1840, several liberal 
measures passed, and Kossuth was 
liberated by a general anmesty. In 
1841 he obtained permission to edit a 
poUtical newsi)aper, the ** Pesth Hirlap,** 
under the control of a mitigated censor- 
ship. The influence of this publication 
was enormous, the Government became 
alarmed, when even the opposition of 
Court Szechenyi, who represented the 
Liberal Conservatives could not prevail 
against Kossuth's prestige. In the 




autumn of 1847 Kossuth was returned 
to the Diet by the county of Pesth, in 
spite of the bribery and intimidation 
reHorted to by the administration. 
Kfissuth's masterly eloquence, the com- 
prehensive grasp of his mind, and his 
immense popularity in the country, gave 
him at once the complete conunand of 
the op|)OBition, over the head of the 
former parliamentary leaders, whose 
jealousy led to several unsuccessful 
cal>als against him. The French revo- 
lution of February 1848, and the elec- 
tric shock which pervaded all Europe, 
silenced those i)etty intrigues, and on 
the 3rd March Kossuth delivered his 
celebrated speech, in which he 
demanded Constitutional Government 
for the hereditary provinces of the 
Austrian Empire, as the only real 
guarantee for the Constitution of Hun- 
gary against the de8]^>otic tendencies of 
the Court. The eflfect of this speech 
upon the German population of the 
empire surpassecl every expectation. 
On the 13th Prince Metternich resigned, 
and the Emperor promised a Constitu- 
tion. The deputation of the Himgarian 
Diet, petitioning now for a responsible 
ministry, arrived on the 15th at Vienna, 
w^as graciously received, and at the 
request of the court, Kossuth quieted 
the threatening agitation of the inhabi- 
tants. Count Louis Bathyany then 
formed his Ministry, which carried the 
abolition of serfdom, the equality of 
taxation, and the extension of the fran- 
chise. Kossuth was appointed Minister 
of Finance, an invidious post, since he 
had to extend taxation to the lands of 
the nobles, which, up to that time, had 
enjoyed a complete immunity. As soon 
as the court functionaries had reco- 
vered from their first alarm, they made 
attempts to stir up a civil war among 
the different races of Himgary. Bands 
of armed marauders, enlisted and 
equipped by the Austrian consul at 
Belgrade, crossed the Danube from the 

principality of Servia, and raised the 
standard of revolt, whilat Baron 
Jellachich, appointed in March lS4By 
Ban of Croatia, not only dissolved the 
union between the two countries, but 
made active preparations against Hun- 
gary, and refused to come to any 
arrangement with the Provisional 
Government. In September the inva- 
sion of the Croat army took place. 
Bathyany, resigning his office to Arch- 
duke Stephen, Palatine of Hongaiy, 
and Conmmnder-in -chief of the aimy, 
took to flight, and but for the indomit- 
able energy of Kossuth, and the bold- 
ness with which he, under desperate 
circumstances, seized the reins of 
government, even the enthusiasm of the 
nation would scarcely have prevented 
Jellachich's success. All the efforts of 
the country being now concentrated by 
Kossuth in one direction, the Croat . 
army was defeated, Jellachich expelled 
from Hungary, and the progress of the 
Austrian intrigue checked. The revolt 
of the Viennese on the 6th of October 
allowed Kossuth a few weeks more to 
organize the resources of Hungary, and 
to prepare for an unavoidable struggle 
witii Austria. The attempt to relieve 
the besieged Viennese failed however, 
owing to the want of energy on the part 
of General Moya, and the pusiUanimity 
of the Viennese themselves. The battle 
of Schwehat at which Kossuth took 
part in person, was lost on the 29th 
October. Kossuth raised Colonel Gorgei 
on the battle field to the rank of 
General, and gave him the command in 
chief. In December 1848 Hungary wis 
invaded on every side by Austrian armies^ 
while a Russian army entered Transylva- 
nia. As Prince Windischgratz advanced 
upon Pesth, Kossuth and the Diet ze- 
treated to Debreczin, and during the un- 
usually severe winter, at a time when all 
Europe gave up Hungary as loet» he 
raised, organized, clad, and armed 
those troops of Honveds (defenders of 




the country), who, in a short but 
Banguinary campaign of three months, 
defeated the armies of Prince Windisch- 
giiitz, of Count Schlick, of Ban Jella- 
chich, and of General Puchner, the 
insurgents, and the Russian garrisons of 
Southern Transylvania. The coimtry 
was free, the Austrians ex]»elled, but 
the defeated and demoralized court pre- 
ferred Russian intervention to an ho- 
nourable arrangement with the Himga- 
rians, and the Hungarian Constitution was 
formally abolinhed in March by the £2m- 
peror Francis Joseph, who refused to be 
crowned in Hungary. Accordingly, the 
Diet proclaimed on the 14th of April, 
the independence of the country, the de- 
position of the house of Hapsburg-Lor- 
raine, and elected Kossuth Governor. 
Giirgei, raised to the conmmnd of one 
of the victorious armies, now jealous of 
the fame and influence of the civilian 
Kossuth, tried to organize a military 
party against him in the army and in 
the Diet, with the object of seizing the 
supreme power, and opening negocia- 
tions with the Austrians. Trusting, 
however, exclusively to Russian assist- 
ance, the Viennese Government did not 
resjwnd to GU>rgei'8 overtures. But the 
slow progress of the Austro -Russian ar- 
mies, and the defeat of Jellachich by 
General Vettel, induced at last the Rus- 
sian General Riidiger to enter into com- 
munications with Gorgei, who marched 
his army to Arad, insisted upon and 
forced Kossuth's abdication, and on the 
14th of August, 1849, surrendered un- 
conditionally the army and government 
at Vilagos, to the Russians, receiving as 
a reward for his treachery, an Austrian 
l^ension, on which he has lived since, at 
Klagenfurt. Kossuth fled to Turkey, 
where he was advised to embrace Is- 
lamism as the only means of preventing 
his extradition to Austria; he refused 
to save his life at such a price. The 
Sultan, however, soon declared, that 
even at the risk of a war, he would not 

comply with the Austro-Roaaan de- 
mands, and upon the advice of the 
English Government, he had Kossuth 
removed to Kutahia, in Asia Minor, 
where the illustrious exile was treated 
with the respect due to the distinguished 
position he had held, though he was kept 
under restraint as to his movements be- 
yond the town. At the intercession of 
the Government of Washington, he was 
released on the Ist of September, 1851, 
and embarked on the steam frigate 
"Mississipi," sent by the American 
President, expressly for this purpose, to 
Turkish waters. Before crossing the 
Atlantic, Kossuth first visited England, 
where he arrived in October, 1851, and 
was greeted with boundless enthusiasm 
at Southampton, the city of London, 
Manchester, and Birmingham. In No- 
vember he sailed to the United States, 
whither he had been invited by the Pre- 
sident and Congress, and where he was 
treated as the guest of the nation. He 
returned to England in July, 1852, and 
since that time has often lectured on fo- 
reign affairs in their connexion with 
Hungary, receiving on all occasions par« 
ticularly in Scotland, an enthusiastic 
reception. In 1859, when France and 
Sardinia resolved to make war against 
Austria, Kossuth was invited by the 
Emperor Napoleon first to France, 
and then to the head-quarters of the 
army in Italy. After several interviews 
with the French monarch, a legion was 
raised from the Hungarian deserters and 
prisoners of war, and active pre]»aration8 
made for an exjiedition to Hungary, 
but the peace of Villafranca put a sud. 
den stop to the anangements. Kossuth 
returned to England, after having suc- 
ceeded, through the Emperor NajMleoii, 
in securing not only the free return, but 
likewise the final discharge from Aus- 
trian military service, of all those who 
had taken service in the Hungarian 
legion. Like Victor Emmanuel and 
Count Cavour, he was* disappointed by 




the results of Villafranca, bat he has 
publicly declared that neither he, nor 
the cause of Hungary, was betrayed by 

KUGLER, Franz Theodore, a Ger- 
man author, was bom on the 19th 
January, 1808, at Stettin, in Pomerania. 
He studied in several universities, de- 
voting a large portion of his time to the 
early history of painting and architec- 
ture, entering besides on the study of 
poetry and music. He visited Italy, and 
wrote voluminously ; his greatest work 
being the ** Handbook of the History of 
Painting, from the Age of Constantine 
to the present Time" (1837). The 
immense research and profound thought 
requisite to produce such a work, though 
it had been a mere skeleton, were 
speedily appreciated, and the book was 
at once caught up by art students, and 
translated into most of the European 
languages. In 1850 a second edition 
was issued, considerably enlarged, and 
containing a large amount of new mate- 
rial. Sir Charles Eastlake published an 
English edition of the *' Handbook," 
which was enriched by numerous illus- 
trations of the old masters, and copious 
notes. He has lectured in the Univer- 
sity of Frederick William and the Royal 
Academy of Berlin, for many years past. 
Dr. Kugler's works are one and all of a 
high order ; most of them indispensable 
to the art student, and of interest to the 

LABORDE, L^ON Emmanuel Simon 
Joseph, Count De, archaeologist and 
traveller, born at Paris, June, 1807, 
proceeded to Egypt when twenty years 
old, and explored Arabia Petrea in com- 
pany with M. Linant, filling his sketch- 
book by the way. Returning to Europe 
in 1830, he published an account of his 
travels, which exi)erienced so favourable 
a reception as to induce him to ven- 
ture on a similar work, called " Voyage 
en Orient" The arts, for which he had 
always a taste, now occupied a more 

prominent place in his mind, and, in 
1839, he]began his " Histoiie de la Gra- 
vure," with other wo As of a kindred 
nature. His father dying in 1840, he 
succeeded him in the Academy of Belles 
Lettres, publishing, previously to his 
election, a ^* Commentaire G^graphique 
sur L'Exode et les Nombres" (1842), in 
which he incorporated his investigations 
in the East. Being returned as a mem- 
ber of the Chamber of Deputies, he 
almost invariably supported the existing 
minister, without reference to his general 
politics. In 1847 he was appointed 
by Louis- Philippe "Conservateur" of 
the Museum of Antiquities in the 
Louvre, a poet which he resigned at the 
revolution of 1848. Being restored to 
his office, he devoted himself to the 
study of art, and has written on the 
subject well and learnedly. In 1851 he 
was a Commissioner of the Great Lon- 
don Exhibition, and in 1855 he filled a 
Bimilar ][)06ition in Paris. For various 
reasons he has retired from his appoint- 
ment of " Conservateur." 

LACORDAIRE, Jean Baptbtk 
Henri, a French ecclesiastic, bom May 
18th, 1802, at Recey-sur-Ouroe (C6te- 
d'Or). He studied first at Dijon, and 
was chiefly remarked for the deteimina- 
tion with which he defended Voltarian 
opinions, as well as for his otherwise 
enlarged intelligence. He left Dijon 
College in 1819, and assisted to found a 
literary society of young men, among 
whom he became conspicuous for his 
sceptical views, and his attacks on Ro- 
man Catholicism. Turning his attention 
to the bar, he proceeded to Paris, and 
became acquainted with Berryer and 
other eminent persons. Suddenly, how- 
ever, in 1824, his views on religious 
matters were entirely changed ; he pro- 
ceeded to St. Sulpice, and emerged 
three years after in the capacity of an 
ordained priest. He was chaplain to the 
College of Henry IV., at the revolution 
of July, 1830, He became connected 




with a journal called "L'Avenir," which 
took for its double motto **God and 
Liberty — the Pope and the People ; " but 
the vehemence and audacity of his lan- 
guage were such as, in 1831, to bring 
him before the law courts. He pleaded 
his own cause, and was acquitted. 
Other troubles awaited him ; and he 
eventually dissolved his connexion with 
the paper. Resigning secular occupa- 
tion, he now preached with uncommon 
eloquence and fire; his manner was 
new ; and he excited both curiosity and 
interest. For a short time he sat in the 
National Assembly but resigned his seat 
and has now the direction of the College 
of Sorrez. 

LA MARMORA, Alphonse Marquis 
De, a Pie<lmontese general, and late 
Minister of War, was bom in November, 
1804. In 1816 he entered the Military 
Academy of Turin, and became a Lieu- 
tenant of Artillery in 1823, Captain in 
1831, and Major in 1845. In 1848 he 
was nameil Chef d*£tat Major of the 
division commanded by the Duke of 
Genoa, which took so active a part, par- 
ticularly at the battle of Custoza. At 
Milan, on the 5th of August, when the 
King, Charles Albert, was surrounded 
in the Palais Grippi, La Marmora found 
means to leave the palace, and returning 
ipv'ith a battalion delivered the King who 
was in imminent danger. In October of 
the same year he was promoted as 
General of Brigade and Minister of War. 
In February, 1849, he had the command 
of a division which was sent from La 
Spezzia to Parma, and immediately after 
the disaster of Novara, was desjtatched to 
Genoa, which city was in complete revo- 
lution on the 4th of ApriL At the head 
of the " Avant Garde" he took some de- 
tached forts and scaled the walls of the 
fortresses, and the next day, after a 
combat which lasted many hours, he 
became master of the town. He was 
named at the same time Lieutenant- 
General and Royal Commissioner, and 

took the command of a corps d'arm^e 
concentrated at Genoa. In October of 
the same year he was called to the 
Ministry of War, where he remained 
till April 1855^ when he sailed for the 
Crimea, as Commander-in-Chief of a 
corps d'arm^e of 17,000 men, and al- 
though late in arriving, he rendered 
essential services to the allies, particu- 
larly at the Tchemaya. After the re- 
signation of the Ministry of Count 
Cavour, and the truce of Villafranca, 
he was again named Minister of War 
and Marine, and President of the Coim- 
cil of Ministers, where he remained 
until the 20th January, 1860. 

bom in Macon, about the year 1790, 
and receiving his early education at 
Milly, where his family retired during 
the revolution, and afterwards entered 
the College of the Pbres de la Foi, at BeUy. 
After travelling through Italy he pro- 
ceeded to Paris, and on the restoration 
of the Bourbon family, espoused their 
cause. Experiencing various changes in 
his course of life, he suddenly appeared 
as a poet, by the publication of his 
*' Meditations Podtiques,'* which in- 
stantly achieved a great success for him. 
His public life now conmienced, aod 
coming under the notice of Louis XVIII. 
he obtained his first political position, 
as an Attache to the embassy at Florence, 
and afterwards that of Secretary to 
the French Minister in London. In 
England he was fortunate in meeting 
with a lady of property and education, 
to whom he was subsequently married. 
On returning to France he was sent as 
Minister to Greece, but resigned this 
position on the accession of Louis- Phil- 
ippe to the throne, and having failed to 
obtain a seat in the senate, determined 
on making an Oriental tour. Having 
been elected to the Chamber during his 
absence, he returned to his native coun- 
try, and speedily gained great renown 
for the brilliancy of his intellect, and 




the liberality of his political views. In 
1848 he l>oIdIy espoused the cause of the 
revolution which drove Louis- Philippe 
from France, and became a meml>er of 
the Provisional Government which was 
then formed. It was to his prudence 
and elo<|uence that France was indebted 
for the prevention of the scenes of Robes- 
pierre's government being repeated, and 
for the formation of a temporary re- 
I>ublic. After the coup cT&at Lamar- 
tine retired into comparatively private 
life, and devoted himself to literary 
pursuits. Among his various produc- 
tions, perhaps the most successful is his 
"History of the Girondina," in which 
he gives full expression to his poli- 
tical views. He has also published 
the **Deathof Socrates," ** Last Canto 
of Childe Harold," ** Impressions of a 
Voyage to the East," with others of a 
varied character. It is almost impos- 
sible to offer a review of Lamartine's 
pubhc life which would do him justice. 
It may be remarked, however, that his 
views were, at all times perhaps, of too 
Utopian a character, although his pa- 
triotism cannot be called into question. 
It is much to be regretted that owing to 
the sacrifices he made, during the revo- 
lution of 1848, he has been plunged into 
almost inextricable pecuniary difficul- 
ties, from which it was hojjed, but in 
vain, that the general feeling in his 
favour in France would have relieved 
him. He is about to publish a col- 
lected edition of his works, which 

1839 he, then a Colonel, was recalled to 
Pans ; and on his return to Africa, he so 
distinguished himself, that in 1843 he 
was General of Division, in 1844 Com- 
mander of the Legion of Honour, and 
interim Governor of Algiers in 1845. 
He assisted in the capture of Abd-el- 
Kader, and in 1846 he was returned to 
the Chamber of Deputies, for the CoUege 
of St Calais. In 1848 he took an active 
part in the revolution, and became Mi- 
nister of War, under the Provisional 
Government. He was faithful to the 
poliay of Cavaignac, but was arrested 
and thrown into prison when Louis Na- 
poleon made his notorious coup d^itaty in 
1851. After being released, permission 
was accorded him to return to and re- 
side in France, but he refused to accept 
the amnesty, preferring voluntary exile. 
He has lately entered into the service of 
the Poi)e (1860), of whose armies he be- 
came Commander-in-Chief. He endea- 
voured to bring the soldiers into disci- 
pline, but has since been defeated by 
Cialdini, the Sardinian general, and the 
whole of his army completely disbanded. 
He fled to Ancona, and on its surrender 
was made a prisoner of war and con- 
ducted to Turin. 

LANCE, Georob, a painter of fruit, 
was bom at Little Easton, Essex, in 
1802, and was for some time a pupil of 
Hay on. His early taste was soon shown 
by a successful painting of fruit, and 
he has ever since devoted himself 
chiefly to this class of subjects in his 


LAMORICIERE, Christophe Ju- 
CAULT De, a French general, late minis- 
ter and representative, bom at Nantes, 
February, 1806, was a pupil in the Poly- 
technic School till 1826, and in 1830 
was made a Lieutenant, on joining 
the French Army of Algiers. He ad- 
vanced with striking rapidity, and being 
noted for intelligence and courage, was 
made Captain of the Zouaves. In 

may possibly assist him out of his mis- various pictures. He has attained to 

a similar position in illustrating vege- 
table life to that occupied by Sir Edwin 
Landseer in animal illustrations. His 
productions are life-Uke pictures, and 
impress the idea on the mind of the ad- 
mirers that they are beholding the real 
instead of the imaginative, owing to the 
finished execution displayed. Some of 
Mr. Lance's paintings are now in the 
South Kensington Museum, forming 
part of the collection which the late 




Mr. Vernon has bequeathed to the 

LANDOR, Walter Sayaos, was 
bom at I]Niley, in Warwickshire, in 
January, 1775. Receiving his early train- 
ing at Rugby School, he then proceeded 
to Oxf onL His circumstances in early life 
being somewhat affluent, he was left to 
the bent of an impetuous disposition, and 
joined the insurrection in Spain, in 1808, 
assisting the patriotic cause by all the 
means in his power, but he gave up all his 
offices on the return of Fenlinand to the 
throne. He subsequently returned to 
England, and married, removing after- 
wards to Florence, where he purchased 
an estate, on which he resided for 
many years. Devoting himself to lite- 
rary pursuits from that time, he has 
published a great variety of poetic and 
imaginative productions, amongst which 
may be named his " Idyllia Heroica," 
** Imaginary Conversations," "Popery, 
British and Foreign,** *' Letters of an 
American," with several others of a 
similar class. He returned to England, 
and until lately resided at Bath, but 
owing to circumstances induced by the 
naturally strong and imiutssioned tempe- 
rament which he unfortunately i>ossesses, 
he has been compelled to retire from Eng- 
land, and to return to Italy once more. 

LANDSEER, Sir Edwin, an English 
painter, was bom in London, in 1803, 
and from his earliest days showed a 
8tr(.»ng taRte for 'painting and the fine 
arts. Owing to the judicious early 
training of his father, he soon became 
an accurate sketchor from nature, which, 
doubtless, laid the foundation of his 
future fame. His picture of **Dog8 
Fighting " first brought him into public 
notice, and since its exhibition his 
career has been one of unbroken and 
almost unequalled success. The whole 
of his paintings are characterized by 
accuracy of detail, and he has succeeded 
in reproducing to perfection the minute 
traits of his subjects in such a manner 

as to direct attention to all the pecu- 
liarities of breed, and other such inci- 
dents in the animals which he repre- 
sents on canvas. As a landsca|)e painti'r, 
Sir Edwin equally demands our a<lmira- 
tion, and his Highland scenery, fonnijig 
the background of many of his pictures, 
conveys to the mind a vivid idea of 
the solitude and grandeur of many of the 
wilds, lochs, and mountain passes of 
Scotland. It is, of course, beyond our 
power to catalogue the whole of his pro- 
ductions, most of which are familiar to 
the eye of all cUisses in Great Britain. 
As instances of animal painting, we may 
refer to his "Laying down the Law," 
"A Distinguished Member of the Hu- 
mane Society," "The Stag at Bay,*' 
" The Dog Watching his Master's 
Corpse,** " There *s Life in the Old Dog 
yet,** &C. Amongst his descriptive pic- 
tures are ** Bolton Abbey in the Olden 
Time,** " A Scene from the Midsummer 
Night*s Dream," "Peace," and "War, 
"A Highknd Breakfast," "The Dro 
ver*s Departure,** "A Jack in Office, 
&c. He has introduced some fine land- 
scape scenery in " Night,** and " Morn- 
ing,** "An Early Evening Scene in the 
Highlands,** "The Tethered Rams,** 
&c Most of his works have been en- 
grave<i, and he has been fortunate in 
securing the patronage of royalty, and 
the delight of every critic of the fine 
arts. He is also one of the most popular 
artists living with those, who while 
ignorant of the rules of art, yet delight 
in gazing on the painter's representa- 
tions of nature. Sir Edwin has been 
a Member of the Royal Academy since 
1831, was knighted by her Majesty in 
1850, and many of his pictures now 
adorn the walls of the National Collec- 
tion in the South Kensington Museum. 
His last painting is "The Elumination.'* 
LANGENBECK, Maximilian, a Ger- 
man physician, is son of a surgeon, who 
was extensively known by his anatomi- 
cal works, and who died in 1851. He 






studied medicine chiefly under the direc- 
tion of hiB father, and became even- 
tually Professor in the University of 
Gottingcn. Among other works, he has 
written '* Klinische Bcitraege aus dem 
Gebiete der Chirurgie und der Opthal- 
mologie," and ** tjber die Wirkamskeit 
der Medicinischen PolizeL" He has 
lately visited England (1860), and was 
received at the Chatham garrison by 
the Medical Officers with the distinction 
due to his abihties. 

LANKESTER, Edwin, M.D., was 
born at Melton, Suffolk, in 1814. After 
receiving his early education at Wood- 
bridge and University College, London, 
he entered the medical profession. He 
is a well-known lecturer and writer on 
subjects connected with Natural His- 
tory, and has contributed papers to the 
** Penny Cyclopaedia" and the "Eng- 
lish C*yclop»dia of Natural History." 
He is a Fellow of many of the learned 
societies, President of the Microscopical 
Society, and has lately been engaged in 
the Department of Manufactured Pro- 
ducts, &c., in the South Kensington 
Museum, where he has delivered some 
highly interesting and popular lectures. 

LANSDOWNE, Henry Petty Fitz- 
Maurice, Marquis of, K.G., an emi- 
nent EngliHh statesman, was bom 2nd 
July, 1780, and received his early educa- 
tion at Westminster, Edinburgh, and 
afterwards took his degree of M.A. at 
Cambridge. From his earliest years he 
has identified himself with liberal prin- 
ciples, and after spending some time in 
the study of continental politics, he en- 
tered the House of Commons as member 
for Calne, in the Whig interest. As 
might bo exi)ected, he often spoke in 
oppoHition to William Pitt's measures, 
and through his talents as a debater, and 
his political consistency, he was chosen 
to succeed Pitt, as Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, in the year 1806. Shortly 
after the resignation of Lord Granville, 
under whom he held office, Lord Lans- 

downe was balled to the Hoiue of 
Peers, having succeeded to the family 
title, and for many years was chiefly 
known by his energetic support of liberal 
measures, under various adminiatrations, 
without, however, holding any official 
position until he became Secretary of 
State under Lord Canning in 1828. 
Since that period, the only office he has 
held, has been that of President of the 
Council In his place in the House of 
Lords he has acquired from all parties 
the highest character for prudence, fore- 
sight, and poUtical ability. La social 
and literary circles, Lord Lansdowne is 
justly esteemed, not more on acooont 
of his acquirements, than for the affa- 
bility and condescension of his de- 

LATHAM, Egbert Gordok, a 
physician, was bom at BiUingboron^ 
Lincolnshire, in 1812. He studied 
at Eton, graduated at Cambridge, and 
after a tour in the north of Europe de- 
voted himself to the study of medicine. 
Having become Licentiate, he was soon 
afterwards appointed Physician to the 
St. James's and St. Greorge's Dispen- 
sary, from which he was promoted to 
be Assistant- Physician of the Middlesex 
Hospital, where he lectured on Forensic 
Medicine and Materia Medica. He is a 
Fellow of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians, of the Royal Society, ex- Vice- 
President of the Ethnological Society, 
and member of various other learned 
bodies. Dr. Latham is best known, 
however, by his ethnological researches, 
and as one of the earliest members of the 
Ethnological Society he has contributed 
a large amount of information, character- 
ized by deep research, on every branch 
of that interesting study. Amongst his 
leading works may be named, the " Va- 
rieties of Mankind," "The Ethnology 
of Europe," and his "History of the 
English Language," in all of which, 
and in others not here specified, he has 
added many interesting facts as to the 




origin and connexion of the various 
languages spoken in different parts of 
the world. 

LAUDER, KoBERT Scott, RS.A., a 
painter, was bom at Silver Mills, near 
Edinburgh, in 1803. At an early age he 
displayed considerable aptitude for draw- 
ing, and advice and encouragement were 
given to the young aspirant by David 
Roberts. When fifteen he resolved, after 
a visit to an exhibition of pictures, to 
become a painter. But it is to the late 
Rev. John Thomson, of Duddingstone, 
that he is chiefly indebted for his first 
introduction to the great principles of 
art, as exemplified in the schools of Italy. 
Sir Walter Scott's influence obtained him 
entrance as a student in the Edinburgh 
School of Design, where he remained for 
some years, and afterwards studied in 
the British Museum. In 1826 he re- 
turned to Edinburgh, where he dis- 
charged for two years the tutorial du- 
ties of Sir William Allan. In 1833 he 
visited Italy, and in the study of the 
old masters of the different schools, the 
great truths inculcated by Mr. Thomson 
were perceived and appreciated. In 1838, 
returning home, he resided chiefly in 
London for about fourteen years, when 
being incited to take the directorship of 
the Government School of Design, he 
again returned to Edinburgh. He has 
exhibited many excellent pictures, his 
works being appreciated both for their 
colour and finished execution. He has 
taken many subjects from Scott's ro- 
mances, but he has achieved a more 
worthy i>osition by his scriptural sub- 
jects, such as ** Christ Teaching Hu- 
mility," and ** Christ Walking on the 
Water, " which are noble works of their 

LAWRENCE, Sir John, late gover- 
nor of the Pun jaub, is a member of a family 
which has been long identified with 
Indian aflairs. Little notice was taken 
of his early services in India though 
he distinguished himself from the first 

It was only when troublous times com- 
menced that the energy of his character 
and his great talents became known. 
For nearly twenty-seven years Sir John 
has laboured in India. The first ten 
years were spent at Delhi and the sur- 
rounding district. ■ Tins was his training 
school, and well did he take advantage 
of it. Separated from all Europeans, 
and associating only with the natives, 
he learned **to know the races it was 
his lot to rule.'* After a short visit 
home he again returned to India and re- 
sumed his duties in the Delhi dis- 
trict. It was about this time that 
the war on the north-west frontier broke 
out, when the Sikhs crossed the Sutlej 
with a large force, and were not repelled 
without great loss to the British army. 
A judicious, firm-minded man had to be 
chosen to govern this restless frontier, 
and Sir John Lawrence was selected as 
Commissioner of the ceded territory. 
When the Punjaubwas annexed to India, 
in 1849, Lord Dalhousie formed a Board 
of Administration for the government 
of the new province, and two of its mem- 
bers were Sir Henry and Sir John Law- 
rence. Subsequentiy Sir Henry with- 
drew, and Sir John Lawrence was 
appointed sole Governor of the Punjaub. 
During that disastrous period, which is 
so fresh in the memory of all, when 
regiment after regiment mutinied — when 
treacheiy appeared on all sides, and the 
blood of hundreds of our countrymen 
was sacrificed to native ferocity — when 
we almost feared that our Indian pos- 
sessions were to be torn from us — tiien 
did Sir John Lawrence, under Provi- 
dence, prove himself the "saviour of 
India." So wise, so firm had been his 
rule, so well organized his policy, that 
not only did t|^e Punjaub remain faithful, 
but its troops were spared to stem the 
tide of rebellion, and to re-capture the 
capital of Delhi. Through his long and 
bright career as a ruler in India, Sir 
John Lawrence has proved Ins efficiency 




for every emergency, diatijiguiahing him- 
self by hiw tmtiring pepBpverance and 
aeal, and his enliphtpuod Oiriatian vi 
of ladiao mliuinistration. It may 
be known tliat th= fath.T ot Sir John 
was an officer of clirtiuotion, and nerveii 
in the Mywire cnmitiigD under the Mar- 
quis Comwallis. Three of his brotherj 
«w high in the Indian wrrice. On 
depaxtnre from India in April, 1853, 
account of hid hmltb, on aililreas i 
prewnted to him by the officera, civil 
and niilitory, and others residing in the 
Punjaub, eiipreasing their admimtion of 
hia pubhc career in the coimtry. Again, 
on Sir John's return to Engjnnd, a con- 
gratnlatory address wai presented to him 
from the most diatinf^ished noblemen of 
theeotintry, derj.'y otall denominationH, 
and every merchant who bad any know- 
ledge or intere-ft in Indian affai